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2021 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 125076
Chun-Ran Wu ◽  
Zhi-Qiang Hong ◽  
Bao-Jian Zhan ◽  
Shi-Cai Cui ◽  
Shi-Cong Kou

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 106906
Roger Pero-Gascon ◽  
Lieselot Y. Hemeryck ◽  
Giulia Poma ◽  
Gwen Falony ◽  
Tim S. Nawrot ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 122116
Xiaodong Yu ◽  
Zhenfu Luo

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6200
Laura Castro ◽  
María Luisa Blázquez ◽  
Felisa González ◽  
Jesús Ángel Muñoz

Biohydrometallurgy recovers metals through microbially mediated processes and has been traditionally applied for the extraction of base metals from low-grade sulfidic ores. New investigations explore its potential for other types of critical resources, such as rare earth elements. In recent times, the interest in rare earth elements (REEs) is growing due to of their applications in novel technologies and green economy. The use of biohydrometallurgy for extracting resources from waste streams is also gaining attention to support innovative mining and promote a circular economy. The increase in wastes containing REEs turns them into a valuable alternative source. Most REE ores and industrial residues do not contain sulfides, and bioleaching processes use autotrophic or heterotrophic microorganisms to generate acids that dissolve the metals. This review gathers information towards the recycling of REE-bearing wastes (fluorescent lamp powder, spent cracking catalysts, e-wastes, etc.) using a more sustainable and environmentally friendly technology that reduces the impact on the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hua Zhu ◽  
Xinyao Hu ◽  
Lijuan Gu ◽  
Zhihong Jian ◽  
Liqin Li ◽  

TUBA1C, a microtubule component, contributes to the development of several cancers. Our purpose was to study the expression of TUBA1C, its potential prognostic value, and its effects on the infiltration of immune cells of low-grade glioma (LGG). Through applying multiple bioinformatics analyses, we extracted and analyzed datasets from TCGA, TIMER, GTEx, GEPIA, and HPA to investigate the potential oncogenic mechanisms of TUBA1C, including the correlation between TUBA1C and prognosis, immune-checkpoints, tumor microenvironment (TME), and infiltration of immune cells in LGG. GO functional annotations and KEGG pathway analyses were further applied to investigate the potential action of TUBA1C in LGG. We revealed that the mRNA levels of TUBA1C were increased in LGG tumor tissues than in normal tissues. Additionally, TUBA1C was up-regulated in the grade III of LGG than in grade II. Moreover, we found that TUBA1C may be an independent prognostic factor of LGG, and high TUBA1C expression correlated to a poor prognosis of LGG. TUBA1C expression was positively associated with the infiltration of B cells, CD8 T+ cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. TUBA1C was also verified to be co-expressed with immune-related genes and immune-checkpoints. GO and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that TUBA1C may potentially regulate the pathogenesis of LGG through immune-related pathways, including chemokine pathway; JAK-STAT pathway; natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity; T cell receptor pathway; leukocyte migration; negative regulation of immune system process; regulation of lymphocyte activation; T cell activation and other pathways. In conclusion, TUBA1C expression is increased in LGG and high TUAB1C expression is related to a poor prognosis. TUBA1C may influence tumor development by regulating the tumor-infiltrating cells in the TME. TUBA1C may be a potential target for immunotherapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Sang Jin Rhee ◽  
Hyunju Lee ◽  
Yong Min Ahn

AbstractDespite increasing evidence for an association between circulating uric acid (UA) and depression, the directionality of this association remains unclear and is potentially moderated by low-grade inflammation. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between serum UA concentration and depressive symptoms in Korean individuals with and without low-grade inflammation, as measured using serum high-specific C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. The final study sample comprised 4188 participants, aged 19–79 years, from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2016. Data on serum uric acid (UA) concentrations, serum hs-CRP levels, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores, and relative covariates were retrieved. Negative binomial regression with adjustment for the complex sample design was used to analyze the associations. After adjusting for covariates, log-transformed serum UA concentrations and total PHQ-9 scores were positively associated (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.34 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09–1.66]) for participants without low-grade inflammation and inversely associated (IRR = 0.64 [95% CI = 0.45–0.92]) for participants with low-grade inflammation. In conclusion, the direction of the association between serum UA and depressive symptoms was the opposite in participants with and without low-grade inflammation. The study has the limitation of potential uncontrolled confounders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Parviz Mardani ◽  
Arash Safarian ◽  
Anita Ashari ◽  
Sarina Pourjafar ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Anbardar ◽  

Abstract Introduction Meningiomas are the most commonly encountered intracranial tumors, usually showing indolent behavior. Extra-axial spreading and distant metastases are seldom detected in these tumors, and lung metastasis from a low-grade meningioma is a rare event. Case presentation This case report aimed to present the clinical, imaging, and pathological features of a 37-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman with bilateral lung metastases incidentally detected during preoperative workup ahead of surgery for a primary intracranial meningioma. The possible metastatic routes and risk factors of dissemination to the pulmonary circulation were discussed as well. Conclusion Metastasis must be considered in patients with intracranial meningiomas accompanied by venous sinus invasion and extension through the calvarium. Thorough paraclinical investigations are suggested in such cases.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (10) ◽  
pp. 1101
Anca-Maria Istrate-Ofițeru ◽  
Elena-Iuliana-Anamaria Berbecaru ◽  
Dan Ruican ◽  
Rodica Daniela Nagy ◽  
Cătălina Rămescu ◽  

Background and objectives. The risk of developing invasive cancer increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in Romania, where the incidence of this disease is high due to limited medical education and broad screening. This study’s objective is to analyze the number of patients admitted with different types of cervical dysplasia and the treatment applied for the lesions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic compared to the same period for the year before the pandemic. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study that took place in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics I/II (OG I/II) of the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (SP) (15.03.2020–14.03.2021) and in the 12 months before (non-pandemic period) (NPP) (15.03.2019–14.03.2020). The study includes 396 patients with pathological PAP smear results. All the patients included in this study were clinically examined and with colposcopy. The patients with Low-Grade Dysplasia were managed in a conservatory manner and reevaluated after six months. The patients with High-Grade Dysplasia were admitted for an excisional biopsy of the lesion. The excised fragments were sent to the Pathological Anatomy Laboratory for a histopathological examination. Results: This study reveals a decrease of more than half in the number of patients admitted with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions during the pandemic compared to the same period of the year before. The number of biopsies and excisional procedures has been decreasing by more than a factor of three during the pandemic period compared to the year before. Conclusion: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we found that the patients’ admission rate, diagnosis, and treatment was almost four times lower. As hospital restrictions were not dictated for cancer/precancer management during SP, we may assume that the differences were due to the fear of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 due to hospitalization. In the context of poor screening performance and high cervical cancer incidence, the influence of the SP may result in a further increase of severe cases related to this condition.

Michael Itak Ita ◽  
Jiang Huai Wang ◽  
André Toulouse ◽  
Chris Lim ◽  
Noel Fanning ◽  

Abstract Background Research into the potential utility of plasma-derived circulating cell-free nucleic acids as non-invasive adjuncts to radiological imaging have been occasioned by the invasive nature of brain tumour biopsy. The objective of this study was to determine whether significant differences exist in the plasma transcriptomic profile of glioma patients relative to differences in their tumour characteristics, and also whether any observed differences were representative of synchronously obtained glioma samples and TCGA glioma-derived RNA. Methods Blood samples were collected from twenty glioma patients prior to tumour resection. Plasma ccfmRNAs and glioma-derived RNA were extracted and profiled. Results BCL2L1, GZMB, HLA-A, IRF1, MYD88, TLR2, and TP53 genes were significantly over-expressed in glioma patients (p < 0.001, versus control). GZMB and HLA-A genes were significantly over-expressed in high-grade glioma patients (p < 0.001, versus low-grade glioma patients). Moreover, the fold change of the BCL2L1 gene was observed to be higher in patients with high-grade glioma (p = 0.022, versus low-grade glioma patients). There was positive correlation between the magnitude of fold change of differentially expressed genes in plasma- and glioma-derived RNA (Spearman r = 0.6344, n = 14, p = 0.017), and with the mean FPKM in TCGA glioma-derived RNA samples (Spearman r = 0.4614, n = 19, p < 0.05). There was positive correlation between glioma radiographic tumour burden and the magnitude of fold change of the CSF3 gene (r = 0.9813, n = 20, p < 0.001). Conclusion We identified significant differential expression of genes involved in cancer inflammation and immunity crosstalk among patients with different glioma grades, and there was positive correlation between their transcriptomic profile in plasma and tumour samples, and with TCGA glioma-derived RNA.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1623
Ariany Zulkania ◽  
Rochmadi Rochmadi ◽  
Rochim Bakti Cahyono ◽  
Muslikhin Hidayat

Increasing carbon deposits in iron ore to upgrade the reduction rate can be performed by impregnating iron ore in tar. Carbon containing iron ore was prepared from low-grade iron ore and biomass tar, which was generated from palm kernel shell (PKS) pyrolysis using the impregnation method. The optimum condition of the method was investigated by varying the tar-iron ore ratio (1 and 1.5) and impregnation time (0 and 24 h). After the carbonization of the tar–iron ore mixture in a flow-type quartz tubular fixed-bed reactor at 500 °C for an hour, the carbon deposits adhered well to surfaces of all iron ore samples. The carbon deposits increased when the ratio of tar-iron ore was enhanced. The effect of impregnation time on the formed carbon deposit only applied to the tar-iron ore ratio of 1, but it had a weak effect on the ratio of 1.5. The highest carbon content was obtained from the impregnation of a biomass tar–iron ore mixture with the ratio of 1.5 which was directly carbonized. In addition, the high water content of biomass tar affected the reformation of FeOOH at the impregnation within 24 h. Furthermore, the reduction reactivity of the obtained carbonized ore, which was observed using thermogravimetric analysis, was perceptible. The carbon deposits on iron ore were able to demote total weight loss up to 23%, compared to 8% of the dehydrated ore, during the heating process to 950 °C. The carbon content obtained from iron ore impregnation with biomass tar can act as reduction agents, thereby enhancing the reduction reactivity.

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