Brain Tumors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102077
Karen W. Yeh ◽  
Di He ◽  
Johnni Hansen ◽  
Catherine L. Carpenter ◽  
Beate Ritz ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Marc Dahlmanns ◽  
Eduard Yakubov ◽  
Jana Katharina Dahlmanns

Glioblastoma represents the most devastating form of human brain cancer, associated with a very poor survival rate of patients. Unfortunately, treatment options are currently limited and the gold standard pharmacological treatment with the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide only slightly increases the survival rate. Experimental studies have shown that the efficiency of temozolomide can be improved by inducing ferroptosis – a recently discovered form of cell death, which is different from apoptosis, necrosis, or necroptosis and, which is characterized by lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Ferroptosis can also be activated to improve treatment of malignant stages of neuroblastoma, meningioma, and glioma. Due to their role in cancer treatment, ferroptosis-gene signatures have recently been evaluated for their ability to predict survival of patients. Despite positive effects during chemotherapy, the drugs used to induce ferroptosis – such as erastin and sorafenib – as well as genetic manipulation of key players in ferroptosis – such as the cystine-glutamate exchanger xCT and the glutathione peroxidase GPx4 – also impact neuronal function and cognitive capabilities. In this review, we give an update on ferroptosis in different brain tumors and summarize the impact of ferroptosis on healthy tissues.

2021 ◽  
Nida Zahid ◽  
Russell Seth Martin ◽  
Wajeeha Zahid ◽  
Iqbal Azam ◽  
Aneesa Hassan ◽  

Abstract Introduction Despite quality of life (QoL) being recognized as an important outcome in neuro-oncology, there is a lack of research from Pakistan where sociocultural differences may influence QoL. This study aimed to measure the QoL in patients with primary brain tumors (PBTs), and assess its association with mental health outcomes, resilience, and social support. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among primary brain tumor patients. QoL was measured using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire. Resilience was assessed by Wagnild and Young's Resilience Scale, mental health outcomes using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and social support using the Enriched Social Support Instrument. Results Our study included a total of 250 patients, with median age of 42 years (range 33-54 years). The mean global QoL of the sample was 75.73 ± 14.9. On multivariable linear regression, global QoL was inversely associated with no or low income, having hypertension (-5.77), currently using a urine catheter (-15.33), having low social support (-28.16) suffering from mild (-9.88) or symptomatic (-17.59) depression, or mild anxiety (-7.11), while resilience (0.28) demonstrated a significant positive association. Conclusion The quality of life of patients with primary brain tumors in Pakistan is a function of clinical factors such as comorbid disease and use of a urinary catheter, social factors such a family income and social support, and psychological factors such as mental illness and resilience. Our findings may be of use in the development of QoL-improving interventions within the sociocultural setting of Pakistan.

2021 ◽  
Kazuki Komiyama ◽  
Keiya Iijima ◽  
Reika Kawabata-Iwakawa ◽  
Kazuyuki Fujihara ◽  
Toshikazu Kakizaki ◽  

Abstract Patients with glioma often demonstrate epilepsy. We previously found burst discharges in the peritumoral area in patents with malignant brain tumors during biopsy. Therefore, we hypothesized that the peritumoral area may possess an epileptic focus and that biological alterations in the peritumoral area may cause epileptic symptoms in patients with glioma. To test our hypothesis, we developed a rat model of glioma and characterized it at the cellular and molecular levels. We first labeled rat C6 glioma cells with tdTomato, a red fluorescent protein (C6-tdTomato) and implanted them into the somatosensory cortex of VGAT-Venus rats, which specifically expressed Venus, a yellow fluorescent protein in GABAergic neurons. We observed that the density of GABAergic neurons was significantly decreased in the peritumoral area of rats with glioma compared with the contralateral healthy side. By using a combination technique of laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing(LCM-seq) of paraformaldehyde-fixed brain sections, we demonstrated that 19 genes were differentially expressed in the peritumoral area and that five of them were associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, the canonical pathways actively altered in the peritumoral area were predicted to cause a reduction in GABAergic neurons. These results suggest that biological alterations in the peritumoral area may be a cause of glioma-related epilepsy.

Hyunhee Kim ◽  
Ka Young Lim ◽  
Jin Woo Park ◽  
Jeongwan Kang ◽  
Jae Kyung Won ◽  

AbstractMismatch repair-deficient (MMRD) brain tumors are rare among primary brain tumors and can be induced by germline or sporadic mutations. Here, we report 13 MMRD-associated (9 sporadic and 4 Lynch syndrome) primary brain tumors to determine clinicopathological and molecular characteristics and biological behavior. Our 13 MMRD brain tumors included glioblastoma (GBM) IDH-wildtype (n = 9) including 1 gliosarcoma, astrocytoma IDH-mutant WHO grade 4 (n = 2), diffuse midline glioma (DMG) H3 K27M-mutant (n = 1), and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) (n = 1). Next-generation sequencing using a brain tumor-targeted gene panel, microsatellite instability (MSI) testing, Sanger sequencing for germline MMR gene mutation, immunohistochemistry of MMR proteins, and clinicopathological and survival analysis were performed. There were many accompanying mutations, suggesting a high tumor mutational burden (TMB) in 77%, but TMB was absent in one case of GBM, IDH-wildtype, DMG, and PXA, respectively. MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 mutations were found in 31%, 31%, 31% and 7% of patients, respectively. MSI-high and MSI-low were found in 50% and 8% of these gliomas, respectively and 34% was MSI-stable. All Lynch syndrome-associated GBMs had MSI-high. In addition, 77% (10/13) had histopathologically multinucleated giant cells. The progression-free survival tended to be poorer than the patients with no MMRD gliomas, but the number and follow-up duration of our patients were insufficient to get statistical significance. In the present study, we found that the most common MMRD primary brain tumor was GBM IDH-wildtype. The genetic profile of MMRD GBM was different from that of conventional GBM. MMRD gliomas with TMB and MSI-H may be sensitive to immunotherapy but resistant to temozolomide. Our findings can help develop better treatment options.

May Albee ◽  
Santiago Allende ◽  
Victoria Cosgrove ◽  
Matthew Hocking

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Survivors of pediatric brain tumors (BT) are at increased risk for difficulties with social competence, including poor social information processing (SIP) and peer relationships. Due to improved survival rates among BT, there is a need to better understand these challenges and if they are specific to BT versus other survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: 51 BT and 34 survivors of pediatric solid tumors (ST) completed evaluations of SIP and peer relationship quality within 6 months of completing treatment and at one year follow-up. Caregivers also completed a measure of social skills. Linear mixed models evaluated (1) differences between BT and ST on SIP and social skills and (2) how indices of SIP were associated with peer relationships over time for ST and BT. RESULTS: BT did not differ from ST on indices of SIP or social skills over time. There was a three-way interaction between measures of SIP, group, and time to predict peer relationships. ST showed a positive association between baseline social skills and theory of mind and peer relationships over time, whereas BT showed an inverse association between baseline social skills and theory of mind and peer relationships over time. CONCLUSION: Baseline SIP and social skills affected the trajectory of BT peer relationships. BT social functioning should be monitored regularly after the completion of treatment to determine if and when intervention services would be beneficial.

Ghazaleh Shaker ◽  
Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan ◽  
Mehdi Zeinalizadeh

Meningioma is a common primary tumor of the central nervous system and one of the most encountered brain tumors. Although classic histopathologic features of meningioma are relatively common and make its diagnosis straightforward, certain variants possess unusual histologic features causing diagnostic challenges. We reported three cases of clear cell meningioma, microcytic meningioma, and angiomatous meningioma report, variants with potential deceptive morphologies, and discuss their distinguishing morphologic features.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 5987
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard ◽  
Atefe Abak ◽  
Bashdar Mahmud Hussen ◽  
Mohammad Taheri ◽  
Guive Sharifi

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding transcripts which are involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary gland tumors. LncRNAs that participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary gland tumors mainly serve as sponges for miRNAs. CLRN1-AS1/miR-217, XIST/miR-424-5p, H19/miR-93a, LINC00473/miR-502-3p, SNHG7/miR-449a, MEG8/miR-454-3p, MEG3/miR-23b-3p, MEG3/miR-376B-3P, SNHG6/miR-944, PCAT6/miR-139-3p, lncRNA-m433s1/miR-433, TUG1/miR-187-3p, SNHG1/miR-187-3p, SNHG1/miR-302, SNHG1/miR-372, SNHG1/miR-373, and SNHG1/miR-520 are identified lncRNA/miRNA pairs that are involved in this process. Hsa_circ_0001368 and circOMA1 are two examples of circRNAs that contribute to the pathogenesis of pituitary gland tumors. Meanwhile, SNHG1, LINC00702, LINC00460, and MEG3 have been found to partake in the pathogenesis of meningioma. In the current review, we describe the role of non-coding RNAs in two types of brain tumors, i.e., pituitary tumors and meningioma.

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1096
Joseph Feulefack ◽  
Aiza Khan ◽  
Francesco Forastiere ◽  
Consolato M. Sergi

Background: Brain tumors are the second most common neoplasm in the pediatric age. Pesticides may play an etiologic role, but literature results are conflicting. This review provides a systematic overview, meta-analysis, and IARC/WHO consideration of data on parental exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Methods: We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar for literature (1 January 1966–31 December 2020) that assessed childhood brain tumors and parental exposure to pesticides. We undertook a meta-analysis addressing prenatal exposure, exposure after birth, occupational exposure, and residential exposure. A total of 130 case-control investigations involving 43,598 individuals (18,198 cases and 25,400 controls) were included. Results: Prenatal exposure is associated with childhood brain tumors (odds ratio, OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.17–1.49; I2 = 41.1%). The same occurs after birth exposure (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03–1.45, I2 = 72.3%) and residential exposure to pesticides (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.11–1.54, I2 = 67.2%). Parental occupational exposure is only marginally associated with CBT (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.99–1.38, I2 = 67.0%). Conclusions: There is an association between CBT and parental pesticides exposure before childbirth, after birth, and residential exposure. It is in line with the IARC Monograph evaluating the carcinogenicity of diazinon, glyphosate, malathion, parathion, and tetrachlorvinphos.

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