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2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (01) ◽  
pp. 6608-2022

This study was conducted to compare several methods for inducing pseudopregnancy in local rabbits. The study used 25 clinically healthy rabbits of local breeds, aged 1-1.5 years, with a bodyweight of 1.8-2.2 kg. The rabbits were divided into five treatment groups (n = 5): R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5. Each group was given a different treatment. Group R1 was injected intramuscularly with 100 IU PMSG and mated with males three days later, which was followed by an intravenous injection of 75 IU hCG. Pseudopregnancy in group R2 was induced through artificial copulation by inserting a 1 cm long cotton bud into vaginal lumen at 5 a.m. Pseudopregnancy in group R3 was induced using 50 IU hCG intramuscularly. Group R4 was injected intravenously with 5 g GnRH and then intramuscularly with 100 IU PMSG and three days later with 75 IU hCG. Blood samples were collected on days 2, 4, 6, and 8 for estrogen and progesterone measurement, whereas an ovarian histological observation of all groups was performed on day 8. The results show that the highest concentration of estrogen was obtained in group R2, which was significantly different from the other groups (P <0.05), but the difference in examination time was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the concentration of progesterone in all groups fluctuated at various times of the day. Progesterone concentrations were higher in group R5, in which pseudopregnancy was induced with PMSG and hCG. Group R5 showed a significant difference (P <0.05) with R2, R3, and R4, but the difference with the positive control group (R1) was not significant (P > 0.05). The numbers of corpora lutea in groups R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5 were, respectively, 6.87 ± 1.58, 6.22 ± 2.71, 6.74 ± 1.94, 5.98 ± 2.04, and 8.8 ± 1.90, and the largest diameter was obtained in R5 (1.65 ± 0.37 mm). In conclusion, the best method of inducing pseudopregnancy in local rabbits is the administration of PMSG and hCG.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 037-042
Emmanuel TonbraEgoro ◽  
Ikhide Godwin Ilegbedion ◽  
Prudence NkemdinimOkara

This study was aimed on the biochemical and histomorphological study of abuse in the consumption of alabukun powder in Rattus norvegicus rats. Five milliliter of blood specimen was collected into lithium heparin bottles from seven rats weighing 240±2g respectively with each of them administered with 0.2mg/kg alabukun powder daily for a period of two weeks (experimental group) while another seven rats weighing 240±2g each were not administered with alabukun powder (control group). Thereafter alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine and C-reactive protein were measured quantitatively in both groups of rats. The mean values of all the measured biochemical parameters in Rattus norvegicus rats in the experimental group were statistically significant (p<0.05) as compared to that in the control group. This established biochemical finding was in conformity with the histomorphological examination of the kidney and liver organs. In conclusion, this study has established that administration of 0.2mg/kg of alabukun powder on daily basis for a period of two weeks on Rattus norvegicus rats may induce hepato-renal and inflammatory disorders. It is thus recommended that consumption of alabukun powder by humans should strictly be in compliance with its prescription. However, kidney, liver and inflammatory biomarkers should be quantitatively measured in humans that have abused its consumption with a view to ascertain their health status and prevent any deleterious risks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Juanan Pereira ◽  
Óscar Díaz

Capstone projects usually represent the most significant academic endeavor with which students have been involved. Time management tends to be one of the hurdles. On top, University students are prone to procrastinatory behavior. Inexperience and procrastination team up for students failing to meet deadlines. Supervisors strive to help. Yet heavy workloads frequently prevent tutors from continuous involvement. This article looks into the extent to which conversational agents (a.k.a. chatbots) can tackle procrastination in single-student capstone projects. Specifically, chatbot enablers put in play include (1) alerts, (2) advice, (3) automatic rescheduling, (4) motivational messages, and (5) reference to previous capstone projects. Informed by Cognitive Behavioural Theory, these enablers are framed within the three phases involved in self-regulation misalignment: pre-actional, actional, and post-actional. To motivate this research, we first analyzed 77 capstone-project reports. We found that students’ Gantt charts (1) fail to acknowledge review meetings (70%) and milestones (100%) and (2) suffer deviations from the initial planned effort (16.28%). On these grounds, we develop GanttBot, a Telegram chatbot that is configured from the student’s Gantt diagram. GanttBot reminds students about close landmarks, it informs tutors when intervention might be required, and it learns from previous projects about common pitfalls, advising students accordingly. For evaluation purposes, course 17/18 acts as the control group ( N=28 ) while course 18/19 acts as the treatment group ( N=25 students). Using “overdue days” as the proxy for procrastination, results indicate that course 17/18 accounted for an average of 19 days of delay (SD = 5), whereas these days go down to 10 for the intervention group in course 18/19 (SD = 4). GanttBot is available for public usage as a Telegram chatbot.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1063
Chia-Jung Kuo ◽  
Cheng-Yu Lin ◽  
Chun-Wei Chen ◽  
Chiu-Yi Hsu ◽  
Sen-Yung Hsieh ◽  

Long-term use of gastric-acid-suppressive drugs is known to be associated with several adverse effects. However, the association between enteric infection and acid suppression therapy is still uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the association between gastric acid suppression and the risk of enteric infection. Materials and Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study using the data from Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD) in Taiwan. Between January 2008 and December 2017, a total of 154,590 adult inpatients (age > 18) were identified. A pool of potential eligible controls according to four propensity scores matching by sex, age, and index year were extracted (n = 89,925). Subjects with missing data or who received less than 7 days of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and/or H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) were excluded. Finally, 17,186 cases and 69,708 corresponding controls were selected for analysis. The use of PPIs and H2RAs, the result of microbiological samples, and co-morbidity conditions have been analyzed. Confounders were controlled by conditional logistic regression. Results: 32.84% of patients in the case group used PPIs, compared with 7.48% in the control group. Of patients in the case group, 9.9% used H2RAs, compared with 6.9% in the control group. Of patients in the case group, 8.3% used a combination of PPIs and H2RAs, compared with 2.7% in the control group. The most common etiological pathogens were Enterococcus (44.8%), Clostridioides difficile (34.5%), and Salmonella spp. (10.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for PPI use with enteric infection was 5.526 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.274–5.791). For H2RAs, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.339 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.261–1.424). Compared to the control group, persons with enteric infection had more frequent acid-suppressive agent usage. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that gastric-acid-suppressive drug use is associated with an increased risk of enteric infection after adjusting for potential biases and confounders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 254-262
E. V. Bolotova ◽  
A. V. Dudnikova ◽  
V. A. Krutova ◽  
N. S. Prosolupova

Background: Obesity is considered a global epidemic and is one of the most significant medical and social problems. Research in recent years shows that in 25-45% of cases of obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is detected. The influence of obesity on the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in this category of patients remains controversialAims: to determine the frequency and structure of metabolic disorders in obese women in combination with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Materials and methods: A single-center cross-sectional sample survey of women of reproductive age was conducted. The study included clinical anthropometry with measurement of body weight, height, waist circumference (OT) and hip circumference (OB), followed by calculation of body mass index (BMI) and OT/OB ratio, and measurement of blood pressure (BP). A biochemical blood test was performed, the hormonal status was examined, and an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs was performed.Results: A survey of 136 women of reproductive age was conducted. Group 1 included obese women without PCOS (59 patients), group 2 included obese women in combination with PCOS (45 patients), and the control group included 38 healthy women. Group 1 included obese women without PCOS (59 patients), and group 2 included obese women with PCOS (45 patients), in the control group — 38 healthy women. Among group 2 patients, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity, arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperuricemia were significantly more common (p<0,05). Correlations between BMI and triglycerides, testosterone and total cholesterol were found (p<0,05). Obese and PCOS patients had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein(CRP), fibrinogen, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and hepatic transaminases (p<0,05). Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 13,2% of patients, and insufficiency — in 22,7% of patients. There is a statistically significant correlation between the level of 25 (OH)D and indicators of BMI, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (p<0,05), the level of AMH (p=0,008).Conclusions: A high frequency of metabolic disorders in obese women in combination with PCOS has been identified, which necessitates early screening, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders to strengthen reproductive health and prevent chronic non-communicable diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Chaojin Chen ◽  
Ning Shen ◽  
Liubing Chen ◽  
Tongsen Luo ◽  
Tianyou Lu ◽  

Abstract Background The high risk of cross-infection during tracheal intubation has caused excessive occupational anxiety for anaesthesiologists amid the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, there is no effective way to attenuate their anxiety in clinical practice. We found that anaesthesiologist with better protective equipment might experience decreased levels of anxiety during intubation. Methods In this study, 60 patients who underwent intubation and extubation in the operating room were enrolled, and then randomized 1:1 to either wear protective sleeves (protective sleeve group) or not (control group). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the anxiety level of anaesthesiologists during intubation. The respiratory droplets of patients on the sleeve, and the anaesthesiologists’ perception including the patient’s oral malodour, exertion, satisfaction degree, waist discomfort and shoulder discomfort were recorded. The patients’ anxiety, oppressed feelings and hypoxia and postoperative complications were all measured and recorded. Results Compared with the control group, the anaesthesiologists in protective sleeve group achieved lower anxiety scores and better satisfaction degrees during the process of intubation and extubation (all P < 0.05). Respiratory droplets were observed only on the inner side, but not the external side, of the protective sleeves (P < 0.001). The incidence of the anaesthesiologists’ perception of patients’ oral malodour was significantly lower in the protective sleeve group (P = 0.02) and no patients developed hypoxemia or intubation-related complications in the protective sleeve group. Conclusion Using protective devices for intubation might eliminate droplet transmission from patients to anaesthesiologists, while also decreasing their anxiety in a controlled operating room environment. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial. no. ChiCTR2000030705. Registry at on 10/03/2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Javier Diaz-Castro ◽  
Jose Eulogio Garcia-Vega ◽  
Julio J. Ochoa ◽  
María Puche-Juarez ◽  
Juan M. Toledano ◽  

Practicing exercise is one of the best strategies to promote well-being and quality of life, however physical activity in schoolchildren and adolescents is developed in an unpredictable, intermittent way and in short periods. There are relatively few intervention studies investigating the role of physical activity in schoolchildren endocrine function of adipose tissue and cognitive function. One hundred and three boys, divided into two groups: control (n = 51, did not perform additional physical activity) and exercise (n = 52, performed vigorous physical activity after the regular school classes). The exercise group, developed a 6 months physical activity protocol delivered by the physical education teacher during the second semester of the academic course (6 months). Body composition measurements, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, nutritional intake, hematological and biochemical parameters, endocrine function of the adipose tissue and biomarkers of brain molecular function were assessed at enrolment and after 6 months of intervention. No statistically significant differences between both groups were found for age, height and bone mass. Weight and BMI was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group, increasing lean mass and reducing fat mass. 58.68% of children in the exercise group showed high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet compared to 46.32% of the control group. The exercise group was more concerned about their diet consumed more fiber, vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, D, Niacin, Folic acid, Fe, Zn, Se and Cu. Triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol were higher in the exercise group at the end of the study. Leptin, MCP-1, lipocalin-2, adipsin and PAI-1 levels were lower in the exercise group at the end of the exercise protocol. In contrast, adiponectin and osteocrin markedly increased in the exercise group. Moreover, marked increases were recorded in healthy brain state biomarkers (NGF, BDNF, and irisin) in the exercise group, which could have a positive impact on academic performance. Taken together, all the findings reported are consistent with many benefits of the exercise protocol on adipose tissue and brain molecular function, demonstrating the usefulness of early interventions based on physical activity in children to reduce risk factors related to sedentary lifestyle.

2021 ◽  
Xian-Wen Qiu ◽  
Xiang-Bin Mi ◽  
Shan-Shan Wei ◽  
Lu Yan

Abstract Background The transformation of the medical pattern into the biological-sociological and psychological medical model has made the importance of humanities in medical education increasingly prominent. This study analyzes the effectiveness and importance of integrating humanistic qualities into clinical teaching in dermatology. Methods During July 2016 to August 2020, interns training in Departments of Dermatology, Zhujiang Hospital, 200, according to the order of student number of grouping experimental group and control group, four groups of 50, respectively, the control group of interns on conventional teaching in practice stage, while the experimental group of intern trainee phase combination of humanity quality education in teaching, compared two groups of interns teaching and learning effects. Results Medical history collection/interrogation techniques, practical operation and observation of history writing scores of the experimental group of interns were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the experimental group of interns humanistic quality education related indicators were significantly better than the control group (P <0.05). Conclusions The results put forward some countermeasures and suggestions for cultivating and optimizing the humanistic care spirit of medical students.

2021 ◽  
Hideki Kashiwagi ◽  
Shinji Kawabata ◽  
Kohei Yoshimura ◽  
Yusuke Fukuo ◽  
Takuya Kanemitsu ◽  

Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biologically targeted, cell-selective particle irradiation therapy that utilizes the nuclear capture reaction of boron and neutron. Recently, accelerator neutron generators have been used in clinical settings, and expectations for developing new boron compounds are growing. In this study, we focused on serum albumin, a well-known drug delivery system, and developed maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugate (MID-AC) as a boron carrying system for BNCT. Our biodistribution experiment involved F98 glioma-bearing rat brain tumor models systemically administered with MID-AC and demonstrated accumulation and long retention of boron. Our BNCT study with MID-AC observed statistically significant prolongation of the survival rate compared to the control groups, with results comparable to BNCT study with boronophenylalanine (BPA) which is the standard use of in clinical settings. Each median survival time was as follows: untreated control group; 24.5 days, neutron-irradiated control group; 24.5 days, neutron irradiation following 2.5 hours after termination of intravenous administration (i.v.) of BPA; 31.5 days, and neutron irradiation following 2.5 or 24 hours after termination of i.v. of MID-AC; 33.5 or 33.0 days, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor of MID-AC for F98 rat glioma was estimated based on these survival times and found to be higher to 12. This tendency was confirmed in BNCT 24 hours after MID-AC administration. MID-AC induces an efficient boron neutron capture reaction because the albumin contained in MID-AC is retained in the tumor and has a considerable potential to become an effective delivery system for BNCT in treating high-grade gliomas.

2021 ◽  
Umesh Shukla ◽  
Nitin Ujjaliya

Introduction: The characteristic clinical features of Covid-19 disease range between asymptomatic to mild-moderate symptoms. Studies suggest that a large population (80%) presents its asymptomatic or milder form. Remaining 20 percent, owing to severity of the diseases, need hospital-based care. Many treatment protocols and strategies have been promoted and recommended by authorities including WHO, but nothing has actually been finalized till date. The present study was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of an Ayurvedic formulation viz. Arogya Kashayam-20 in the hospitalized cases of Covid-19.Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Arogya Kashayam-20 in the cases of COVID-19 particularly the negative conversion of RTPCR in 10 days duration.Material and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at COVID-19 Care Center, Pt. Khushilal Sharma Government Ayurveda College &amp; Institute, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh with a sample size of 112 participants, aged between 16 to 60 years of either sex. Participants were divided in two groups viz. group A and B. Both the groups received Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), vitamin C and Zinc as per the prevailing ICMR guidelines and group 'A' received additionally Arogya Kashayam-20 for 10 days. Outcome measure of the study was to see the negative conversion RT-PCR test after intervention period of 10 days. CTRI Registration: CTRI/2020/06/026221. Results: Among the 60 cases registered in study group (group A), 51 cases (85.00%) were reported with negative RTPCR on 10th day. Out of 52 cases registered in control group (group B); 39 cases (75.00%) were tested negative RTPCR on 10th day. In both the groups all the cases were discharged asymptomatically on 10th day as per the prevailing ICMR guidelines. No ADR/AE observed during the intervention period.Conclusion: The study observes that the add on intervention group has a better outcome in terms of RT-PCR negative reports after 10 days comparing to the control group.

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