high yields
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2022 ◽  
Vol 08 (01) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elnura Iskandarovna Hamdamova ◽  

In this article is considered the role of legumes in improving the ecological state of the soil and the problem of developing energy-efficient, inexpensive, biologically and environmentally clean production technologies for crop production. The use of valuable chemical fertilizers and pesticides in order to obtain high yields from crops increases the pollution of the environment, ie soil, air and groundwater, the products contain nitrates, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, residues harmful to human health.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 215
Author(s):  
Junfei Gu

Improving the grain yield of crops in both favourable and stressful environments is the main breeding objective required to ensure food security. In this review, I outline a genotype-to-phenotype approach that exploits the potential values of quantitative genetics and process-based crop modelling in developing new plant types with high yields. The effects of quantitative trait locus (QTL), for traits typically at the single-organ level over a short time scale, were projected for their impact on crop growth during the whole growing season in the field. This approach can provide more markers for selection programmes for specific environments whilst also allowing for prioritization. Crop modelling is thus a powerful tool for ideotyping under contrasting conditions, i.e., use of single-environment information for predicting phenotypes under different environments.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
christopher Baker ◽  
Dhruv Patel ◽  
Benjamin J. Cole ◽  
Lindsey G. Ching ◽  
Oliver Dautermann ◽  
...  

Climate change is globally affecting rainfall patterns, necessitating the improvement of drought tolerance in crops. Sorghum bicolor is a drought-tolerant cereal capable of producing high yields under water scarcity conditions. Functional stay-green sorghum genotypes can maintain green leaf area and efficient grain filling in terminal post-flowering water deprivation, a period of ~10 weeks. To obtain molecular insights into these characteristics, two drought-tolerant genotypes, BTx642 and RTx430, were grown in control and terminal post-flowering drought field plots in the Central Valley of California. Photosynthetic, photoprotective, water dynamics, and biomass traits were quantified and correlated with metabolomic data collected from leaves, stems, and roots at multiple timepoints during drought. Physiological and metabolomic data was then compared to longitudinal RNA sequencing data collected from these two genotypes. The metabolic response to drought highlights the uniqueness of the post-flowering drought acclimation relative to pre-flowering drought. The functional stay-green genotype BTx642 specifically induced photoprotective responses in post-flowering drought supporting a putative role for photoprotection in the molecular basis of the functional stay-green trait. Specific genes are highlighted that may contribute to post-flowering drought tolerance and that can be targeted in crops to maximize yields under limited water input conditions.


Nitrogen ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-57
Author(s):  
Rhys Rebello ◽  
Paul J. Burgess ◽  
Nicholas T. Girkin

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is mostly grown in the tropics with a heavy dependence on mineral nitrogen (N) fertilisers to maintain high yields while minimising the areas under cultivation. However, N is often applied in excess of crop requirements, resulting in substantial adverse environmental impacts. We conducted a systematic literature review, synthesising the findings from 48 studies to assess the impacts of excessive N application on soil health, and identify sustainable, alternative forms of N management. High N applications lead to soil acidification, N leaching to surface and groundwater, and the emission of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O). We identified a range of alternative N management practices, the use of organic fertilisers, a mixture of organic and inorganic fertilisers, controlled release fertilisers, nitrification inhibitors and soil amendments including biochar. While many practices result in reduced N loading or mitigate some adverse impacts, major trade-offs include lower yields, and in some instances increased N2O emissions. Practices are also frequently trialled in isolation, meaning there may be a missed opportunity from assessing synergistic effects. Moreover, adoption rates of alternatives are low due to a lack of knowledge amongst farmers, and/or financial barriers. The use of site-specific management practices which incorporate local factors (for example climate, tea variety, irrigation requirements, site slope, and fertiliser type) are therefore recommended to improve sustainable N management practices in the long term.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mateusz Dyguda ◽  
Anna Skrzyńska ◽  
Lesław Sieroń ◽  
Łukasz Albrecht

In the manuscript the first enantioselective dearomative Michael addition between α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and 2-nitrobenzofurans realized under N-heterocyclic carbene activation has been described. The reaction proceeds via addition of homoenolate to Michael acceptors leading to the formation of biologically important heterocycles with high yields and stereoselectivities. Their functionalization potential has been confirmed in selected, diastereoselective transformations.


Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dishu Zeng ◽  
Tianbao Yang ◽  
Niu Tang ◽  
Wei Deng ◽  
Jiannan Xiang ◽  
...  

A simple, mild, green and efficient method for the synthesis of 2-aminobenzamides was highly desired in organic synthesis. Herein, we developed an efficient, one-pot strategy for the synthesis of 2-aminobenzamides with high yields irradiated by UV light. 32 examples proceeded successfully by this photo-induced protocol. The yield reached up to 92%. The gram scale was also achieved easily. This building block could be applied in the preparation of quinazolinones derivatives. Amino acid derivatives could be employed smoothly at room temperature. Finally, a plausible mechanism was proposed.


Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi-Wei Ma ◽  
Chuan-Chuan Wang ◽  
Quan-Jian Lv ◽  
Xiao-Pei Chen ◽  
Ai-Qin Li ◽  
...  

AbstractA new tertiary amine-squaramide organocatalyst has been developed and applied to the asymmetric Michael addition of cyclic diketones to β,γ-unsaturated α-keto esters. The catalyst system performed well with a low catalyst loading of 1 mol% under mild reaction conditions. A series of synthetically and pharmaceutically useful chiral bicyclic compounds were obtained in high yields (up to 97%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99 % ee). Furthermore, this catalytic system can be used efficiently in large-scale reactions with the yields and enantioselectivities being maintained.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Subhadip De ◽  
Breanna Tomiczek ◽  
Yinuo Yang ◽  
Kenneth Ko ◽  
Ion Ghivirga ◽  
...  

Reported herein is the discovery of a diastereoselective indole-dearomative Cope rearrangement. A suite of minor driving forces (substrate destabilizing effects; product stabilizing effects) are what promote this otherwise unfavorable dearomatization reaction. These include the following that work in concert to overcome the penalty for dearomatization: (i.) steric congestion in the starting material, (ii.) alkylidene malononitrile and stilbene conjugation events in the product, and (iii.) an unexpected intramolecular p–p* stack on the product side of the equilibrium. The key substrates are rapidly assembled from alkylidenemalononitriles and indole-phenylmethanol derivatives resulting in many successful examples (high yields and diastereoselectivity). The products are structurally complex bearing vicinal stereocenters generated by the dearomative Cope rearrangement. They also contain a variety of functional groups for interconversion to complex architectures. On this line, also described herein are proof-of-concept strategies for achieving enantioselectivity and conversion of the dearomative products to valuable and functionalized small drug-like molecules.


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