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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-14
Author(s):  
Raveendran K.P. Hanima ◽  
Tharakadu K. Viswanath ◽  
Puthuvayi Girish Kumar ◽  
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◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. E. S. Lima ◽  
R. G. Duarte ◽  
G. M. C. Lacerda ◽  
W. O. Almeida ◽  
S. C. Ribeiro

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. C. Maciel ◽  
M. R. Costa ◽  
E. A. Ferreira ◽  
I. T. Oliveira ◽  
B. T. B. Alencar ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 883-888
Author(s):  
Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho ◽  
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Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira ◽  
Max Bruno Magno Bacalhao ◽  
Monica Tiemi Aline Kakimori ◽  
...  

Parasitic infections are important concern to the Wildlife Conservation Biology, particularly in endangered species. Herein, we report a parasitism by Dipetalonema gracile Rudolphi, 1809 (Spirurida, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae), in the peritoneal cavity of a captive Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey (Sapajus flavius) that died at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) in the municipality of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The necropsy revealed two filarial worms D. gracile in the abdominal cavity. Exudates, thin fibrin layers and fibrous adhesions were also present in the mesentery and spleen capsule. The mesenteric, mandibular, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were enlarged. Multiple small nodules were seen in the spleen parenchyma. Microscopic examination of the lymph nodes and spleen revealed markedly and diffuse inflammatory reaction, with edema, plasma cells, eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes and rare multinuclear giant cells, with obliteration of the normal histological architecture of the organ. This is the first report of D. gracile parasitism in Marcgrave’s capuchin monkeys, a critically endangered species. Studies of this nature significantly contribute to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of endangered species, in addition to helping to formulate conservation strategies (in situ and ex situ) and records of new hosts and new areas of occurrence of parasites.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaosheng Zhao ◽  
Chaorong Meng ◽  
Xiang-Yu Zeng ◽  
Zaifu Yang ◽  
Xue-Jun Pan

Magnolia grandiflora is a widely cultivated ornamental tree in China. In June 2020, a leaf blight disease was observed on M. grandiflora in Guizhou University (26° 44' 57'' N, 106° 65' 94'' E) in Guiyang, China. The initial symptoms on leaves were expanding round necrotic lesions with a grey center and dark brown edge, and twigs were withered when the disease was serious. Of the 100 plants surveyed 65% had symptoms. To isolate the potential causal pathogen, diseased leaves were collected from an M. grandiflora tree at Guizhou University. Isolations from made form the junction between healthy and symptomatic tissue and disinfested by immersing in 75% ethanol for 30 seconds, 3% NaOCl for 2 minutes, and then washed 3 times in sterile distilled water. Symptomatic tissue was then plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25ºC with 12-hour light for 3–5 days. Three isolates (GUCC 21235.1, GUCC 21235.2 and GUCC 21235.3) were obtained. Colonies on PDA after 7 d were dark brown, pycnidia embedded in the mydelium were dark brown to black, single and separated. Conidiophores were transparent measuring 7–12.5 × 2.5–4.5 µm (mean = 9.5 × 3.6 µm, n = 30) in length. Conidia were transparent becoming brown when mature with a diaphragm, with round ends measuring, 21–27 × 10–15 µm (mean = 23.6 × 12.6 µm, n = 30). To confirm the pathogen by molecular characterization, four genes or DNA fragments, ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin, were amplified using the following primer pairs: ITS4-F/ ITS5-R (White et al., 1990), LR0R/ LR5 (Rehner & Samuels, 1994), EF1-688F/ EF1-986R (Carbone & Kohn, 1999) and Bt2a/ Bt2b (O'Donnell & Cigelnik, 1997). The sequences of four PCR fragments of GUCC 21235.1 were deposited in GenBank, and the accession numbers were MZ519778 (ITS), MZ520367 (LSU), MZ508428 (tef1) and MZ542354 (β-tubulin). Bayesian inference was performed based on a concatenated dataset of ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin gene using MrBayes 3.2.10, and the isolates GUCC 21235.1 formed a single clade with the reference isolates of Diplodia mutila (Diplodia mutila strain CBS 112553). BLASTn analysis indicated that the sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin revealed 100% (546/546 nucleotides), 99.82% (568/569 nucleotides), 100% (302/302 nucleotides), and 100% (437/437 nucleotides) similarity with that of D. mutila in GenBank (AY259093, AY928049, AY573219 and DQ458850), respectively. For confirmation of the pathogenicity of this fungus, a conidial suspension (1×105 conidia mL-1) was prepared from GUCC 21235.1, and healthy leaves of M. grandiflora trees were surface-disinfested by 75% ethanol, rinsed with sterilized distilled water and dried by absorbent paper. Small pieces of filter paper (5 mm ×5 mm), dipped with 20 µL conidial suspension (1×105 conidia mL-1) or sterilized distilled water (as control), were placed on the bottom-left of the leaves for inoculation. Then the leaves were sprayed with sterile distilled water, wrapped with a plastic film and tin foil successively to maintain high humidity in the dark dark. After 36 h, the plastic film and tin foil on the leaves was removed, and the leaves were sprayed with distilled water three times each day at natural condition (average temperature was about 25 °C, 14 h light/10 h dark). After 10 days of inoculation, the same leaf blight began to appear on the leaves inoculated with conidial suspension. No lesion was appeared on the control leaves. The fungus was re-isolated from the symptomatic tissue. Based on the morphological information and molecular characterization, the isolate GUCC 21235.1 is D. mutila. Previous reports indicated that D. mutila infects a broad host range and gives rise to a canker disease of olive, apple and jujube (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2013; Úrbez-Torres et al., 2016; Feng et al., 2019). This is the first report of leaf blight on M. grandiflora caused by D. mutila in China.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Susu Fan ◽  
Fangyuan Zhou ◽  
Xueying Xie ◽  
Xinjian Zhang ◽  
Tielin Wang

Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which belongs to the family of Dioscorea, is widely naturalized throughout China, due to its high economic and medicinal value. Since 2019, water-soaked lesions were frequently observed in the underground tubers of Chinese yam located in Xinyang City, Henan Province. To identify the causal agent, ten pieces of tissue from the underground tubers with disease symptoms were collected. Those infected tissues (5×5 mm) were crushed in 500 μL sterilized water after surface sterilization and streaked onto Luria-Bertani agar plates. Pale-yellowish, rod-shaped, slimy single bacterial colonies with smooth margin were observed after 24 hours of incubation, and three bacterial colonies (named CY-1, CY-2 and CY-3) were randomly selected for further biochemical and molecular characterization. These bacteria were gram-negative with the cell length of 1.0 to 3.0 μm, width of 0.5 to 1.0 μm, and with peritrichous flagella. Subsequently, the bacteria were biochemically analyzed through BIOLOG (Hayward, CA) and identified as Pantoea agglomerans with 99% probability. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis results based on 16S rDNA, DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), and RNA polymerase sigma factor (rpoD) showed these three isolates were most closely related to P. agglomerans. The sequence of 16S rDNA, gyrB and rpoD of each strain was submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers MZ541065 MZ541066 and MZ541067 for 16S rDNA; MZ669846, MZ669847 and MZ669848 for gyrB; MZ669849, MZ669850 and MZ669851 for ropD. Pathogenicity test was performed to complete Koch’s postulates. Tubers of Chinese yam were wounded by sterile needle and inoculated with 500 μL 108 CFU/mL bacterial suspension. Sterilized water was used as a control. Five pots were inoculated for each isolate. Water-soaked lesions appeared after five days incubation at 25°C in a biochemical incubator and no lesions were observed on the control. Bacteria re-isolated from the lesions were similar in phenotypic and molecular characteristics to the original isolates. In brief, based on colony morphology, biochemical tests, characteristic sequence analysis, and pathogenicity verification, the pathogen responsible for the soft rot of Chinese yam in Henan Province was identified as P. agglomerans. In China, P. agglomerans has been reported to associate with bacterial soft rot on Chinese cabbage (Guo et al., 2020). To our knowledge, this work is the first report of bacterial rot caused by P. agglomerans on Chinese yam.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Garibaldi ◽  
D. Bertetti ◽  
G. Tabone ◽  
I. Luongo ◽  
M. L. Gullino
Keyword(s):  
Root Rot ◽  

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinhui Wang ◽  
Yuxiang Lu ◽  
Wanxin Han ◽  
Lijun Fu ◽  
Xiaoqing Han ◽  
...  

In August 2020, ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes (cv. Mianjiang) showing soft rot symptoms were observed in a field in Tayang Village, Fengrun District, Tangshan, Hebei Province (North China). The disease incidence in that field (15 ha in size) was more than 20%. Symptomatic rhizomes (brown and water-soaked) were surface-sterilized in 75% ethanol for 60 sec and then three successive rinses with sterile distilled water. Rhizomes were cut into pieces ca. 0.5 cm in length, and then were soaked in 500 µl 0.9% saline for 20 min. Aliquots (20 μl) of three tenfold dilutions of the tissue specimen soaking solution were plated onto the lysogeny broth (LB) medium. And LB plates were incubated at 28°C for 24 h. Five single colonies were picked from each LB plate and restreaked three times for purity. Endophytic bacteria were also isolated from asymptomatic rhizomes as control. The bacterial gDNA was extracted using the EasyPure Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit (TransGen Biotech, Beijing, China). The 16S rDNA region was amplified by PCR using the universal primer pair 27F/1492R (Weisburg et al. 1991) and sequenced. The results of BLASTN against NCBI nr of the 16S rDNA amplicons suggested that the most isolates (8/10) obtained from the rotten rhizomes belonged to the genus Pectobacterium, and few isolates (2/10) were Enterobacter spp.. Only Enterobacter spp. were isolated from asymptomatic rhizomes. Since all Pectobacterium isolates showed identical 16S rDNA sequence, thus, only two isolates were selected for further analysis. Pectobacterium isolates TS20HJ1 and TS20HJ2 (MZ853520, MZ853521) represent isolates from two plant individuals. To determine the species of the rhizome rot Pectobacterium isolates, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed with five housekeeping genes acnA, icdA, mdh, proA and rpoS (MZ994717-MZ994726) (Ma et al. 2007; Waleron et al. 2008), and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using RAxML v8.2.12 (github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML). No sequence variation was observed at any MLSA locus between the two isolates. The result of phylogenetic analysis showed that the ginger rhizome isolates clustered with P. brasiliense type strain IBSBF1692T (Duarte et al. 2004; Nabhan et al. 2012). Ginger seedlings (cv. Mianjiang) were inoculated with the isolate TS20HJ1 by injecting 10 µl of bacterial suspensions (108 CFU·mL-1) into the rhizomes, or injected with 10 µl of 0.9% saline solution as control. The seedlings were grown at 28°C and 50% relative humidity. Ten days after inoculation, only the bacteria-inoculated rhizomes showed diseased symptoms resembling to those observed in the field. Bacterial colonies were obtained from the infected rhizomes and were identified with MLSA gene sequencing, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. P. brasiliense causes soft rot of a wide range of economically important crops (Oulghazi et al. 2021). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. brasiliense causing rhizome rot of ginger in China. The rhizome rot caused 20-25% yield loss on average in Tangshan region in 2020, which poses a significant threat to the local ginger farming. Further research on epidemiology and disease management options is needed.


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