Abstract Ninety days study was conducted in hapas installed in earthen ponds. Fish of an average initial weight (220g) were evenly distributed in triplicate groups within fifteen hapas. Five experimental diets labeled as T1 (25% CP and NRC recommended amino acid level) as control diet, T2 (with 2% low protein and 5% amino acid supplementation), T3 (with 2% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation), T4 (with 4% low protein and 10% amino acid supplementation) and T5 (with 4% low protein and 20% amino acid supplementation) were prepared. Fish were fed with @3% of their body weight twice a day at 10.00 & 16:00 hour. Significantly higher percent weight gain (420.18 ± 66.84a) and specific growth rate (13499.33±1273.54a) along with improved feed conversion ratio (1.29 ± 0.09b) and hundred percent survivals were recorded during the trial. Furthermore proximate analysis of meat showed significant improvement in the crude protein level (81.77 ± 0.19a) served with diet containing 20% limiting amino acids mixture. Therefore, limiting amino acids can be a source of cost effective feed and use safely in L. rohita diet.
Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.
Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.
Dietary supplementation with aromatic amino acids (AAAs) has been demonstrated to alleviate intestinal inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the piglets. But the mechanism of AAA sensing and utilization under inflammatory conditions is not well-understood. The study was conducted with 32 weanling piglets using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and LPS challenge) in a randomized complete block design. Piglets were fed as basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 0.16% tryptophan (Trp), 0.41% phenylalanine (Phe), and 0.22% tyrosine (Tyr) for 21 days. The results showed that LPS treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) and total protein but increased leptin concentration, the activities of alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Dietary supplementation with AAAs significantly increased the serum concentrations of CCK, peptide YY (PYY), and total protein but decreased the blood urea nitrogen. LPS challenge reduced the ileal threonine (Thr) digestibility, as well as serum isoleucine (Ile) and Trp concentrations, but increased the serum concentrations of Phe, Thr, histidine (His), alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and serine (Ser) (P < 0.05). The serum-free amino acid concentrations of His, lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), Trp, Tyr, Cys, and the digestibilities of His, Lys, Arg, and Cys were significantly increased by feeding AAA diets (P < 0.05). Dietary AAA supplementation significantly increased the serum concentrations of Trp in LPS-challenged piglets (P < 0.05). In the jejunal mucosa, LPS increased the contents of Ala and Cys, and the mRNA expressions of solute carrier (SLC) transporters (i.e., SLC7A11, SLC16A10, SLC38A2, and SLC3A2), but decreased Lys and glutamine (Gln) contents, and SLC1A1 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). In the ileal mucosa, LPS challenge induced increasing in SLC7A11 and SLC38A2 and decreasing in SLC38A9 and SLC36A1 mRNA expressions, AAAs supplementation significantly decreased mucosal amino acid (AA) concentrations of methionine (Met), Arg, Ala, and Tyr, etc. (P < 0.05). And the interaction between AAAs supplementation and LPS challenge significantly altered the expressions of SLC36A1 and SLC38A9 mRNA (P < 0.05). Together, these findings indicated that AAAs supplementation promoted the AAs absorption and utilization in the small intestine of piglets and increased the mRNA expressions of SLC transports to meet the high demands for specific AAs in response to inflammation and immune response.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of centrally administered taurine on rectal temperature, behavioral responses and brain amino acid metabolism under isolation stress and the presence of co-injected corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Neonatal chicks were centrally injected with saline, 2.1 pmol of CRF, 2.5 μmol of taurine or both taurine and CRF. The results showed that CRF-induced hyperthermia was attenuated by co-injection with taurine. Taurine, alone or with CRF, significantly decreased the number of distress vocalizations and the time spent in active wakefulness, as well as increased the time spent in the sleeping posture, compared with the saline- and CRF-injected chicks. An amino acid chromatographic analysis revealed that diencephalic leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, glutamate, asparagine, alanine, β-alanine, cystathionine and 3-methylhistidine were decreased in response to taurine alone or in combination with CRF. Central taurine, alone and when co-administered with CRF, decreased isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and cysteine, but increased glycine concentrations in the brainstem, compared with saline and CRF groups. The results collectively indicate that central taurine attenuated CRF-induced hyperthermia and stress behaviors in neonatal chicks, and the mechanism likely involves the repartitioning of amino acids to different metabolic pathways. In particular, brain leucine, isoleucine, cysteine, glutamate and glycine may be mobilized to cope with acute stressors.
Fractionation is a potential way to valorize under-utilized fishes, but the quality of the resulting fractions is crucial in terms of their applicability. The aim of this work was to study the quality of protein isolates and hydrolysates extracted from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) using either pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis. The amino acid composition of protein isolates and hydrolysates mostly complied with the nutritional requirements for adults, but protein isolates produced using pH shift showed higher essential to non-essential amino acid ratios compared with enzymatically produced hydrolysates, 0.84–0.85 vs. 0.65–0.70, respectively. Enzymatically produced protein hydrolysates had a lower total lipid content, lower proportion of phospholipids, and exhibited lower degrees of protein and lipid oxidation compared with pH-shift-produced isolates. These findings suggest enzymatic hydrolysis to be more promising from a lipid oxidation perspective while the pH-shift method ranked higher from a nutrient perspective. However, due to the different applications of protein isolates and hydrolysates produced using pH shift or enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, the further optimization of both studied methods is recommended.