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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 187-192
Se Won Oh ◽  
Seung Yun Jee ◽  
Seong Oh Park

A pseudotumor is a benign granulomatous or cystic lesion associated with the deposition of metal debris in joint arthroplasties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a pseudotumor caused by the breakage of the Dall-Miles cable grip system, a multifilament cable used to fix the trochanteric osteotomy in revision total hip arthroplasty. This rare case demonstrates that pseudotumor formation can be caused by various types of orthopedic materials and implant components. When encountering a palpable mass around an orthopedic implant, a pseudotumor should be considered along other differential diagnoses. To treat pseudotumors and also prevent recurrence, its complete resection and sufficient removal of orthopedic materials are necessary.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Yuxin Zhou ◽  
Min Yin ◽  
Fei Liu

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is an important cool-season perennial turfgrass that has been widely used on golf courses across China. In July 2017, an unknown disease outbreak caused damages on seven of the 18 putting greens of creeping bentgrass at Jiuqiao golf club in Hangzhou city of Zhejiang province, day-time high temperatures were consistently above 35°C during the disease development. Symptoms appeared in tan irregular patches of 5 to 20-cm diameter, exhibiting chlorosis and foliar dieback in most part. Necrotic roots were frequently observed in diseased areas and colonized with ectotrophic hyphae under a microscope. Similar symptoms and signs were reported on creeping bentgrass caused by Magnaporthiopsis poae (Landschoot & Jackson) J. Luo & N. Zhang on golf courses in Beijing (Hu et al. 2017). Fifteen disease samples were collected from seven putting greens. Dark root tips were cut, surface sterilized in 0.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 5 min, washed twice with sterilized water, air dried for 1 min and placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing each of 50 mg L-1 ampicillin, streptomycin sulfate, and tetracycline. Plates were incubated in the dark at room temperature for 4 days, and 10 fungal isolates with similar morphology as described by Clarke and Gould (1993) were consistently recovered from the diseased root tips. DNA of two representative isolates was extracted and amplified with primers ITS 5/ITS 4 (White et al. 1990). PCR products were sequenced (deposited in GenBank as MZ895215 and MZ895216), and BLAST analysis showed 99.17% similarity to M. poae (accession number: DQ528765). Six plastic pots (15 cm height × 15 cm top diameter × 10 cm bottom diameter, three replicates for each isolate) were seeded with creeping bentgrass and placed in the greenhouse for two months of plant growth before inoculation. The pathogenic inoculum was prepared by inoculating autoclaved oat seeds with M. poae isolates, followed by two weeks of incubation at 25°C. About 25 mg M. poae-infested oat seeds were placed 10 cm below the soil surface in the root zone of creeping bentgrass. Non-infested oat seeds were inoculated on healthy creeping bentgrass as controls. Pots were placed in a growth chamber with a 12-h day/night cycle at 35/28°C and watered daily to keep high soil moisture. Disease symptoms (foliar dieback and necrotic roots) were noted 3 weeks after inoculation. M. poae was consistently recovered from the roots of inoculated turf and identified molecularly as described above, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of summer patch on creeping bentgrass caused by M. poae in southeastern China. This research demonstrates a wider distribution of M. poae and will be an important step towards the development of management strategies for summer patch control in China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Sven de Mey ◽  
Inès Dufait ◽  
Mark De Ridder

Although radiotherapy is given to more than 50% of cancer patients, little progress has been made in identifying optimal radiotherapy - drug combinations to improve treatment efficacy. Using molecular data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we extracted a total of 1016 cancer patients that received radiotherapy. The patients were diagnosed with head-and-neck (HNSC - 294 patients), cervical (CESC - 166 patients) and breast (BRCA - 549 patients) cancer. We analyzed mRNA expression patterns of 50 hallmark gene sets of the MSigDB collection, which we divided in eight categories based on a shared biological or functional process. Tumor samples were split into upregulated, neutral or downregulated mRNA expression for all gene sets using a gene set analysis (GSEA) pre-ranked analysis and assessed for their clinical relevance. We found a prognostic association between three of the eight gene set categories (Radiobiological, Metabolism and Proliferation) and overall survival in all three cancer types. Furthermore, multiple single associations were revealed in the other categories considered. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report suggesting clinical relevance of molecular characterization based on hallmark gene sets to refine radiation strategies.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026988112110505
Tian Lan ◽  
Ya-Qing Ma ◽  
Ya-Min Dang ◽  
Chen-Chen Wang ◽  
Ren-Ai Xu ◽  

Background: CYP2C19 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme superfamily. We recently identified 31CYP2C19 alleles in the Han Chinese population; studying the effects of CYP2C19 on drug metabolism can help reduce adverse drug reactions and therapeutic failure. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the catalytic activities of 31 allelic isoforms and their effects on the metabolism of clomipramine in vitro. Methods: The wild-type and 30 CYP2C19 variants were expressed in insect cells, and each variant was characterized using clomipramine as the substrate. Reactions were performed at 37°C with 5–150 μmol/L substrate for 30 min. By using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect the products, the kinetic parameters Km, Vmax, and intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) of N-desmethyl clomipramine were determined. Results: Among the CYP2C19 variants tested, CYP2C19*29, L16F, and T130M showed extremely increased intrinsic clearance of clomipramine, CYP2C19*3C, and N277K showed similar intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values with CYP2C19*1, while the intrinsic clearance values of other variants were significantly decreased (from 0.65% to 63.28%). In addition, CYP2C19*3 and 35FS could not be detected because they have no detectable enzyme activity. Conclusions: As the first report of 31 CYP2C19 alleles for clomipramine metabolism, our study could provide corresponding reference for clomipramine for further studies in vivo and offer valuable information relevant to the personalized medicine for CYP2C19-metabolized drug.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Virág Varjas ◽  
Sámuel László Szilágyi ◽  
Tamás Lakatos

Almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] D. A. Webb) is cultivated in commercial orchards in southwestern Hungary while numerous backyard orchards predominate in Buda Hills and central Hungary. In July 2019, anthracnose symptoms and necrotic twigs were observed across almond genotypes in a meadow orchard of Óbuda and in the genebank collection of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Fruits of some genotypes were damaged 100%, whereas others to a lesser degree or asymptomatic. Orange slightly sunken lesions on fruits produced gum. Near the diseased fruits the young shoots shriveled, the stalks became necrotized, on twigs necrosis developed. Isolates obtained from orange conidial masses from epicarp, necrotized tissues from twigs, and stalks were grown on PDA for 7 days at 25 ֯C in the dark. Upper surfaces of the colonies were white to pale gray, black solid mycelial structures were formed, the reverse side varied white to salmon. Acervuli were not formed, but conidia were produced from hyphae. Conidia were unicellular, hyaline, smooth-walled, cylindrical, predominant with both end rounded, or one end acute. Morphometric measurements of conidia showed mean length ± SD × width ± SD = 18.0 ± 2.2 × 4.7 ± 0.6 μm (n = 100). The isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (Damm et al. 2012). Sexual morph was not observed. Three monosporic isolates were used for molecular identification. Partial nucleotide sequences were amplified from three loci, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (TUB2) and calmodulin (CAL) after White et al. (1990); Glass and Donaldson (1995) and Weir et al. (2012), respectively. The ITS sequences (GenBank accessions MW425388 to MW425390) of the three isolates revealed that they belong to the C. acutatum species complex while BLAST results showed that TUB2 sequences (GenBank accessions MW428285 to MW428287) had 99.3% identity with C. nymphaeae strain CBS515.78, whereas the CAL sequences (GenBank accessions MW428288 to MW428290) had 100% with C. nymphaeae strain FREC138. The phylogenetic tree containing all the valid species of C. acutatum species complex confirmed that the isolates clustered to C. nymphaeae with high bootstrap support. The fungus was identified as Colletotrichum nymphaeae (Pass) Aa based on morphometric and molecular biological evidence. In vivo pathogenicity tests were conducted on ten healthy fruits, and ten twigs by inserting mycelial agar plugs (5 mm in diameter) onto wounded pericarp and phloem tissues, which were then wrapped in wet cotton and Parafilm®. The control treatments received sterile PDA discs. After 15 days, necrotic lesions 12 to 19 mm in diameter developed on fruit, 9 to 18 mm on twig. Control fruits, and twigs were asymptomatic. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled with the reisolation of the pathogen from symptomatic tissues. The ITS, ACT and CAL sequences of the reisolated Colletotrichum were determined and found identical to the original isolates. Anthracnose symptoms are known on almond fruits in several almond growing regions all over the word caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, C. godetiae, C. fioriniae, C. simmondsii, and C. gloeosporioides (Adaskaveg et al. 1997; López-Moral et al. 2000; de Silva et al. 2021; Shabi et al. 1983;). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Colletotrichum nymphaeae causing anthracnose of almond globally.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Yishuo Huang ◽  
Yanxia Shi ◽  
Xuewen Xie ◽  

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) or Chinese parsley is a culinary herb with multiple medicinal effects that are widely used in cooking and traditional medicine. From September to November 2019, symptoms were observed in 2-month-old coriander plants from coriander fields in Lanzhou and Wenzhou, China. The disease developed rapidly under cold and wet climatic conditions, and the infection rate was almost 80% in open coriander fields. Typical symptoms on leaves included small, water-soaked blotches and irregular brown spots surrounding haloes; as the disease progressed, the spots coalesced into necrotic areas. Symptomatic leaf tissue was surface sterilized, macerated in sterile distilled water, and cultured on nutrient agar plates at 28 °C for 48 h (Koike and Bull, 2006). After incubation, six bacterial colonies, which were individually isolated from collected samples from two different areas, were selected for further study. Colonies on NA plate were small, round, raised, white to cream-colored, and had smooth margins. All bacterial isolates were gram-negative, rod-shaped and nonfluorescent on King's B medium. The bacteria were positive for levan production, Tween 80 hydrolysis, and tobacco hypersensitivity but negative for oxidase, potato slice rot test, arginine dihydrolase, ice nucleation activity, indole production and H2S production. The suspension of representative isolate for inoculating of plants was obtained from single colony on King's B medium for 2-3 days at 28 °C. DNA was extracted from bacterial suspensions of YS2003200102 cultured in 20 ml of King’s B medium broth at 28 °C for 1 day. Extraction was performed with a TIANamp Bacterial DNA Kit (TIANGEN, China) according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The pathogen was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A (gapA) gene, the citrate synthase (gltA) gene, the DNA gyrase B (gyrB) gene and the RNA polymerase sigma factor 70 (rpoD) gene using gapA-For/gapA-Rev, gltA-For/gltA-Rev, gyrB-For/gryB-Rev, rpoD-For/rpoD-Rev primers, respectively (Popović et al., 2019). The sequences of the PCR products were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MZ681931 (gapA), MZ681932 (gltA), MZ681933 (gyrB), and MZ681934 (rpoD). Phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes (Xu and Miller, 2013) was conducted with the maximum likelihood method using MEGA7. The sequences of our isolates and ten published sequences of P. syringae pv. coriandricola were clustered into one clade with a 100% confidence level. To confirm the pathogenicity of isolate YS2003200102, 2-month-old healthy coriander plants were inoculated by spraying the leaves with a bacterial suspension (108 CFU ml−1) at 28 °C incubation temperature and 70% relative humidity condition, and sterile distilled water was applied as a negative control treatment (Cazorla et al. 2005). Three replicates were conducted for every isolate, and each replicate included 6 coriander plants. After twelve days, only the inoculated leaves with bacterial suspension showed bacterial leaf spot resembling those observed on naturally infected coriander leaves. Cultures re-isolated from symptomatic leaves showed the same morphological characteristics and molecular traits as those initially isolated from infected leaves in the field. This bacterium was previously reported causing leaf spot of coriander in India and Spain (Gupta et al. 2013; Cazorla et al. 2005). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. syringae pv. coriandricola causing leaf spot disease on coriander in China. Studies are needed on strategies to manage P. syringae pv. coriandricola in crops, because its prevalence may cause yield loss on coriander in China.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Laikun Xia ◽  
Yanyong Cao ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Shengbo Han ◽  

Maize stalk rot has become one of the most important diseases in maize production in China. From 2017 to 2019, a survey was conducted to determine the population diversity of Fusarium species associated with maize diseases in 18 cities across Henan Province. Maize stalk rot with an incidence of more than 20% that caused yield losses up to 30% was observed on maize variety Zhengdan958, which was grown in two continuous maize fields in Zhumadian City, Henan Province. The stem tissues from the boundary between diseased and healthy pith were chopped into small pieces (3 × 8 mm), disinfected (70% ethanol for 1 min) and then placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with L-(+)-Lactic-acid (1 g/L) and incubated at 25°C for 4 days. Colonies on PDA produced fluffy, light yellow aerial mycelium and purple to deep brick red pigment at 25°C (Fig 1A, 1B). On carnation leaf agar (CLA), macroconidia in orange sporodochia formed abundantly, but microconidia were absent. Macroconidia were short and thick-walled, had 3 to 5 septa, a poorly developed foot cell and rounded apical cell (Fig 1C). These characteristics matched the description of Fusarium culmorum (Leslie and Summerell 2006) and isolates DMA268-1-2 and HNZMD-12-7 were selected for further identity confirmation. Species identification was confirmed by partial sequences of three phylogenic loci (EF1-α, RPB1, and RPB2) using the primer pairs EF1/EF2, CULR1F/CULR1R, and CULR2F/CULR2R, respectively (O'Donnell et al., 1998). The consensus sequences from the two isolates were deposited in GenBank (MZ265416 and MZ265417 for TEF, respectively; MZ265412 and MZ265414 for RPB1, respectively; MZ265413 and MZ265415 for RPB2). BLASTn searches indicated that the nucleotide sequences of the three loci of the two isolates revealed 99% to 100% similarity to those of F. culmorum strains deposited in the GenBank, Fusarium-ID, and MLST databases (Supplementary Table 1~3). Pathogenicity test was conducted at the flowering-stage using Zhengdan958 and Xundan20 plants according to previously described method (Zhang et al., 2016; Cao et al., 2021; Zhang et al., 2021). The second or third internodes of thirty flowering plants were drilled to make a wound approximately 8 mm in diameter using an electric drill. Approximately 0.5 mL inoculum (125 mL colonized PDA homogenized with 75 mL sterilized distilled water) was injected into the wound and sealed with Vaseline and Parafilm to maintain moisture and avoid contamination. Sterile PDA slurry was used as a control. Thirty days after inoculation, the dark-brown, soft rot of pith tissues above and below the injection sites were observed, and some plants were severely rotten and lodged (Fig 1D, 1E). These symptoms were similar to those observed in the field. No symptoms were observed on control plants. The same pathogen was re-isolated from the inoculated stalk lesions but not from the control, thereby fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. culmorum as the causal agent of stalk rot on maize plants in China. Also, this fungus has been reported to cause maize ear rot in China (Duan et al. 2016) and produce mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, nivalenol, and zearalenone that cause toxicosis in animals (Leslie and Summerell 2006). The occurrence of maize stalk rot and ear rot caused by F. culmorum should be monitored due to the potential risk for crop loss and mycotoxin contamination.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Masao Amano ◽  
Yudai Kawano ◽  
Taketo Kubo ◽  
Tsuyoshi Kuwahara ◽  
Hayao Kobayashi

AbstractLaterality has been reported in many vertebrates, and asymmetrical cerebral hemisphere function has been hypothesized to cause a left-bias in social behavior and a right-bias in feeding behavior. In this paper, we provide the first report of behavioral laterality in free-ranging finless porpoises, which seems to support the aforementioned hypothesis. We observed the turning behavior of finless porpoises in Omura Bay, Japan, using land-based and unmanned aerial system observations. We found a strong tendency in finless porpoises to turn counterclockwise with their right side down when pursuing and catching fish at the surface of the water. Our results suggest that this population of finless porpoises shows consistent right-biased laterality. Right-biased laterality has been observed in various foraging cetaceans and is usually explained by the dominance of the right eye-left cerebral hemisphere in prey recognition; however, right-biased laterality in foraging cetaceans may have multiple causes.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jin Sun ◽  
Guo Qin Wang ◽  
Jia Ge Song ◽  
Biao Xu

Geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) is an ornamental plant cultivated throughout world. In May 2019, typical symptoms of rust with nearly 90% disease incidence were observed on leaves of Pel. × hortorum growing in pots in a scenic spot in the ancient city of Kashgar, Xinjiang province, China. Early symptoms of the disease appeared small lesions with pale-yellow halos on the lower leaf surfaces. Infected tissues subsequently formed a concentric circle of sori on lesion reaching a final diameter of 0.5 to 1.5 cm, which resulted in leaf blighting and premature. Two representative specimens were deposited in the Mycological Herbarium of Tarim University (HMUT 8001 and HMUT 8002). Urediniospores were globose or subglobose to ovoid, light brown, echinulate, thin-walled with two conspicuous subequatorial pores, 19.8 to 27.3 × 17.8 to 23.6 μm (24.3 × 21.7 μm average, n=30). Telia and teliospores were not seen. The sizes and characteristics of urediniospores were similar with those of Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis as described by Doidge (1926). To confirm the identification, genomic DNAs were extracted directly from sori on diseased leaves from isolates HMUT 8001 and HMUT 8002. The part of the nuclear large subunit (LSU, 28S) rDNA was amplified and sequenced following Aime et al. (2006), and deposited in GenBank (Accession Nos. MT648851 and MT648852). An NCBI blast search indicated that 99.6% identity of the LSU (772/775 nucleotides) with Puc. pelargonii-zonalis on Pel. hortorum (KX999887) from Australia (Marin-Felix et al. 2017). The phylogenetic analysis based on the LSU sequences using Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian methods placed the Xinjiang isolates from Pel. × hortorum in the same clade with the reference sequences of Puc. pelargonii-zonalis. Pathogenicity test was confirmed by Koch’s postulates. Leaves of three healthy potted plants were sprayed with a spore suspension (2 × 105 spores/ml). Sterile water was sprayed on three healthy seedlings as controls. Inoculated and control plants were covered with a plastic bag and placed in a moist chamber with 90% relative humidity at 25°C. Initial symptoms were observed with small light-yellow spots on the upper surface after 15 days, but not in the control plants. Puc. pelargonii-zonalis has been previously reported on Pel. × hortorum in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Georgia, Greece, India, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, the United States, and Venezuela (Farr and Rossman 2021). Geranium rust was first found in Yunnan province in southwestern China (Zhou and Zhuang 2005). However, this is the first report of geranium rust in Xinjiang province in northwestern China. The occurrence of the disease seriously affected their ornamental and economic value.

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