historical cohort
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Fang-Yu Yen ◽  
Wen-Kuei Chang ◽  
Shih-Pin Lin ◽  
Tzu-Ping Lin ◽  
Kuang-Yi Chang

Whether epidural anesthesia and analgesia (EA) is beneficial for postoperative cancer outcomes remains controversial and we conducted this historical cohort study to evaluate the association between EA and long-term outcomes following surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We collected patients receiving RCC surgery from 2011 to 2017 and followed up them until February 2020. Patient attributes, surgical factors and pathological features were gathered through electronic medical chart review. The association between EA and recurrence-free and overall survival after surgery was evaluated using Cox regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to balance the observed covariates. The median follow-up time for the 725 included patients was 50 months (interquartile range: 25.3–66.5) and 145 of them (20%) received perioperative EA. We demonstrated EA use was associated with better recurrence-free survival [IPTW adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49–0.83, p < 0.001] and overall survival [IPTW adjusted HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49–0.89, p = 0.006] in patients receiving surgical resection for RCC. More prospective studies are needed to verify this connection between EA and superior cancer outcomes after RCC surgery.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262518
Aurelie Kennedy Nelson ◽  
Tali Cassidy ◽  
Laura Trivino Duran ◽  
Vivian Cox ◽  
Catherine J. Wedderburn ◽  

Background Despite the reduction of HIV mother-to-child transmission, there are concerns regarding transmission rate in the breastfeeding period. We describe the routine uptake of 6 or 10 (6/10) weeks, 9 months and 18 months testing, with and without tracing, in a cohort of infants who received HIV PCR testing at birth (birth PCR) (with and without point of care (POC) testing) in a peri-urban primary health care setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Methods In this cohort study conducted between November 2014 and February 2018, HIV-positive mothers and their HIV-exposed babies were recruited at birth and all babies were tested with birth PCR. Results of routine 6/10 weeks PCR, 9 months and 18 months testing were followed up by a patient tracer. We compared testing at 6/10 weeks with a subgroup from historical cohort who was not tested with birth PCR. Results We found that the uptake of 6/10 weeks testing was 77%, compared to 82% with tracing. When including all infants in the cascade and comparing to a historical cohort without birth testing, we found that infants who tested a birth were 22% more likely to have a 6/10 weeks test compared to those not tested at birth. There was no significant difference between the uptake of 6/10 weeks testing after birth PCR POC versus birth PCR testing without POC. Uptake of 9 months and 18 months testing was 39% and 24% respectively. With intense tracing efforts, uptake increased to 45% and 34% respectively. Conclusion Uptake of HIV testing for HIV-exposed uninfected infants in the first 18 months of life shows good completion of the 6/10 weeks PCR but suboptimal uptake of HIV testing at 9 months and 18 months, despite tracing efforts. Birth PCR testing did not negatively affect uptake of the 6/10 weeks HIV test compared to no birth PCR testing.

2022 ◽  
Thiago Falcão Hora ◽  
Agostinho de Alencar Guerra ◽  
Gerson Otmar Kuhne ◽  
Vinícius de Sousa Alvarenga ◽  
Sabrina Fonseca Oliveira ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Botulinum toxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, in recent decades, BTX has become an important adjunct treatment to neurological or rehabilitative strategies.We aimed to describe the clinical aspects of patients admitted to a rehabilitation hospital who were treated with BTX for spasticity and dystonia. Methods: This was a historical cohort; data was collected from the electronic charts of all outpatients treated with BTX between 2014 and 2016 in the spasticity and movement disorders service of a quaternary, open access, rehabilitation hospital. The inclusion criteria were limb spasticity due to traumatic brain injury (TBI), and stroke; limb tremor; cervical dystonia; and generalized limb dystonia from any cause in addition to pain that limits rehabilitation. We used relatively lower doses than those generally published in the literature. Therapeutic response was determined by the Goal attainment scale (GAS), pain (graded by visual analogue scale ), independence for daily living activities, target joint range of motion (pre- and post-application), and gait analysis (only for walkers patients). Results: A total of 63 patients were enrolled in this study with a mean follow-up of 2 years. There was significant improvement in joint restriction ) with 66.7% of patients reporting improvement in the GAS scale, best improvement occurred with ortheses and limb adjustments. Conclusions: Most patients have improved functionality on the GAS scale after treatment with BTX, which is used as an adjunct therapy in subjects already in rehabilitation programs. The main rehabilitation objectives with the GAS scale were achieved in most patients.

Ying Tang ◽  
Khe Foon Hew

AbstractMobile instant messaging (MIM) has become the most popular means for young people to communicate. MIM apps typically come with a myriad of features that educators may leverage to increase student learning. However, it remains poorly understood to what extent and in what aspect MIM can facilitate student engagement. We address the gap by comparing the effects of using MIM and asynchronous online discussion (AOD) on student online engagement, using a quasi-experimental study involving a historical cohort control group. Understanding which communication mode can better promote student online engagement is particularly important during the current widespread use of online learning. Specifically, we examined engagement from the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive dimensions. The results showed that the MIM group was more behaviorally engaged in discussion activities, producing more messages, more words, and higher rates of participation, task completion, and interaction. Emotionally, no statistically significant difference was found in students’ affective evaluation of course interaction and satisfaction between the two groups. However, MIM appeared to help students with improved intimacy and interpersonal relationships. Cognitively, the MIM group was more engaged than the AOD group. In particular, MIM seemed to facilitate interactive idea exchange and thus contributing to more “creating” activities. We conclude by providing suggestions for future instructional practice and research directions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Francesca Cossovel ◽  
Andrea Trombetta ◽  
Augusto Ramondo ◽  
Guglielmo Riccio ◽  
Luca Ronfani ◽  

Abstract Background Non-painful diagnostic procedures require an inactive state for a prolonged time, so that sedation is often needed in younger children to perform the procedures. Our standard of care in this setting consists of the association between oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and intranasal dexmedetomidine (4 mcg/kg). One of the limits of this approach is that the onset of action is quite delayed (up to 55 min) and poorly predictable. We chose to compare this association with intranasal-ketamine and intranasal-dexmedetomidine. Methods This is a “pre-post” study. The study population included the first forty children receiving sedation with the “new” combination intranasal ketamine (3 mg/kg) and intranasal dexmedetomidine (4 mcg/kg) compared to a historical cohort including the last forty children receiving sedation with our standard of care combination of intranasal dexmedetomidine (4mcg/kg) and oral midazolam (0,5 mg/kg). Results The association intranasal dexmedetomidine and intranasal ketamine allowed for a significantly shorter sedation induction time than the combination intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam (13,5 min versus 35 min). Both group’s cumulative data showed a correlation between age and sedation effectiveness, with younger children presenting a higher success rate and shorter induction time (p 0,001). Conclusions: This study suggests that the ketamine and dexmedetomidine intranasal association may have a shorter onset of action when compared to intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hae Won Yoo ◽  
Jun Yong Park ◽  
Sang Gyune Kim ◽  
Young Kul Jung ◽  
Sae Hwan Lee ◽  

AbstractWe prospectively investigated the changes of liver stiffness (LS) and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication using direct antiviral agents (DAA) over three years. LS measurement using transient elastography and serum fibrosis surrogate markers before treatment and at 48, 96, 144 weeks after starting direct-acting antivirals (DAA) according to the protocol were evaluated. Patients were also compared with historical cohort treated with pegylated interferon (peg-IFN). Sustained viral response (SVR) was observed in 95.8%. LS value in the patients achieving SVR significantly decreased over time (19.4 ± 12.9 kPa [baseline], 13.9 ± 9.1 kPa [48 weeks], 11.7 ± 8.2 kPa [96 weeks], 10.09 ± 6.23 [144 weeks], all p < 0.001). With matched analysis, the decrease in LS value was significantly larger in DAA group than peg-IFN group at both 48 weeks (29% vs. 9%) and 96 weeks (39% vs. 17%). The incidence of HCC was not significantly different between DAA and peg-IFN groups (5.5% vs. 5.4%) at 144 weeks. HCV eradication with DAA can lead to improvement of liver stiffness over time. The regression of fibrosis was greater in the group with DAA than peg-IFN.Clinical trials registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02865369).

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Dandan Ma ◽  
Shifei Wei ◽  
Shi-Ming Li ◽  
Xiaohui Yang ◽  
Kai Cao ◽  

Background: To assess the impact of study-at-home during the COVID-19 pandemic on myopia development in Chinese schoolchildren.Methods: This historical cohort involved two groups with a total of 154 children. The exposed group was formed from 77 children aged 8 to 10 years who studied at home in the 7-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic (follow-up period: January – August 2020) and did not study at home in the 7-month period before the COVID-19 outbreak (baseline period: July 2019 – January 2020). Seventy-seven children who did not undergo study-at-home (baseline period: 7 months in 2015, follow-up period: 7 months in 2016) were included in the control group. Cycloplegic refraction, axial length and uncorrected visual acuity were measured 3 times. The questionnaire mainly focused on collecting visual habits.Results: Myopia progression was similar between the two groups in the baseline period. However, in the follow-up period the exposed group had a greater change in refraction toward myopia (−0.83 ± 0.56 D) than the control group (−0.28 ± 0.54 D; p &lt; 0.001). In addition, the exposed group exhibited a significantly greater change in refraction toward myopia in the follow-up period (−0.83 ± 0.56 D) than in the baseline period (−0.33 ± 0.46 D; p &lt; 0.001). Difference-in-difference analysis indicated that study-at-home accelerated the change in refraction toward myopia (t = −0.567; p &lt; 0.001).Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic study-at-home accelerated the change of refraction toward myopia in children.

Michele Neves Brajão Rocha ◽  
Carol Viviana Serna Gonzalez ◽  
Eline Lima Borges ◽  
Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos ◽  
Soraia Assad Nasbine Rabeh ◽  

The recurrence of venous ulcers is the wound reopening after a period of completed epithelisation of a previous ulcer due to exposure to causal factors and lack of prevention. Venous ulcers have a high recurrence rate that may increase through the years. Epidemiological evidence on its incidence and risk factors is scarce due to the lack of patient follow-up in outpatient clinics and adherence to treatment after healing. The objective was to analyze the incidence of venous ulcers recurrency in outpatients and the risk factors for its occurrence. It is an observational historical cohort with retrospective data collection, performed through electronic medical records. Setting: private health insurance outpatient clinic. The participants were adult patients with healed venous ulcers. Incidence of venous ulcer recurrence was calculated within individuals with healed ulcers from 2014 and 2018 with a follow-up of at least one year. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to explore risk factors considering demographic, clinical, and wound-related variables. As a result, sixty-five (65) of the 134 patients with healed venous ulcers had a recurrence, leading to an incidence of 48.5%, with a mean onset time of 230.1 (SD 267) days. Patients with recurrent venous ulcers were primarily women (39/48.1%), with a mean age of 64 (SD 15.5) years, 57 (50.8%) had some comorbidity, with systemic arterial hypertension as the most frequent (47/51%). Obesity (15/88.2%) increased the risk of venous ulcers recurrence by 8.7 (OR 95% CI 2.1-60.8; P = .009) times. In conclusion, venous ulcers recurrence incidence was 48.5%, with obesity as a risk factor. This study demonstrates that the clinical approach of people with venous ulcers should not finish when the wound is healed. For ulcer recurrence prevention interventions addressing systemic factors, besides topical management of the wound, are essential.

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