The American Surgeon
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Published By SAGE Publications

0003-1348, 1555-9823

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110680
Alexandra Hahn ◽  
Jessica Gorham ◽  
Alaa Mohammed ◽  
Brian Strollo ◽  
George Fuhrman

Purpose Surgery residency applications include variables that determine an individual’s rank on a program’s match list. We performed this study to determine which residency application variables are the most impactful in creating our program’s rank order list. Methods We completed a retrospective examination of all interviewed applicants for the 2019 match. We recorded United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) step I and II scores, class quartile rank from the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE), Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, geographic region, surgery clerkship grade, and grades on other clerkships. The MSPE and letters of recommendation were reviewed by two of the authors and assigned a score of 1 to 3, where 1 was weak and 3 was strong. The same two authors reviewed the assessments from each applicant’s interview and assigned a score from 1-5, where 1 was poor and 5 was excellent. Univariate analysis was performed, and the significant variables were used to construct an adjusted multivariate model with significance measured at P < .05. Results Univariate analysis for all 92 interviewed applicants demonstrated that USMLE step 2 scores ( P = .002), class quartile rank ( P = .004), AOA status ( P = .014), geographic location ( P < .001), letters of recommendation ( P < .001), and interview rating ( P < .001) were significant in predicting an applicant’s position on the rank list. On multivariate analysis only USMLE step 2 ( P = .018) and interview ( P < .001) remained significant. Conclusion USMLE step 2 and an excellent interview were the most important factors in constructing our rank order list. Applicants with a demonstrated strong clinical fund of knowledge that develop a rapport with our faculty and residents receive the highest level of consideration for our program.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110502
Patrick F. Walker ◽  
Joseph D. Bozzay ◽  
David W. Schechtman ◽  
Faraz Shaikh ◽  
Laveta Stewart ◽  

Background Intestinal anastomoses in military settings are performed in severely injured patients who often undergo damage control laparotomy in austere environments. We describe anastomotic outcomes of patients from recent wars. Methods Military personnel with combat-related intra-abdominal injuries (June 2009-December 2014) requiring laparotomy with resection and anastomosis were analyzed. Patients were evacuated from Iraq or Afghanistan to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (Germany) before being transferred to participating U.S. military hospitals. Results Among 341 patients who underwent 1053 laparotomies, 87 (25.5%) required ≥1 anastomosis. Stapled anastomosis only was performed in 57.5% of patients, while hand-sewn only was performed in 14.9%, and 9.2% had both stapled and hand-sewn techniques (type unknown for 18.4%). Anastomotic failure occurred in 15% of patients. Those with anastomotic failure required more anastomoses (median 2 anastomoses, interquartile range [IQR] 1-3 vs. 1 anastomosis, IQR 1-2, P = .03) and more total laparotomies (median 5 laparotomies, IQR 3-12 vs. 3, IQR 2-4, P = .01). There were no leaks in patients that had only hand-sewn anastomoses, though a significant difference was not seen with those who had stapled anastomoses. While there was an increasing trend regarding surgical site infections (SSIs) with anastomotic failure after excluding superficial SSIs, it was not significant. There was no difference in mortality. Discussion Military trauma patients have a similar anastomotic failure rate to civilian trauma patients. Patients with anastomotic failure were more likely to have had more anastomoses and more total laparotomies. No definitive conclusions can be drawn about anastomotic outcome differences between hand-sewn and stapled techniques.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110540
Jae Hee Cho ◽  
M Jason Akers ◽  
Mehrnaz Siavoshi ◽  
Todd Gress ◽  
Errington C Thompson

Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevant findings in adult patients admitted to Cabell Huntington Hospital who were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Methods: Patients who had the postoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan from January 2011 through December 2016 were included in this retrospective chart review. Results: There were 592 patients. A thick, edematous appendix was the most common CT finding in acute appendicitis. The average diameter was 12.6 mm. The wall thickness correlated to the diameter of the appendix ( P < 0.001). For comparison, we reviewed the CT scans of 50 trauma patients who had normal abdominal CT scans. The average diameter of a normal appendix was 4.9 mm (SD 1.139) with a range of 4-7 mm. Interestingly, the admission white blood cell count ( P = 0.0372) as well as the thickness of the appendix ( P < 0.0001) were strongly associated with increased length of stay. Conclusions: An appendiceal diameter greater than 9 mm should be considered abnormal and associated with acute appendicitis. Appendiceal size, white blood cell count, and age correlate with length of stay. Early antibiotics and early surgical intervention may decrease length of stay.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110545
Carlos Theodore Huerta ◽  
Antoine J. Ribieras ◽  
Karishma Kodia ◽  
D. Dante Yeh ◽  
David Kerman ◽  

Small bowel perforation is an uncommon but severe event in the natural history of Crohn’s disease with fewer than 100 cases reported. We review Crohn’s disease cases with necrotizing enteritis and share a case of a 26-year-old female who presented with a recurrent episode of small intestinal perforation. A PubMed literature review of case reports and series was conducted using keywords and combinations of “Crohn’s disease,” “small intestine perforation,” “small bowel perforation,” “free perforation,” “regional enteritis,” and “necrotizing enteritis.” Data extracted included demographic data, pre- or postoperative steroid administration, medical or surgical management, and case fatality. Nineteen reports from 1935 to 2021 qualified for inclusion. There were 43 patients: 20 males and 23 females with a mean age of 36 ± 15 years old. 75 total perforations were described: 56 ileal (74.6%), 15 jejunal (20.0%), 2 cecal (2.7%), and 1 small intestine non-specified (2.7%). 38 of 43 patients were managed surgically by primary repair (11), ostomy creation (21), or an anastomosis (11). Of 11 case fatalities, medical management alone was associated with higher mortality (5/5; 100% mortality) compared to those treated surgically (6/38; 15.8% mortality; P < .001). Patient sex, disease history, acute abdomen, and pre- or postoperative steroid use did not significantly correlate with mortality. Jejunal perforation was significantly ( P = .028) associated with event mortality while ileal was not ( P = .45). Although uncommon, necrotizing enteritis should be considered in Crohn’s patients who present with small intestinal perforation. These cases often require urgent surgical intervention and may progress to fulminant sepsis and fatality if not adequately treated.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110545
Jacob D. Edwards ◽  
Dylan Flood ◽  
Katherine McBride ◽  
Walter Pories ◽  
Eric A. Toschlog

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110505
Leah E. Hendrick ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
William P. Hewgley ◽  
Luke Douthitt ◽  
Paxton V. Dickson ◽  

Background Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is associated with significant operative time, hospital resources, and morbidity. We examine factors associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) and early overall survival (OS) after CRS/HIPEC. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent CRS/HIPEC were evaluated for factors associated with LOS. Institutional learning curve influence was addressed by comparing early vs late cohorts. Variables with P < .200 after univariate analysis were considered for inclusion in multivariate linear regression modeling. Independent factors associated with OS were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Seventy patients underwent CRS/HIPEC (mean age 52.3 years, 64.3% female, and 68.6% Caucasian). Presence of any surgical complication was found in 26 (37.1%), 28 (40%) remained intubated postoperatively, and the mean Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) score was 14.4 ([Formula: see text]10.4). Mean intensive care unit and hospital LOS were 2.9 days ([Formula: see text]2.3) and 9.6 days ([Formula: see text]3.6), respectively. After adjusting for covariates, only shorter time to postoperative ambulation (regression coefficient .92, P = .001) and early extubation (regression coefficient −1.90, P = .018) were associated with decreased hospital LOS on multivariate analysis. Immediate postoperative extubation conferred an independent early survival benefit on Kaplan-Meier analysis (mean OS 714.8 vs 473.4 days, P = .010). There was no difference in hospital LOS or OS between early and late cohorts. Conclusion Early postoperative extubation and shorter time to ambulation are associated with decreased hospital LOS. Moreover, CRS/HIPEC patients extubated immediately postoperatively have an early survival benefit. Every effort should be made to achieve early postoperative extubation and mobilization in CRS/HIPEC patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110679
Hope A. Feldman ◽  
Ian C. Bostock ◽  
Alexis P. Chidi ◽  
Mara B. Antonoff

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110547
Charles W. Armistead ◽  
Lauren E. Favors ◽  
Vincente A. Mejia

Gallbladder volvulus is a rare condition involving the rotation of the gallbladder about the cystic duct and vascular pedicle, compromising biliary drainage and blood flow. This report describes a case of gallbladder volvulus presenting in an 88-year-old female with acute onset of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Complete work-up included a physical exam, laboratory studies, and computed tomography (CT), which was notable for a markedly distended gallbladder with circumferential wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, a 12 mm common bile duct, and a hiatal hernia. Given that her initial presentation was consistent with acute cholecystitis, we elected to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The definitive diagnosis of gallbladder volvulus was made intraoperatively after decompression of the gallbladder and visualization of counterclockwise rotation of the gallbladder around the hilum and the infundibulum. This case illustrates the challenge in preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder volvulus, which requires high clinical suspicion to provide prompt surgical intervention.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110335
Aryan Haratian ◽  
Areg Grigorian ◽  
Karan Rajalingam ◽  
Matthew Dolich ◽  
Sebastian Schubl ◽  

Introduction An American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level-I (L-I) pediatric trauma center demonstrated successful laparoscopy without conversion to laparotomy in ∼65% of trauma cases. Prior reports have demonstrated differences in outcomes based on ACS level of trauma center. We sought to compare laparoscopy use for blunt abdominal trauma at L-I compared to Level-II (L-II) centers. Methods The Pediatric Trauma Quality Improvement Program was queried (2014-2016) for patients ≤16 years old who underwent any abdominal surgery. Bivariate analyses comparing patients undergoing abdominal surgery at ACS L-I and L-II centers were performed. Results 970 patients underwent abdominal surgery with 14% using laparoscopy. Level-I centers had an increased rate of laparoscopy (15.6% vs 9.7%, P = .019 ); however they had a lower mean Injury Severity Score (16.2 vs 18.5, P = .002) compared to L-II centers. Level-I and L-II centers had similar length of stay ventilator days, and SSIs (all P > .05). Conclusion While use of laparoscopy for pediatric trauma remains low, there was increased use at L-I compared to L-II centers with no difference in LOS or SSIs. Future studies are needed to elucidate which pediatric trauma patients benefit from laparoscopic surgery.

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