clinical characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 143 ◽  
pp. 50-57
Rathimalar Ayakannu ◽  
Nor Azizan Abdullah ◽  
Vijaya Lechimi Raj ◽  
Ammu K. Radhakrishnan ◽  
Chong Kin Liam

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 100334
Fleurette M. Domai ◽  
Kristal An Agrupis ◽  
Su Myat Han ◽  
Ana Ria Sayo ◽  
Janine S. Ramirez ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 140-150
Hong-Wei Sheng ◽  
Hong-Gang Wang ◽  
Chun-Zhi Wang ◽  
Jiang Wu ◽  
Li-Jian Huo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Christine Wu Nordahl ◽  
Derek Sayre Andrews ◽  
Patrick Dwyer ◽  
Einat Waizbard-Bartov ◽  
Bibiana Restrepo ◽  

One of the most universally accepted facts about autism is that it is heterogenous. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have a wide range of behavioral presentations and a variety of co-occurring medical and mental health conditions. The identification of more homogenous subgroups is likely to lead to a better understanding of etiologies as well as more targeted interventions and treatments. In 2006, we initiated the UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project (APP) with the overarching goal of identifying clinically meaningful subtypes of autism. This ongoing longitudinal multidisciplinary study now includes over 400 children and involves comprehensive medical, behavioral, and neuroimaging assessments from early childhood through adolescence (2–19 years of age). We have employed several strategies to identify sub-populations within autistic individuals: subgrouping by neural, biological, behavioral or clinical characteristics as well as by developmental trajectories. In this Mini Review, we summarize findings to date from the APP cohort and describe progress made toward identifying meaningful subgroups of autism.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Assaf Gottlieb ◽  
Christine Bakos-Block ◽  
James R. Langabeer ◽  
Tiffany Champagne-Langabeer

Background: The Houston Emergency Opioid Engagement System was established to create an access pathway into long-term recovery for individuals with opioid use disorder. The program determines effectiveness across multiple dimensions, one of which is by measuring the participant’s reported quality of life (QoL) at the beginning of the program and at successive intervals. Methods: A visual analog scale was used to measure the change in QoL among participants after joining the program. We then identified sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with changes in QoL. Results: 71% of the participants (n = 494) experienced an increase in their QoL scores, with an average improvement of 15.8 ± 29 points out of a hundred. We identified 10 factors associated with a significant change in QoL. Participants who relapsed during treatment experienced minor increases in QoL, and participants who attended professional counseling experienced the largest increases in QoL compared with those who did not. Conclusions: Insight into significant factors associated with increases in QoL may inform programs on areas of focus. The inclusion of counseling and other services that address factors such as psychological distress were found to increase participants’ QoL and success in recovery.

2022 ◽  
Zhi Yu ◽  
Shannon Wongvibulsin ◽  
Natalie R Daya ◽  
Linda Zhou ◽  
Kunihiro Matsushita ◽  

Introduction Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating consequence often without antecedent expectation. Current risk stratification methods derived from baseline independently modeled risk factors are insufficient. Novel random forest machine learning (ML) approach incorporating time-dependent variables and complex interactions may improve SCD risk prediction. Methods Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants were followed for adjudicated SCD. ML models were compared to standard Poisson regression models for interval data, an approximation to Cox regression, with stepwise variable selection. Eighty-two time-varying variables (demographics, lifestyle factors, clinical characteristics, biomarkers, etc.) collected at four visits over 12 years (1987-98) were used as candidate predictors. Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) through out-of-bag prediction for ML models and 5-fold cross validation for the Poisson regression models. Results Over a median follow-up time of 23.5 years, 583 SCD events occurred among 15,661 ARIC participants (mean age 54 years and 55% women). Compared to different Poisson regression models (AUC at 6-year ranges from 0.77-0.83), the ML model improved prediction (AUC at 6-year 0.89). Top predictors identified by ML model included prior coronary heart disease (CHD), which explained 47.9% of the total phenotypic variance, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and T wave abnormality in any of leads I, aVL, or V6. Using the top ML predictors to select variables, the Poisson regression model AUC at 6-year was 0.77 suggesting that the non-linear dependencies and interactions captured by ML, are the main reasons for its improved prediction performance. Conclusions Applying novel ML approach with time-varying predictors improves the prediction of SCD. Interactions of dynamic clinical characteristics are important for risk-stratifying SCD in the general population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Sok-Sithikun Bun ◽  
Florian Asarisi ◽  
Nathan Heme ◽  
Fabien Squara ◽  
Didier Scarlatti ◽  

Background: In patients with complete atrioventricular block (AVB), the prevalence and clinical characteristics of patients with pause-dependent AVB (PD-AVB) is not known. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of PD-AVB in a population of patients with complete (or high-grade) AVB. Methods: Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and/or telemonitoring from patients admitted (from September 2020 to November 2021) for complete (or high-degree) AVB were prospectively collected at the University Hospital of Nice. The ECG tracings were analyzed by an electrophysiologist to determine the underlying mechanism of PD-AVB. Results: 100 patients were admitted for complete (or high-grade) AVB (men 55%; 82 ± 12 years). Arterial hypertension was present in 68% of the patients. Baseline QRS width was 117 ± 32 ms, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 56 ± 7%. Fourteen patients (14%) with PD-AVB were identified, and presented similar clinical characteristics in comparison with patients without PD-AVB, except for syncope (which was present in 86% versus 51% in the non-PD-AVB patients, p = 0.01). PD-AVB sequence was induced by: Premature atrial contraction (8/14), premature ventricular contraction (5/14), His extrasystole (1/14), conduction block in a branch (1/14), and atrial tachycardia termination (1/14). All patients with PD-AVB received a dual-chamber pacemaker during hospitalization. Conclusion: The prevalence of PD-AVB was 14%, and may be underestimated. PD-AVB episodes were more likely associated with syncope in comparison with patients without PD-AVB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 439
Giuseppe De Matteis ◽  
Marcello Covino ◽  
Maria Livia Burzo ◽  
Davide Antonio Della Polla ◽  
Francesco Franceschi ◽  

Acute Heart Failure (AHF)-related hospitalizations and mortality are still high in western countries, especially among older patients. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality of older patients hospitalized with AHF. We conducted a retrospective study including all consecutive patients ≥65 years who were admitted for AHF at a single academic medical center between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality. We also analyzed deaths due to cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV causes and compared early in-hospital events. The study included 6930 patients, mean age 81 years, 51% females. The overall mortality rate was 13%. Patients ≥85 years had higher mortality and early death rate than younger patients. Infections were the most common condition precipitating AHF in our cohort, and pneumonia was the most frequent of these. About half of all hospital deaths were due to non-CV causes. After adjusting for confounding factors other than NYHA class at admission, infections were associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of mortality, HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.10–2.71 in patients 65–74 years (p = 0.014); HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.34–2.49 in patients 75–84 years (p = 0.001); HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.24–2.19 in patients ≥85 years (p = 0.001). In conclusion, among older patients with AHF, in-hospital mortality rates increased with increasing age, and infections were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. In contemporary patients with AHF, along with the treatment of the CV conditions, management should be focused on timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of non-CV factors, especially pulmonary infections.

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