scholarly journals DNA Methylation-Driven Genes for Developing Survival Nomogram for Low-Grade Glioma

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yingyun Guo ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Jiao Li ◽  
Weiping Tao ◽  
Weiguo Dong

Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are heterogeneous, and the current predictive models for LGG are either unsatisfactory or not user-friendly. The objective of this study was to establish a nomogram based on methylation-driven genes, combined with clinicopathological parameters for predicting prognosis in LGG. Differential expression, methylation correlation, and survival analysis were performed in 516 LGG patients using RNA and methylation sequencing data, with accompanying clinicopathological parameters from The Cancer Genome Atlas. LASSO regression was further applied to select optimal prognosis-related genes. The final prognostic nomogram was implemented together with prognostic clinicopathological parameters. The predictive efficiency of the nomogram was internally validated in training and testing groups, and externally validated in the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Three DNA methylation-driven genes, ARL9, CMYA5, and STEAP3, were identified as independent prognostic factors. Together with IDH1 mutation status, age, and sex, the final prognostic nomogram achieved the highest AUC value of 0.930, and demonstrated stable consistency in both internal and external validations. The prognostic nomogram could predict personal survival probabilities for patients with LGG, and serve as a user-friendly tool for prognostic evaluation, optimizing therapeutic regimes, and managing LGG patients.

2019 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Yu Kong ◽  
Christopher M. Rose ◽  
Ashley A. Cass ◽  
Alexander G. Williams ◽  
Martine Darwish ◽  

AbstractProfound global loss of DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers. One potential consequence of this is the reactivation of transposable elements (TEs) which could stimulate the immune system via cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. Here, we develop REdiscoverTE, a computational method for quantifying genome-wide TE expression in RNA sequencing data. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we observe increased expression of over 400 TE subfamilies, of which 262 appear to result from a proximal loss of DNA methylation. The most recurrent TEs are among the evolutionarily youngest in the genome, predominantly expressed from intergenic loci, and associated with antiviral or DNA damage responses. Treatment of glioblastoma cells with a demethylation agent results in both increased TE expression and de novo presentation of TE-derived peptides on MHC class I molecules. Therapeutic reactivation of tumor-specific TEs may synergize with immunotherapy by inducing inflammation and the display of potentially immunogenic neoantigens.

2014 ◽  
Vol 306 (1) ◽  
pp. G48-G58 ◽  
Ann M. Bailey ◽  
Le Zhan ◽  
Dipen Maru ◽  
Imad Shureiqi ◽  
Curtis R. Pickering ◽  

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid nuclear receptor described through mouse knockout studies as a tumor suppressor for the development of colon adenocarcinomas. This study investigates the regulation of FXR in the development of human colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry of FXR in normal tissue ( n = 238), polyps ( n = 32), and adenocarcinomas, staged I–IV ( n = 43, 39, 68, and 9), of the colon; RT-quantitative PCR, reverse-phase protein array, and Western blot analysis in 15 colon cancer cell lines; NR1H4 promoter methylation and mRNA expression in colon cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas; DNA methyltransferase inhibition; methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP); bisulfite sequencing; and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) knockdown assessment to investigate FXR regulation in colon cancer development. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression and function of FXR was reduced in precancerous lesions and silenced in a majority of stage I-IV tumors. FXR expression negatively correlated with phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3 kinase signaling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The NR1H4 promoter is methylated in ∼12% colon cancer The Cancer Genome Atlas samples, and methylation patterns segregate with tumor subtypes. Inhibition of DNA methylation and KRAS silencing both increased FXR expression. FXR expression is decreased early in human colon cancer progression, and both DNA methylation and KRAS signaling may be contributing factors to FXR silencing. FXR potentially suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other oncogenic signaling cascades, and restoration of FXR activity, by blocking silencing mechanisms or increasing residual FXR activity, represents promising therapeutic options for the treatment of colon cancer.

2018 ◽  
Seo Jeong Shin ◽  
Seng Chan You ◽  
Yu Rang Park ◽  
Jin Roh ◽  
Jang-Hee Kim ◽  

BACKGROUND Clinical sequencing data should be shared in order to achieve the sufficient scale and diversity required to provide strong evidence for improving patient care. A distributed research network allows researchers to share this evidence rather than the patient-level data across centers, thereby avoiding privacy issues. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) common data model (CDM) used in distributed research networks has low coverage of sequencing data and does not reflect the latest trends of precision medicine. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a genomic CDM (G-CDM), as an extension of the OMOP-CDM, for application of genomic data in clinical practice. METHODS Existing genomic data models and sequencing reports were reviewed to extend the OMOP-CDM to cover genomic data. The Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee and Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature were adopted to standardize the terminology in the model. Sequencing data of 114 and 1060 patients with lung cancer were obtained from the Ajou University School of Medicine database of Ajou University Hospital and The Cancer Genome Atlas, respectively, which were transformed to a format appropriate for the G-CDM. The data were compared with respect to gene name, variant type, and actionable mutations. RESULTS The G-CDM was extended into four tables linked to tables of the OMOP-CDM. Upon comparison with The Cancer Genome Atlas data, a clinically actionable mutation, p.Leu858Arg, in the EGFR gene was 6.64 times more frequent in the Ajou University School of Medicine database, while the p.Gly12Xaa mutation in the KRAS gene was 2.02 times more frequent in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. The data-exploring tool GeneProfiler was further developed to conduct descriptive analyses automatically using the G-CDM, which provides the proportions of genes, variant types, and actionable mutations. GeneProfiler also allows for querying the specific gene name and Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature to calculate the proportion of patients with a given mutation. CONCLUSIONS We developed the G-CDM for effective integration of genomic data with standardized clinical data, allowing for data sharing across institutes. The feasibility of the G-CDM was validated by assessing the differences in data characteristics between two different genomic databases through the proposed data-exploring tool GeneProfiler. The G-CDM may facilitate analyses of interoperating clinical and genomic datasets across multiple institutions, minimizing privacy issues and enabling researchers to better understand the characteristics of patients and promote personalized medicine in clinical practice.

2017 ◽  
pp. 1-11 ◽  
S. Peter Wu ◽  
Benjamin T. Cooper ◽  
Fang Bu ◽  
Christopher J. Bowman ◽  
J. Keith Killian ◽  

Purpose Pediatric sarcomas provide a unique diagnostic challenge. There is considerable morphologic overlap between entities, increasing the importance of molecular studies in the diagnosis, treatment, and identification of therapeutic targets. We developed and validated a genome-wide DNA methylation–based classifier to differentiate between osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and synovial sarcoma. Methods DNA methylation status of 482,421 CpG sites in 10 Ewing sarcoma, 11 synovial sarcoma, and 15 osteosarcoma samples were determined using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. We developed a random forest classifier trained from the 400 most differentially methylated CpG sites within the training set of 36 sarcoma samples. This classifier was validated on data drawn from The Cancer Genome Atlas synovial sarcoma, TARGET-Osteosarcoma, and a recently published series of Ewing sarcoma. Results Methylation profiling revealed three distinct patterns, each enriched with a single sarcoma subtype. Within the validation cohorts, all samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas were accurately classified as synovial sarcoma (10 of 10; sensitivity and specificity, 100%), all but one sample from TARGET-Osteosarcoma were classified as osteosarcoma (85 of 86; sensitivity, 98%; specificity, 100%), and 14 of 15 Ewing sarcoma samples were classified correctly (sensitivity, 93%; specificity, 100%). The single misclassified osteosarcoma sample demonstrated high EWSR1 and ETV1 expression on RNA sequencing, although no fusion was found on manual curation of the transcript sequence. Two additional clinical samples that were difficult to classify by morphology and molecular methods were classified as osteosarcoma; one had been suspected of being a synovial sarcoma and the other of being Ewing sarcoma on initial diagnosis. Conclusion Osteosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma have distinct epigenetic profiles. Our validated methylation-based classifier can be used to provide diagnostic assistance when histologic and standard techniques are inconclusive.

2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yin Li ◽  
Di Ge ◽  
Chunlai Lu

Abstract Background Data mining of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data has significantly facilitated cancer genome research and provided unprecedented opportunities for cancer researchers. However, existing web applications for DNA methylation analysis does not adequately address the need of experimental biologists, and many additional functions are often required. Results To facilitate DNA methylation analysis, we present the SMART (Shiny Methylation Analysis Resource Tool) App, a user-friendly and easy-to-use web application for comprehensively analyzing the DNA methylation data of TCGA project. The SMART App integrates multi-omics and clinical data with DNA methylation and provides key interactive and customized functions including CpG visualization, pan-cancer methylation profile, differential methylation analysis, correlation analysis and survival analysis for users to analyze the DNA methylation in diverse cancer types in a multi-dimensional manner. Conclusion The SMART App serves as a new approach for users, especially wet-bench scientists with no programming background, to analyze the scientific big data and facilitate data mining. The SMART App is available at

2014 ◽  
Vol 36 (4) ◽  
pp. E23 ◽  
David D. Gonda ◽  
Vincent J. Cheung ◽  
Karra A. Muller ◽  
Amit Goyal ◽  
Bob S. Carter ◽  

Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs.

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