Amino Acid Derivatives
Recently Published Documents
Construction of Racemic (DL) and Enantiopure (D and L) Biaryl Unnatural Amino Acid Derivatives via The Pd(II)‐Catalyzed Arylation of Unactivated sp3 C‐H Bonds
Synthesis of New Lansiumamide A/Alatamide (cis‐Isomer) Based Unnatural α‐Amino Acid Derivatives via the Suzuki‐Miyaura Cross Coupling as Key Step
Development of a Derivatization Reagent with a 2-Nitrophenylsulfonyl Moiety for UHPLC-HRMS/MS and Its Application to Detect Amino Acids Including Taurine
Taurine (Tau) has some important ameliorating effects on human health and is present in bivalve. For the selective analysis of Tau with other amino acids, we designed a derivatization reagent, 2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl(4-(((2-nitrophenyl)sulfonyl)oxy)-6-(3-oxomorpholino)quinoline-2-carbonyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate (Ns-MOK-β-Pro-OSu). After derivatization with Ns-MOK-β-Pro-OSu, amino acids with Tau in Japanese littleneck clams were determined through ultra-high-performance-liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) using an octadecyl silica column. We could detect 18 amino acids within 10 min. Tau, valine, glutamine, glutamic acid, and arginine in the clams were determined in the negative ion mode using the characteristic fragment ion, C6H4N1O5S, which corresponded to the 2-nitrobenzenesulfonylate moiety. The fragment ion, C6H4N1O5S, was recognized as a common feature regardless of the amino acid to be derivatized, and it was convenient for detecting amino acid derivatives with high selectivity and sensitivity. Therefore, highly selective quantification using UHPLC-HRMS/MS was possible using Ns-MOK-β-Pro-OSu.
Abstract Fungal secondary metabolites (FSMs) represent a remarkable array of bioactive compounds, with potential applications as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, these molecules are typically produced only in limited amounts by their native hosts. The native organisms may also be difficult to cultivate and genetically engineer, and some can produce undesirable toxic side-products. Alternatively, recombinant production of fungal bioactives can be engineered into industrial cell factories, such as aspergilli or yeasts, which are well amenable for large-scale manufacturing in submerged fermentations. In this review, we summarize the development of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce compounds derived from filamentous fungi and mushrooms. These compounds mainly include polyketides, terpenoids, and amino acid derivatives. We also describe how native biosynthetic pathways can be combined or expanded to produce novel derivatives and new-to-nature compounds. We describe some new approaches for cell factory engineering, such as genome-scale engineering, biosensor-based high-throughput screening, and machine learning, and how these tools have been applied for S. cerevisiae strain improvement. Finally, we prospect the challenges and solutions in further development of yeast cell factories to more efficiently produce FSMs.
Profiling of Plant Growth-Promoting Metabolites by Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Maize Rhizosphere
Microbial treatment has recently been attracting attention as a sustainable agricultural strategy addressing the current problems caused by unreasonable agricultural practices. However, the mechanism through which microbial inoculants promote plant growth is not well understood. In this study, two phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were screened, and their growth-promoting abilities were explored. At day 7 (D7), the lengths of the root and sprout with three microbial treatments, M16, M44, and the combination of M16 and M44 (Com), were significantly greater than those with the non-microbial control, with mean values of 9.08 and 4.73, 7.15 and 4.83, and 13.98 and 5.68 cm, respectively. At day 14 (D14), M16, M44, and Com significantly increased not only the length of the root and sprout but also the underground and aboveground biomass. Differential metabolites were identified, and various amino acids, amino acid derivatives, and other plant growth-regulating molecules were significantly enhanced by the three microbial treatments. The profiling of key metabolites associated with plant growth in different microbial treatments showed consistent results with their performances in the germination experiment, which revealed the metabolic mechanism of plant growth-promoting processes mediated by screened PSB. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of PSB in sustainable agriculture.
: In recent years, with the development of nuclear medicine imaging technology, radionuclide-labeled tumor imaging agents have shown unique advantages in the early diagnosis of tumors. Due to the relatively low cost of SPECT in the clinic with the convenient preparation and suitable properties of 99mTc, 99mTc-labeled tumor metabolic imaging agents prepared based on principles of tumor metabolism have attracted considerable attention. This article briefly introduces the progress in the research of 99mTc-labeled glucose derivatives, amino acid derivatives, nucleotide derivatives and other tumor metabolic imaging agents and proposes the prospects for the development of 99mTc-labeled tumor metabolic imaging agents.