adjusted relative risk
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2022 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056805
Bukola Usidame ◽  
Yanmei Xie ◽  
James F Thrasher ◽  
Paula Lozano ◽  
Michael R Elliott ◽  

SignificanceThis study examines the differential effects of Canadian point-of-sale (POS) tobacco display bans across provinces on quit attempts and smoking cessation, by sex, education and income.MethodsWe analysed survey data from five waves (waves 4–8) of the International Tobacco Control Canada Survey, a population-based, longitudinal survey, where provinces implemented display bans between 2004 and 2010. Primary outcomes were quit attempts and successful cessation. We used generalised estimating equation Poisson regression models to estimate associations between living in a province with or without a POS ban (with a 24-month threshold) and smoking outcomes. We tested whether these associations varied by sex, education and income by including interaction terms.ResultsAcross survey waves, the percentage of participants in provinces with POS bans established for more than 24 months increased from 5.0% to 95.8%. There was no association between POS bans and quit attempts for provinces with bans in place for 0–24 months or more than 24 months, respectively (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=0.99, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.10; 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.20). However, we found a differential impact of POS bans on quit attempts by sex, whereby bans were more effective for women than men for bans of 0–24 months. Participants living in a province with a POS ban for at least 24 months had a higher chance of successful cessation (aRR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.05) compared with those in a province without a ban. We found no differences in the association between POS bans and quit attempts or cessation by education or income, and no differences by sex for cessation.ConclusionPOS bans are associated with increased smoking cessation overall and more quit attempts among women than men.

2022 ◽  
Chongjuan Gu ◽  
Yaojuan He ◽  
Xiaojun Li ◽  
Qingfeng Li ◽  
Qingshan Xuan ◽  

Abstract Background: Although first-trimester subchorionic hematoma (SCH) always concerns expectant parents, its clinical significance remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the relationship between first-trimester SCH and its association with subsequent miscarriage and other perinatal outcomes.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including 43,660 women who underwent routine prenatal care since the first trimester and then were followed up for maternal and neonatal outcomes. SCH was detected in the first-trimester ultrasound examinations. Robust Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted risk associations between SCH maternal and neonatal outcomes.Results: A total of 815 (1.87%) SCH were detected in the first-trimester ultrasound examination. The rate of miscarriage was statistically significantly higher in women with SCH than in those without [35.2% vs. 23.9%, P<0.01; adjusted relative risk (RR):1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.58]. Subgroup analysis of women with SCH showed a clear trend that the earlier SCH occurred, the higher the risk of miscarriage was [adjusted RR and 95% CI for onset at the gestational weeks of 8-9, 6- 7, and <6 vs. ≥10: 1.30 (0.69-2.46), 2.33 (1.28-4.23), and 4.18 (2.30-7.58), respectively; Ptrend<0.01]. In addition, women with SCH volume ≥1ml showed higher risk than those <1 ml [adjusted RR and 95% CI for 1-4.9 ml, and ≥5 ml vs. <1 ml: 1.36 (1.10-1.68) and 1.56 (1.18-2.07), respectively]. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of other pregnancy outcomes between women with and without SCH.Conclusions: First-trimester SCH might significantly increase the risk of miscarriage, particularly the one that occurs early and the one with large size. Data from this study do not suggest adverse effects of SCH on other maternal and neonatal outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Franzisca Merkofer ◽  
Tristan Struja ◽  
Neele Delfs ◽  
Carlos C. Spagnuolo ◽  
Jason F. Hafner ◽  

Abstract Background Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced hyperglycemia is a frequent adverse effect in hospitalized patients. Guidelines recommend insulin treatment to a target range of 6–10 mmol/L (108–180 mg/dl), but efficacies of particular regimes have not been well-studied. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, hospitalized patients receiving GCs at the medical ward were analyzed by treatment (basal-bolus vs. bolus-only vs. pre-mixed insulin) and compared to a non-insulin-therapy reference group. Coefficients of glucose variation (CV), percentage of glucose readings in range (4–10 mmol/L (72–180 mg/dl)) and hypoglycemia (< 4 mmol/L (< 72 mg/dl)) were evaluated. Results Of 2424 hospitalized patients receiving systemic GCs, 875 (36%) developed GC-induced hyperglycemia. 427 patients (17%) had a previous diagnosis of diabetes. Adjusted relative risk ratios (RRR) for the top tertile of CV (> 29%) were 1.47 (95% Cl 1.01–2.15) for bolus-only insulin, 4.77 (95% CI 2.67–8.51) for basal-bolus insulin, and 4.98 (95% CI 2.02–12.31) for premixed insulin, respectively. Adjusted RRR for percentages of glucose readings in range were 0.98 (95% Cl 0.97–0.99) for basal-bolus insulin, 0.99 (95% Cl 0.98–1.00) for premixed insulin, and 1.01 (95% Cl 1.00–1.01) for bolus-only insulin, respectively. Adjusted RRR for hypoglycemia was 13.17 (95% Cl 4.35–39.90) for basal-bolus insulin, 8.92 (95% Cl 2.60–30.63) for premixed insulin, and 2.99 (95% Cl 1.01–8.87) for bolus-only insulin, respectively. Conclusions Current guidelines recommend a basal-bolus regimen for treatment of GC-induced hyperglycemia, but we found similar outcomes with pre-mixed and bolus-only insulin regimens. As GC-induced hyperglycemia is a frequent issue in hospitalized patients, it might be reasonable to prospectively study the ideal regimen.

Jimmy T. Efird ◽  
Ethan J. Anderson ◽  
Charulata Jindal ◽  
Thomas S. Redding ◽  
Andrew D. Thompson ◽  

This data-based cohort consisted of 26,508 (7%) United States veterans out of the 399,290 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 March to 10 September 2020. We aimed to assess the interaction of post-index vitamin D (Vit D) and corticosteroid (CRT) use on 30-day mortality among hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Combination Vit D and CRT drug use was assessed according to four multinomial pairs (−|+, −|−, +|+, +|−). Respective categorical effects were computed on a log-binomial scale as adjusted relative risk (aRR). Approximately 6% of veterans who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 died within 30 days of their index date. Among hospitalized patients, a significantly decreased aRR was observed for the use of Vit D in the absence of CRTs relative to patients who received CRTs but not Vit D (aRR = 0.30; multiplicity corrected, p = 0.0004). Among patients receiving systemically administered CRTs (e.g., dexamethasone), the use of Vit D was associated with fewer deaths in hospitalized patients (aRR = 0.51) compared with non-hospitalized patients (aRR = 2.5) (P-for-Interaction = 0.0071). Evaluating the effect of modification of these compounds in the context of hospitalization may aid in the management of COVID-19 and provide a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this and future infectious disease outbreaks.

2021 ◽  
pp. 205343452110683
Jennifer Medves ◽  
Genevieve Pare ◽  
Kimberly Woodhouse ◽  
Carol Smith-Romeril ◽  
Wenbin Li ◽  

Introduction Continuity of care by family physicians in primary care settings may play a role in reducing health resource utilization and improving clinical outcomes and satisfaction of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clear evidence on the impact of continuity of care will support clinical programing and integration of services across health settings. Methods The association between continuity of care and unplanned health service utilization in persons with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural region in Ontario, Canada was evaluated. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using population-level health administrative data. The main exposure variable was continuity of care. Results A continuity of care index was calculated for patients with at least five visits to a healthcare provider during the 5-year follow-up period ( n  =  40,033). Higher continuity of care ( n  =  20,008) and lower continuity of care ( n  =  20,025), based on the median continuity of care score were calculated. Patients with lower continuity of care had an increased adjusted relative risk of 2.12 (2.08, 2.33) of an emergency department visit, 2.81 (2.72, 2.9) risk of hospitalization, and 3.52 (3.24, 3.82) of being readmitted to hospital compared to those with higher continuity of care. Discussion An association between continuity of care and unplanned health services utilization, where a lower use of unplanned health services was observed in the cohort of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing higher continuity of care. Continuity of care makes philosophical and social sense in that care is provided by a known provider to a known patient and unnecessary investigations can be avoided.

2021 ◽  
Lars Heubner ◽  
Sarah Hattenhauer ◽  
Andreas Güldner ◽  
Paul Petrick ◽  
Martin Roessler ◽  

Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to describe and compare clinical characteristics and outcomes in critically ill septic patients with and without COVID-19.Methods: From February 2020 to March 2021, patients from surgical and medical ICUs at the University Hospital Dresden were screened for sepsis. Patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed descriptively. Patient survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Associations between in-hospital mortality and risk factors were modeled using robust Poisson regression, which facilitates derivation of adjusted relative risks.Results: In 177 ICU patients treated for sepsis, COVID-19 was diagnosed and compared to 191 septic ICU patients without COVID-19. Age and sex did not differ significantly between sepsis patients with and without COVID-19, but SOFA score at ICU admission was significantly higher in septic COVID-19 patients. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with 59% compared to 29% in Non-COVID patients. Statistical analysis resulted in an adjusted relative risk for in-hospital mortality of 1.74 (95%-CI=1.35-2-24) in the presence of COVID-19 compared to other septic patients. Age, procalcitonin maximum value over 2 ng/ml, need for renal replacement therapy, need for invasive ventilation and septic shock were identified as additional risk factors for in-hospital mortality.Conclusion: COVID-19 was identified as independent risk factor for higher in-hospital mortality in sepsis patients. The need for invasive ventilation and renal replacement therapy as well as the presence of septic shock and higher PCT should be considered to identify high-risk patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056470
Jessica M Perkins ◽  
Bernard Kakuhikire ◽  
Charles Baguma ◽  
Claire Q Evans ◽  
Justin D Rasmussen ◽  

BackgroundLittle is known about perceived norms about cigarette smoking in Uganda or the extent to which perceptions drive personal cigarette smoking behaviour.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study in 2016–2018 that targeted all adults who resided within eight villages in Rwampara District, southwestern Uganda. Personal cigarette smoking frequency was elicited by self-report. We also asked participants what they believed to be the cigarette smoking frequency of most other adult men and women in their villages (i.e., perceived norms). Frequent cigarette smoking was defined as 4+ times/week. We compared perceived norms to cigarette smoking frequency reports aggregated at the village level. We used multivariable Poisson regression to estimate the association between perceived norms and personal cigarette smoking behaviour.ResultsAmong 1626 participants (91% response rate), 92 of 719 men (13%) and 6 of 907 women (0.7%) reported frequent smoking. However, 1030 (63%) incorrectly believed most men in their villages smoked cigarettes frequently. Additionally, 116 (7%) incorrectly believed that most women in their villages smoked cigarettes frequently. These misperceptions were pervasive across social strata. Men who misperceived frequent cigarette smoking as the norm among other men in their villages were more likely to smoke frequently themselves (adjusted relative risk=1.49; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.97).ConclusionsMost adults overestimated cigarette smoking frequency among village peers. Men who incorrectly believed that frequent smoking was the norm were more likely to engage in frequent smoking themselves. Applying a ‘social norms approach’ intervention by promoting existing healthy norms may prevent smoking initiation or motivate reductions in smoking among men in rural Uganda.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052110572
Louisa Gilbert ◽  
Phillip L. Marotta ◽  
Dawn Goddard-Eckrich ◽  
Ariel Richer ◽  
Jasmine Akuffo ◽  

Research has documented associations between all types of violence and substance misuse among Black women. However, research has yet to examine how different experiences of violence may be contributing to the surging epidemic of drug overdose among Black women. This study was conducted between 2015 and 2018 among 296 Black women who were mandated to community supervision programs (CSPs) in New York City (NYC). We used generalized linear modeling (GLM) to estimate associations of the adjusted relative risk (aRR) of experiencing a non-fatal overdose based on exposure to each type of violence after controlling for potentially confounding variables. Lifetime prevalence of a non-fatal drug overdose was 13.9% ( n = 41). Lifetime severe physical/sexual violence by a male intimate partner (prevalence rate = 61.8%, n = 181) was associated with an overdose (aRR = 3.41, 95%CI = 1.19, 9.73). Severe violence by a female partner (prevalence rate = 7.4%, n = 22) was also associated with an overdose (aRR = 2.61, 95%CI = 1.46, 4.65). Lifetime sexual violence by a non-intimate partner (prevalence rate: 29.1%, n = 86) was associated with an overdose (aRR = 2.23, 95%CI = 1.32, 3.77). Sexual abuse by police/CSP staff (prevalence rate: 14.9%, n = 44) was associated with an overdose (aRR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.27, 4.12). For each increase in the number of types of violence experienced, there was a 27% increase in the risk for an overdose (aRR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.42). This study found high rates of multiple types of violence that are associated with drug overdose among this sample of Black women in CSPs. These findings highlight the urgent public health need to address violence associated with overdose in this population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (49) ◽  
Carl Suetens ◽  
Pete Kinross ◽  
Pilar Gallego Berciano ◽  
Virginia Arroyo Nebreda ◽  
Eline Hassan ◽  

We collected data from 10 EU/EEA countries on 240 COVID-19 outbreaks occurring from July−October 2021 in long-term care facilities with high vaccination coverage. Among 17,268 residents, 3,832 (22.2%) COVID-19 cases were reported. Median attack rate was 18.9% (country range: 2.8–52.4%), 17.4% of cases were hospitalised, 10.2% died. In fully vaccinated residents, adjusted relative risk for COVID-19 increased with outbreak attack rate. Findings highlight the importance of early outbreak detection and rapid containment through effective infection prevention and control measures.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000486742110616
Rebecca J Mitchell ◽  
Anne McMaugh ◽  
Carolyn Schniering ◽  
Cate M Cameron ◽  
Reidar P Lystad ◽  

Background: Young people with a mental disorder often perform poorly at school and can fail to complete high school. This study aims to compare scholastic performance and high school completion of young people hospitalised with a mental disorder compared to young people not hospitalised for a mental disorder health condition by gender. Method: A population-based matched case-comparison cohort study of young people aged ⩽18 years hospitalised for a mental disorder during 2005–2018 in New South Wales, Australia using linked birth, health, education and mortality records. The comparison cohort was matched on age, gender and residential postcode. Generalised linear mixed modelling examined risk of school performance below the national minimum standard and generalised linear regression examined risk of not completing high school for young people with a mental disorder compared to matched peers. Results: Young males with a mental disorder had over a 1.7 times higher risk of not achieving the national minimum standard for numeracy (adjusted relative risk: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: [1.35, 2.15]) and reading (adjusted relative risk: 1.99; 95% confidence interval: [1.80, 2.20]) compared to matched peers. Young females with a mental disorder had around 1.5 times higher risk of not achieving the national minimum standard for numeracy (adjusted relative risk: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: [1.14, 1.96]) compared to matched peers. Both young males and females with a disorder had around a three times higher risk of not completing high school compared to peers. Young males with multiple disorders had up to a sixfold increased risk and young females with multiple disorders had up to an eightfold increased risk of not completing high school compared to peers. Conclusion: Early recognition and support could improve school performance and educational outcomes for young people who were hospitalised with a mental disorder. This support should be provided in conjunction with access to mental health services and school involvement and assistance.

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