peripheral nerve
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 329-334
Jie Dai ◽  
Maimaitiaili Niyazi ◽  
Jiang Xie

Consistent application of neurotropic factors is necessary in peripheral nerve regeneration, yet challenging to achieve. Here we used a novel neurotropic factor controlled release system consisted of fibrin, fibronectin and hydrogel to slowly release two neurotrophic factors. At the same time, physiological saline and reverse nerve suturing were used as negative and positive control. A year after surgery, animals which were treated by neurotrophic factor slow release system achieved far better neural regeneration and myelination, as well as superior recovery of hindfoot than the negative control group. In the meanwhile, the results in the experimental group are still inferior to the nerve allograft group. In can be concluded from those results that, consistent releasing of neurotrophic factors can significantly promote long peripheral nerve regeneration, but still short of achieving the results same as the gold standard of autologous nerve grafting.

Aadithya Rangarajan ◽  
Lokesh Bathala ◽  
Madhusudan Gururajrao ◽  
M. S. Mahesh ◽  
Man Mohan Mehndiratta

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Xiangling Li ◽  
Yanjun Guan ◽  
Chaochao Li ◽  
Tieyuan Zhang ◽  
Fanqi Meng ◽  

AbstractVarious immune cells and cytokines are present in the aftermath of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), and coordination of the local inflammatory response is of great significance for the recovery of PNI. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory abilities which can accelerate tissue regeneration and attenuate inflammation, but the role of MSCs in the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment after PNI has not been widely studied. Here, we summarize the known interactions between MSCs, immune cells, and inflammatory cytokines following PNI with a focus on the immunosuppressive role of MSCs. We also discuss the immunomodulatory potential of MSC-derived extracellular vesicles as a new cell-free treatment for PNI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 918
Bruna Lopes ◽  
Patrícia Sousa ◽  
Rui Alvites ◽  
Mariana Branquinho ◽  
Ana Catarina Sousa ◽  

Peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) can have several etiologies, such as trauma and iatrogenic interventions, that can lead to the loss of structure and/or function impairment. These changes can cause partial or complete loss of motor and sensory functions, physical disability, and neuropathic pain, which in turn can affect the quality of life. This review aims to revisit the concepts associated with the PNI and the anatomy of the peripheral nerve is detailed to explain the different types of injury. Then, some of the available therapeutic strategies are explained, including surgical methods, pharmacological therapies, and the use of cell-based therapies alone or in combination with biomaterials in the form of tube guides. Nevertheless, even with the various available treatments, it is difficult to achieve a perfect outcome with complete functional recovery. This review aims to enhance the importance of new therapies, especially in severe lesions, to overcome limitations and achieve better outcomes. The urge for new approaches and the understanding of the different methods to evaluate nerve regeneration is fundamental from a One Health perspective. In vitro models followed by in vivo models are very important to be able to translate the achievements to human medicine.

Shelby R. Svientek ◽  
Justin P. Wisely ◽  
Amir Dehdashtian ◽  
Jarred V. Bratley ◽  
Paul S. Cederna ◽  

Ritch T. J. Geitenbeek ◽  
Enrico Martin ◽  
Laura H. Graven ◽  
Martijn P. G. Broen ◽  
Monique H. M. E. Anten ◽  

Abstract Purpose Detecting malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) remains difficult. 18F-FDG PET-CT has been shown helpful, but ideal threshold values of semi-quantitative markers remain unclear, partially because of variation among scanners. Using EU-certified scanners diagnostic accuracy of ideal and commonly used 18F-FDG PET-CT thresholds were investigated and differences between adult and pediatric lesions were evaluated. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed including patients from two hospitals with a clinical or radiological suspicion of MPNST between 2013 and 2019. Several markers were studied for ideal threshold values and differences among adults and children. A diagnostic algorithm was subsequently developed. Results Sixty patients were included (10 MPNSTs). Ideal threshold values were 5.8 for SUVmax (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.92), 5.0 for SUVpeak (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.97), 1.7 for TLmax (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.86), and 2.3 for TLmean (sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.79). The standard TLmean threshold value of 2.0 yielded a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 0.74, while the standard SUVmax threshold value of 3.5 yielded a sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.63. SUVmax and adjusted SUV for lean body mass (SUL) were lower in children, but tumor-to-liver ratios were similar in adult and pediatric lesions. Using TLmean > 2.0 or TLmean < 2.0 and SUVmax > 3.5, a sensitivity and specificity of 1.00 and 0.63 can be achieved. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET-CT offers adequate accuracy to detect MPNSTs. SUV values in pediatric MPNSTs may be lower, but tumor-to-liver ratios are not. By combining TLmean and SUVmax values, a 100% sensitivity can be achieved with acceptable specificity.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Kristian Larson ◽  
Atlantis Russ ◽  
Hina Arif-Tiwari ◽  
Daruka Mahadevan ◽  
Alex Elliott ◽  

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