isothermal amplification
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Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 264
Jong-Won Kim ◽  
Kyoung-Woo Park ◽  
Myeongkun Kim ◽  
Kyung Kwan Lee ◽  
Chang-Soo Lee

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a molecular diagnosis technology with the advantages of rapid results, isothermal reaction conditions, and high sensitivity. However, this diagnostic system often produces false positive results due to a high rate of non-specific reactions caused by formation of hairpin structures, self-dimers, and mismatched hybridization. The non-specific signals can be due to primers used in the methods because the utilization of multiple LAMP primers increases the possibility of self-annealing of primers or mismatches between primers and templates. In this study, we report a nanomaterial-assisted LAMP method that uses a graphene oxide–gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@GO) nanocomposite to enable the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) with high sensitivity and specificity. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and deadly disease in cloven-hoofed animals; hence, a rapid, sensitive, and specific detection method is necessary. The proposed approach exhibited high sensitivity and successful reduction of non-specific signals compared to the traditionally established LAMP assays. Additionally, a mechanism study revealed that these results arose from the adsorption of single-stranded DNA on AuNPs@GO nanocomposite. Thus, AuNPs@GO nanocomposite is demonstrated to be a promising additive in the LAMP system to achieve highly sensitive and specific detection of diverse diseases, including FMD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao Li ◽  
Yunwen Ou ◽  
Danian Chen ◽  
Yaozhong Ding ◽  

Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), a novel circovirus, imposes great burdens on the global pig industry. The penside tests for detecting PCV3 are critical for assessing the epidemiological status and working out disease prevention and control programs due to the unavailability of a commercial vaccine. A one-step molecular assay based on visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (vLAMP) was developed for simple and rapid detection of PCV3. We compared its sensitivity and specificity with TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and applied the developed assay in the epidemiological study of (n = 407) pooled swine sera collected from almost the entire mainland China during the years 2017–2018. We also explored the feasibility of the vLAMP assay for detecting raw samples without a prior DNA isolation step to expand its application capability. Results showed that the vLAMP assay could reliably detect the PCV3 cap gene with a detection limit of 10 DNA copies equal to that of the Taqman qPCR assay. In the epidemiological study, the PCV3 positive detection rate for 407 swine pooled sera detected by the vLAMP assay was 37.35% (152/407), whereas it was 39.01% (159/407) for Taqman qPCR. For the detection method without genome extraction, the results kept satisfactory specificity (100%) but displayed lower sensitivity (100% for CT < 32), indicating the direct detection is not sensitive enough to discriminate the samples with low viral loads. The one-step vLAMP is a convenient, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic for penside detection and will enable the epidemiological surveillance of PCV3, which has widely spread in mainland China.

2022 ◽  
Rebecca Allsopp ◽  
Georgios Alexandrou ◽  
Christofer Toumazou ◽  
Simak Ali ◽  
Charles Coombes ◽  

Abstract Isothermal amplification is an emerging approach for non-invasive, rapid and cost-effective real-time monitoring of cancer specific mutations through circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). This study demonstrates a compact allele specific (AS) loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) strategy, termed ‘AS-Mini-LAMP’, modelled using wild type (WT) and mutation specific reactions targeting the estrogen receptor ESR1 c.1138G>C (p.E380Q) missense mutation. Allele selectivity, encoded at the 5’-end of the forward and backward inner primers (FIP and BIP) promotes enhanced selectivity upon self-hybridisation, loop formation and self-primed exponential amplification. Inclusion of unmodified self-stabilising (USS) primers aimed to reduce the likelihood of non-specific allele amplification through competitive inhibition and to enhance reaction velocity through an assisted strand displacement ‘swarm’ priming effect. The two assays were optimised using short synthetic WT and E380Q mutant DNA templates, and subsequently validated to a limit of detection of 500 mutant copies in under 25 minutes in ddPCR-confirmed positive (20.7% variant allele frequency) and negative patient plasma cfDNA samples. These results demonstrate the ability of AS-Mini-LAMP to achieve sensitive and selective amplification of actionable mutations present within plasma ctDNA.

2022 ◽  
Benjamin P. Sullivan ◽  
Yu-Shan Chou ◽  
Andrew T. Bender ◽  
Coleman D. Martin ◽  
Zoe G. Kaputa ◽  

Quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (qNAATs) are critical in treating infectious diseases, such as in HIV viral load monitoring or SARS-CoV-2 testing, in which viral load indicates viral suppression or infectivity. Quantitative PCR is the gold standard tool for qNAATs; however, there is a need to develop point-of-care (POC) qNAATs to manage infectious diseases in outpatient clinics, low- and middle-income countries, and the home. Isothermal amplification methods are an emerging tool for POC NAATs as an alternative to traditional PCR-based workflows. Previous works have focused on relating isothermal amplification bulk fluorescence signals to input copies of target nucleic acids for sample quantification with limited success. In this work, we show that recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions on paper membranes exhibit discrete fluorescent amplification nucleation sites. We demonstrate that the number of nucleation sites can be used to quantify HIV-1 DNA and RNA in less than 20 minutes. An image-analysis algorithm quantifies nucleation sites and determines the input nucleic acid copies in the range of 67-3,000 copies per reaction. We demonstrate a mobile phone-based system for image capture and onboard processing, illustrating that this method may be used at the point-of-care for qNAATs with minimal instrumentation.

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