Immunosorbent Assay
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Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1940
Huang-Chen Chang ◽  
Yen-Ching Wu ◽  
Jun-Peng Chen ◽  
Yi-Da Wu ◽  
Wen-Nan Huang ◽  

This study aimed to compare the test results of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies obtained using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and investigate predictors of inconsistent results. This retrospective study included 502 patients who underwent CIA and ELISA to determine their anti-dsDNA antibody values within a year. We compared the diagnostic power for SLE, disease activity, and predictive power for lupus nephritis (LN). A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the predictors of inconsistencies. CIA and ELISA were moderately correlated in terms of their consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.571), and yielded comparably favorable results in terms of SLE diagnostic power and SLE disease activity. However, if the patient had LN, CIA displayed higher predictive power than ELISA (0.620 vs. 0.555, p = 0.026). Compared with the CIA/ELISA double-positive group, the inconsistent group had lower anti-C1q circulating immune complexes (CIC) antibody values (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.94, p = 0.036), and lower SLEDAI scores (≥4) (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.79, p = 0.013). Anti-dsDNA antibody detection with CIA exhibited higher predictability for diagnosing LN than did ELISA. In the event of inconsistencies between anti-dsDNA methods, SLE disease activity and CIC test values should be considered simultaneously.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 5225
Seri Jeong ◽  
Nuri Lee ◽  
Min-Jeong Park ◽  
Kibum Jeon ◽  
Wonkeun Song

Approximately 20% of breast cancer (BC) patients suffer from distant metastasis. The incidence and prevalence rates of metastatic BC have increased annually. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an emerging area of treatment, especially for metastatic patients with poor outcomes. Several antibody drugs have been developed and approved for companion testing of the programmed death protine-1 (PD-1) axis. We reviewed currently used laboratory methodologies for assays determining PD-1 axis to provide a comprehensive understanding of principles, advantages, and drawbacks involved in their implementation. The most commonly used method is immunohistochemistry (92.9%) for PD-L1 expression using tissue samples (96.4%). The commonly used anti-PD-L1 antibody clone were commercially available 22C3 (30.8%), SP142 (19.2%), SP263 (15.4%), and E1L3N (11.5%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay that target soluble PD-ligand (L)1 were developed and popularized in 2019–2021, in contrast to 2016–2018. Easy accessibility and non-invasiveness due to the use of blood samples, quantitative outputs, and relatively rapid turnaround times make them more preferable. Regarding scoring methods, a combination of tumor and immune cells (45.5% in 2016–2018 to 57.1% in 2019–2021) rather than each cell alone became more popular. Information about antibody clones, platforms, scoring methods, and related companion drugs is recommended for reporting PD-L1 expression.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2483
Wenzhi Tang ◽  
Yangchun Qi ◽  
Zhonghong Li

Food analysis based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is simple, sensitive and rapid, but requires a costly colorimetric instrument. The aim of this work was to develop a portable, low-cost and user-friendly colorimetric instrument for colorimetric ELISA and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection. The principle of the developed instrument was employing a light-emitting diode to generate the signal light and using a light-dependent resistor to measure the signal light absorbed by the oxidized 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine. The absorption spectra revealed that the solution absorbed signal light more strongly after reaction with H2SO4, and blue light would be favorably absorbed. Evaluations on the stability and accuracy of the instrument and interference from ambient light showed that the fabricated instrument was stable, accurate, capable of quantitative detection and insensitive to ambient light changes. In addition, this instrument is user-friendly since it could calculate and report the final amount of AFB1 to the operator. Measurements of maize and peanuts showed that the instrument provided as accurate results as the professional equipment. With the low fabrication cost (about RMB 129 or USD 20), portability, and user-friendliness, this instrument presents attractive potential in the rapid detection of AFB1.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 2428
Yaozhong Hu ◽  
Chuan Zhang ◽  
Feier Yang ◽  
Jing Lin ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  

The declaration of lupine supplements is mandatory to avoid lupine allergy for sensitive individuals. However, reliable detection methods against lupine allergen remain critical to prevent the unintended consumption of allergen contaminated food. In this study, we have immunized an alpaca with lupine protein extracts and retrieved nanobodies (Nbs). Nevertheless, the target antigen has been recognized as Lup an 1, which has been classified as β-conglutin, and confirmed to connect with lupine allergy. After selection of the best Nb-pair, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed providing a linear range of 0.036–4.4 μg/mL with detection limit of 1.15 ng/mL. This immunoassay was confirmed by detecting the samples with spiked allergen, and a recovery from 86.25% to 108.45% with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 4.0% has been determined. Generally, this study demonstrated the selection of Nbs against allergen with crude protein content to develop the immunoassay for lupine surveillance in foods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Linyue Pan ◽  
Xiaoli Chen ◽  
Xuanqi Liu ◽  
Wenjia Qiu ◽  
Yunhuan Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), as an important group of innate immunity, could respond rapidly to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. In this research, we studied the phenotypic changes of circulatory ILCs in active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Methods We recruited 40 patients with active Mtb infection (TB group) and 41 healthy subjects (NC group), and collected their clinical information and peripheral blood. Circulating ILCs, ILC subsets, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and the production of cytokines in ILCs were tested by flow cytometry (FCM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect plasma IL-23. Results Compared with healthy control, total ILCs (0.73% vs. 0.42%, P = 0.0019), ILC1 (0.55% vs. 0.31%, P = 0.0024) and CD117+ ILC2 (0.02% vs. 0.01%, P = 0.0267) were upregulated in TB group. The total IL-17+ lymphocytes were elevated (3.83% vs. 1.76%, P = 0.0006) while the IL-22+ lymphocytes remained unchanged. Within ILC subsets, ILC3, CD117+ ILC2 and ILC1 in TB group all expressed increased IL-17 (15.15% vs. 4.55%, 19.01% vs. 4.57%, 8.79% vs. 3.87%, P < 0.0001) but similar IL-22 comparing with healthy control. TB group had more plasma IL-23 than NC group (7.551 vs. 5.564 pg/mL, P = 0.0557). Plasma IL-23 in TB group was positively correlated to IL-17+ ILC3 (r = 0.4435, P = 0.0141), IL-17+CD117+ ILC2 (r = 0.5385, P = 0.0021) and IL-17+ ILC1(r = 0.3719, P = 0.0430). TB group also had elevated DCs (9.35% vs. 6.49%, P < 0.0001) while macrophages remained unchanged. Within TB group, higher proportion of IL-17+ ILCs was related to severer inflammatory status and poorer clinical condition. Conclusions In active TB disease, circulatory ILCs were upregulated and exhibited IL-17-expressing phenotype. This may expand the understanding of immune reaction to Mtb infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Anna Książek ◽  
Marek Mędraś ◽  
Aleksandra Zagrodna ◽  
Małgorzata Słowińska-Lisowska ◽  
Felicja Lwow

AbstractThe relationship between vitamin D levels and testicular hormonal function in men has not been clearly established. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between deficiency/insufficiency levels of 25(OH)D and luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), total (TT), free (FT), and bioavailable testosterone (BT), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in young, healthy men. We enrolled 176 healthy, active young men aged 18–35 years from a genetically homogenous population of Lower Silesia, Poland. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, LH, FSH, and TT were measured by electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA). FT levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). BT levels were calculated from TT, SHBG, and albumin. SHBG was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay CLIA. We did not find any significant differences between the mean hormonal values (LH, FSH, TT, FT, BT, and SHBG) and the status of 25(OH)D level (deficient and insufficient). Based on our results, we concluded that there is no relationship between deficient and insufficient 25(OH)D concentration and androgen levels in young, healthy men.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 198-214
Shyatesa Razo ◽  
Pavel A. Galushka ◽  
Yuri A. Varitsev ◽  
Anatoly V. Zherdev ◽  
Irina V. Safenkova ◽  

Potato blackleg caused by Dickeya spp. bacteria is one of the most important bacterial diseases of potatoes. The rapid spread of this disease in the territory of Russia requires new effective diagnostic tools for the timely detection of infection. To solve this problem, antisera specific to Dickeya spp. were obtained. Polyclonal antibodies isolated from antisera have shown high affinity for the main species of Dickeya spp. ( D. solani, D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. dadantii, D. paradisiaca ). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) test systems have been developed based on specific and high affinity antibodies that were obtained. For ELISA, the detection limit was 0.8 105 cells/mL for D. solani and 2 104 cells/mL for D. dianthicola . For LFIA, suitable for use in non-laboratory conditions, the detection limit of D. solani was 2 105 cells/mL and the analysis time was 15 minutes. When testing potato seed material, LFIA test system confirmed positive results of ELISA determination in 75 % of samples, and negative - in 100 % of samples.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (10) ◽  
pp. 1080
Ali M. Malik ◽  
Sarah Tupchong ◽  
Simo Huang ◽  
Abhirup Are ◽  
Sylvia Hsu ◽  

Clinicians may encounter a variety of skin conditions that present with vesiculobullous lesions in their everyday practice. Pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, IgA pemphigus, and paraneoplastic pemphigus represent the spectrum of autoimmune bullous dermatoses of the pemphigus family. The pemphigus family of diseases is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Considering the risks associated with a delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and the potential for overlap in clinical features and treatment, evaluation for suspected pemphigus disease often requires thorough clinical assessment and laboratory testing. Diagnosis is focused on individual biopsies for histopathology and direct immunofluorescence. Additional laboratory methods used for diagnosis include indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Recent advancements, including anti-CD20 therapy, have improved the efficacy and reduced the morbidity of pemphigus treatment. This contribution presents updates on the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic work-up, and medical management of pemphigus. Improved strategies for diagnosis and clinical assessment are reviewed, and newer treatment options are discussed.

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