cancer genome atlas
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guoda Song ◽  
Yucong Zhang ◽  
Hao Li ◽  
Zhuo Liu ◽  
Wen Song ◽  

Background: Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UB/UBL) conjugations are one of the most important post-translational modifications and involve in the occurrence of cancers. However, the biological function and clinical significance of ubiquitin related genes (URGs) in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear.Methods: The transcriptome data and clinicopathological data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which was served as training cohort. The GSE21034 dataset was used to validate. The two datasets were removed batch effects and normalized using the “sva” R package. Univariate Cox, LASSO Cox, and multivariate Cox regression were performed to identify a URGs prognostic signature. Then Kaplan-Meier curve and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the URGs signature. Thereafter, a nomogram was constructed and evaluated.Results: A six-URGs signature was established to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa, which included ARIH2, FBXO6, GNB4, HECW2, LZTR1 and RNF185. Kaplan-Meier curve and ROC curve analyses revealed good performance of the prognostic signature in both training cohort and validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate Cox analyses showed the signature was an independent prognostic factor for BCR of PCa in training cohort. Then a nomogram based on the URGs signature and clinicopathological factors was established and showed an accurate prediction for prognosis in PCa.Conclusion: Our study established a URGs prognostic signature and constructed a nomogram to predict the BCR of PCa. This study could help with individualized treatment and identify PCa patients with high BCR risks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chongming Jiang ◽  
Evelien Schaafsma ◽  
Wei Hong ◽  
Yanding Zhao ◽  
Ken Zhu ◽  

BackgroundNeoantigens are presented on the cancer cell surface by peptide-restricted human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins and can subsequently activate cognate T cells. It has been hypothesized that the observed somatic mutations in tumors are shaped by immunosurveillance.MethodsWe investigated all somatic mutations identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Skin Cutaneous Melanoma (SKCM) samples. By applying a computational algorithm, we calculated the binding affinity of the resulting neo-peptides and their corresponding wild-type peptides with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I complex. We then examined the relationship between binding affinity alterations and mutation frequency.ResultsOur results show that neoantigens derived from recurrent mutations tend to have lower binding affinities with the MHC Class I complex compared to peptides from non-recurrent mutations. Tumor samples harboring recurrent SKCM mutations exhibited lower immune infiltration levels, indicating a relatively colder immune microenvironment.ConclusionsThese results suggested that the occurrences of somatic mutations in melanoma have been shaped by immunosurveillance. Mutations that lead to neoantigens with high MHC class I binding affinity are more likely to be eliminated and thus are less likely to be present in tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yingyun Guo ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Jiao Li ◽  
Weiping Tao ◽  
Weiguo Dong

Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are heterogeneous, and the current predictive models for LGG are either unsatisfactory or not user-friendly. The objective of this study was to establish a nomogram based on methylation-driven genes, combined with clinicopathological parameters for predicting prognosis in LGG. Differential expression, methylation correlation, and survival analysis were performed in 516 LGG patients using RNA and methylation sequencing data, with accompanying clinicopathological parameters from The Cancer Genome Atlas. LASSO regression was further applied to select optimal prognosis-related genes. The final prognostic nomogram was implemented together with prognostic clinicopathological parameters. The predictive efficiency of the nomogram was internally validated in training and testing groups, and externally validated in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Three DNA methylation-driven genes, ARL9, CMYA5, and STEAP3, were identified as independent prognostic factors. Together with IDH1 mutation status, age, and sex, the final prognostic nomogram achieved the highest AUC value of 0.930, and demonstrated stable consistency in both internal and external validations. The prognostic nomogram could predict personal survival probabilities for patients with LGG, and serve as a user-friendly tool for prognostic evaluation, optimizing therapeutic regimes, and managing LGG patients.

2022 ◽  
Xuan Zhang ◽  
Tao Wu ◽  
Rong Ding ◽  
Rujia Qin ◽  
Yongchun Zhou ◽  

Abstract Preceding studies have identified that noncoding RNA plays a significant role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has attracted increasing attention due to its high incidence and mortality rate. Based on Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database analysis, it was found that compared with normal tissues, HNF1A-AS1 and INHBA were highly expressed in CRC tissues; miR-214 was relatively low expressed, and it is predicted to specifically target the3' untranslated region (3'UTR region) of INHBA. Besides, the result was consistent with the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) verification results of 17 CRC cases and adjacent tissues collected clinically. Western Blot (WB) manifested that INHBA protein was highly expressed in CRC tissues, which was consistent with the results of CRC cell lines (HT29, SW480). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining demonstrated that INHBA protein was brownish yellow, overwhelming majority of INHBA protein were located in the cytoplasm, and expression level was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues. Based on previous studies, the biological process of INHBA-mediated TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway inducing the proliferation and invasion of CRC has been partially confirmed, but the upstream signaling molecules and mechanisms which regulating INHBA remain unclear. Herein, benefiting from bioinformatics, preliminary experimental results and previous research, they provide basis for the follow-up study on the regulation of HNF1A-AS1/miR-214/INHBA signal axis in CRC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wen Wang ◽  
Hao Bo ◽  
Yumei Liang ◽  
Guoli Li

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological lung cancer, and it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis. LINC00467 is a novel lncRNA that is abnormally expressed in several cancer types including LUAD. However, its function and regulatory mechanism in LUAD progression remain unclear. In this study, based on The Cancer Genome Atlas data mining, we demonstrated that DNA copy number amplification and hypomethylation was positively correlated with LINC00467 expression in LUAD. In addition, DNA copy number amplification was significantly associated with distant metastasis, immune infiltration and poor survival. Microarray analysis demonstrated that LINC00467 knockdown in the LUAD A549 cell line led to a distinct microRNA expression profile that impacted various target genes involved in multiple biological processes. This finding suggests that LINC00467 may regulate LUAD progression by functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). Finally, we constructed a ceRNA network that included two microRNAs (hsa-miR-1225-5p, hsa-miR-575) and five mRNAs (BARX2, BCL9, KCNK1, KIAA1324, TMEM182) specific to LINC00467 in LUAD. Subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in both The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases revealed that two genes, BARX2 and BCL9, were potential prognostic biomarkers for LUAD patients. In conclusion, our data provide possible mechanisms underlying the abnormal upregulation of LINC00467 as well as a comprehensive view of the LINC00467-mediated ceRNA network in LUAD, thereby highlighting its potential role in diagnosis and therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Liu-qing Zhou ◽  
Jin-xiong Shen ◽  
Jie-yu Zhou ◽  
Yao Hu ◽  
Hong-jun Xiao

AbstractN6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications play an essential role in tumorigenesis. These modifications modulate RNAs, including mRNAs and lncRNAs. However, the prognostic role of m6A-related lncRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is poorly understood. Based on LASSO Cox regression, enrichment analysis, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, a prognostic risk model, and consensus clustering analysis, we analyzed 12 m6A-related lncRNAs in HNSCC sample data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We found 12 m6A-related lncRNAs in the training cohort and validated them in all cohorts by Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analyses, revealing their independent prognostic value in HNSCC. Moreover, ROC analysis was conducted, confirming the strong predictive ability of this signature for HNSCC survival. GSEA and detailed immune infiltration analyses revealed specific pathways associated with m6A-related lncRNAs. In this study, a novel risk model including twelve genes (SAP30L-AS1, AC022098.1, LINC01475, AC090587.2, AC008115.3, AC015911.3, AL122035.2, AC010226.1, AL513190.1, ZNF32-AS1, AL035587.1 and AL031716.1) was built. It could accurately predict HNSCC outcomes and could provide new therapeutic targets for HNSCC patients.

Fan Kou ◽  
Lei Wu ◽  
Ye Zhu ◽  
Baihui Li ◽  
Ziqi Huang ◽  

AbstractSomatic copy number alterations (SCNA), which are widespread in cancer, can predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the usefulness of SCNA for predicting the survival of patients treated with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells or chemotherapy (CT) is unknown. This study aimed to explore the correlation between SCNA and clinical outcome in NSCLC patients treated with CIK + CT or CT alone. We performed whole-exome sequencing on 45 NSCLC patients treated with CIK + CT, as well as 305 NSCLC patients treated with CT alone, from The Cancer Genome Atlas, which showed SCNA had a superiority in predicting the progression-free survival (PFS) over tumor mutation burden (TMB) and SCNA + TMB in NSCLC patients treated with CIK + CT, especially in lung adenocarcinoma, while SCNA could not predict the efficacy of CT alone. Additionally, we investigated the association between SCNA and immune cell infiltration by RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry. The results revealed that SCNA was negatively associated with the expression of dendritic cells. Collectively, this study revealed a negative correlation between SCNA and response to CIK + CT and showed that SCNA is a predictive indicator in LUAD patients treated with CIK + CT.

Yihong Luo ◽  
Xiang Sun ◽  
Jian Xiong

Introduction: Studies have demonstrated the epigenetic regulation of immune responses in various cancers. However, little is known about the RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification patterns of the microenvironment (TME) cell infiltration in ovarian cancer (OC).Methods: We evaluated the correlation between m6A modification patterns and TME cell infiltration based on 459 OC samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene-Expression Omnibus database. We constructed an m6Ascore system to quantify m6A modification patterns using principal component analysis.Results: Based on unsupervised clustering, three m6A modification patterns were identified. Gene set variation analysis showed that the antigen presentation signal pathway, the NOTCH signaling pathway, and the metabolism-related pathway differed significantly across m6A modificaiton patterns. The m6Ascore is closely correlated with TME cell infiltration. OC patients with lower m6Ascores had worse outcomes. There was better risk stratification with combined m6Ascore and tumor mutation burden. The responses to immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment significantly differed between high and low m6Ascore groups.Conclusion: M6A modification plays an essential role in TME cell infiltration in OC. Evaluating the m6A modification patterns in OC patients could enhance our understanding of TME infiltration characterization and guide immunotherapy strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Weina Yu ◽  
Fengsen Liu ◽  
Qingyang Lei ◽  
Peng Wu ◽  
Li Yang ◽  

Immunotherapy resistance is a major barrier in the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. Although recent studies have found several mechanisms and potential genes responsible for immunotherapy resistance, ways to solve this problem are still lacking. Tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) algorithm is a newly developed method to calculate potential regulators and indicators of ICI resistance. In this article, we combined TIDE and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to screen potential modules and hub genes that are highly associated with immunotherapy resistance using the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset of LUAD patients. We identified 45 gene co-expression modules, and the pink module was most correlated with TIDE score and other immunosuppressive features. After considering the potential factors in immunotherapy resistance, we found that the pink module was also highly related to cancer stemness. Further analysis showed enriched immunosuppressive cells in the extracellular matrix (ECM), immunotherapy resistance indicators, and common cancer-related signaling pathways in the pink module. Seven hub genes in the pink module were shown to be significantly upregulated in tumor tissues compared with normal lung tissue, and were related to poor survival of LUAD patients. Among them, THY1 was the gene most associated with TIDE score, a gene highly related to suppressive immune states, and was shown to be strongly expressed in late-stage patients. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results demonstrated that THY1 level was higher in the progressive disease (PD) group of LUAD patients receiving a PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and positively correlated with SOX9. Collectively, we identified that THY1 could be a critical biomarker in predicting ICI efficiency and a potential target for avoiding tumor immunotherapy resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 626
Lucy Button ◽  
Bryony Rogers ◽  
Emily Thomas ◽  
Alice Bradfield ◽  
Rafah Alnafakh ◽  

Risk of relapse of endometrial cancer (EC) after surgical treatment is 13% and recurrent disease carries a poor prognosis. Research into prognostic indicators is essential to improve EC management and outcome. “Immortality” of most cancer cells is dependent on telomerase, but the role of associated proteins in the endometrium is poorly understood. The Cancer Genome Atlas data highlighted telomere/telomerase associated genes (TTAGs) with prognostic relevance in the endometrium, and a recent in silico study identified a group of TTAGs and proteins as key regulators within a network of dysregulated genes in EC. We characterise relevant telomere/telomerase associated proteins (TTAPs) NOP10, NHP2, NOP56, TERF1, TERF2 and TERF2IP in the endometrium using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). qPCR data demonstrated altered expression of multiple TTAPs; specifically, increased NOP10 (p = 0.03) and reduced NHP2 (p = 0.01), TERF2 (p = 0.01) and TERF2IP (p < 0.003) in EC relative to post-menopausal endometrium. Notably, we report reduced NHP2 in EC compared to post-menopausal endometrium in qPCR and IHC (p = 0.0001) data; with survival analysis indicating high immunoscore is favourable in EC (p = 0.0006). Our findings indicate a potential prognostic role for TTAPs in EC, particularly NHP2. Further evaluation of the prognostic and functional role of the examined TTAPs is warranted to develop novel treatment strategies.

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