enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
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Food Control ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 134 ◽  
pp. 108751
Jiao Li ◽  
Yuan Ding ◽  
He Chen ◽  
Wanlin Sun ◽  
Yue Huang ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. U. Khan ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
S. H. Shah ◽  
M. A. Zia ◽  
S. Shoukat ◽  

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Ahsan ◽  
M. Ashfaq ◽  
H. Riaz ◽  
Z. Khan ◽  
M. Z. Hamza ◽  

Abstract Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li’s F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
M. A. Kakakhel ◽  
Y. Bai ◽  
L. Xi ◽  
I. Khan ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 432-438
Hong Cheng ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Yinmou Li

The current study aimed to dissect the impacts and mechanisms of hydroxycamptothecin on breast cancer. Collect conditioned medium from MSCs cells to apply it into the co-culture system of breast cancer cells, which were pre-treated with hydroxycamptothecin. The cell counting kit was employed to measure the proliferation potential of cells, while the phosphorylation degrees of AKT/MAPKrelated proteins were examined via Western blotting. Then the cellular migration was test by transwell. Finally, the transcriptional and translational levels of IL-6 and RANTES in cells were detected by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HC could remarkably influence the interplay between MSC and breast malignant cells, reduce the MSC-activated migrative behavior of breast malignant cells and impede the capability of MSC to maintain the migration of cancer cells. RANTES and IL-6 exerted a synergistic induction in the migrative feature of breast cancer cells. HC could retard the migrating activities of breast cancer cells via diminishing the RANTES and IL-6 levels. Hydroxycamptothecin could impede the proliferative and migrative activities of MSC, of which the impediment was accompanied by an inhibitory impact on the secretory production of two growth factors IL-6 and RANTES from MSC, thereby enhancing the migration of breast malignant cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Yue Feng ◽  
Jiacai Zuo ◽  
Jian Shi ◽  
Shanshan Zhang ◽  

Background and PurposeThe impact of serum amyloid A on cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between serum amyloid A (SAA) levels and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) at 3 months after ischemic stroke.MethodsOne hundred and ninety-eight patients were enrolled prospectively from June 2020 to April 2021. The SAA concentrations were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit after admission. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score at 3 months after the symptom onset. We defined a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score &lt;25 as cognitive impairment.ResultsDuring 3-month follow-up, 80 patients (40.4%) were diagnosed as having PSCI. As compared with patients with cognitively normal ischemic stroke, those with PSCI were older, more likely to have diabetes and white matter lesions, and had a higher baseline National Institutes of Health stroke score and SAA levels. After adjustment for age, the National Institutes of Health stroke score and other covariates, the OR for the highest quartile of SAA compared with the lowest quartile was 5.72 (95% CI, 2.17–15.04, P = 0.001) for PSCI. Also, ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that higher SAA concentrations were associated with increased risk of PSCI severity (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.81–10.33, P = 0.001). Similar results were found when the SAA levels were analyzed as a continuous variable.ConclusionsThis present study demonstrated that increased SAA levels might be associated with PSCI at 3 months after ischemic stroke.

Huda Zaid Al-Shami ◽  
Zaid Ali Mohammed Al-Mutawakal ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Muhamed Ahmed Al-Haimi ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Al-Haddad ◽  

Background: Hepatic jaundice results from abnormal metabolism of bilirubin in the liver. The main hepatic jaundice causes are severe damage to hepatocytes due to autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, drugs/ medication induced, or, less commonly, hereditary genetic diseases. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B Virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in patients with hepatic jaundice as causes of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Sana'a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: Data of patients with hepatic jaundice tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, total anti-HCV antibody, and anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were collected from Class I Viral Diagnostic Laboratories in Sana'a for 3 years. Then the statistical analysis of the data was used where the descriptive analysis was calculated: frequency and percentage, as well as the association of infection with sex and age group by means of detection odds ratio, 95% CI and X2 more than 3.9 and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study included 644 males (43.8%) and 826 females (56.2%), while most patients were less than 21 years old. The rate of Hepatitis viruses positive was 27.6% positive. Hepatitis A virus infection was the most common virus diagnosed accounting for 259 cases (17.6% of the total), while HBV was less common with 104 (7.1%) and HCV only 42 cases (2.9%). The highest incidence of hepatitis B was in 11-20 years patients (18.2%), with an associated OR 9.3 (p < 0.0001). The highest incidence of hepatitis C was in 31-40 years patients (7.3%), with an associated OR 3.3 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:  Alarmingly changing the epidemiology and dynamics of hepatitis A-C viruses in Yemen, a detailed study is required to understand the definite disease problem caused by these viruses. It is noticeable in this study the high prevalence of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus in the Yemeni population with hepatic jaundice. Also, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report epidemiological transformation of hepatitis A virus in Sana'a, Yemen.                     Peer Review History: Received: 13 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 30 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arı, Ankara University, Turkiye, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Gulam Mohammed Husain,, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, Hyderabad, India, [email protected] Dr. Salfarina Ramli, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. [email protected]   Similar Articles: PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOTYPES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED AMONG SELECTED YEMENI PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B INFECTION SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEPATITIS B, C, HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN HODEIDA CITY- YEMEN EXPLOSION OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUSES AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF HEMODIALYSIS CRISIS IN YEMEN

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Leila Khani ◽  
Mir Hadi Jazayeri ◽  
Reza Nedaeinia ◽  
Mahmood Bozorgmehr ◽  
Seyed Masood Nabavi ◽  

Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica syndrome disease (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis and treatments for these two conditions are very different. Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are immune cells with an important role in shaping the immune response. B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. There is conflicting evidence of the roles of NK, NKT, and B cells in the two conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3−CD16+CD56+NK, CD3+ CD56+ NKT, and CD5+CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. Methods CD19+CD5+ B, CD3− CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells were quantitated by flow cytometry in 15 individuals with Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) treated relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), 15 untreated RRMS, and 15 NMOSD patients as well as 30 healthy controls (HC). Serum IL-10 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The percentage of CD3−CD56+CD16+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of IFN-treated MS (1.81 ± 0.87) was significantly lower than for untreated RRMS (4.74 ± 1.80), NMOSD (4.64 ± 1.26) and HC (5.83 ± 2.19) (p < 0.0001). There were also differences for the percentage of CD3−CD16+ and CD3−CD56+ cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0007; respectively). IFN-treated RRMS (2.89 ± 1.51) had the lowest proportion of CD3+CD56+ among the study groups (p < 0.002). Untreated RRMS (5.56 ± 3.04) and NMOSD (5.47 ± 1.24) had higher levels of CD3+CD56+ than the HC (3.16 ± 1.98). The mean percentage of CD19+CD5+ B cells in the peripheral blood of untreated RRMS patients (1.32 ± 0.67) was higher compared to the patients with NMOSD (0.30 ± 0.20), HC (0.5 ± 0.22) and IFN-treated RRMS (0.81 ± 0.17) (p < 0.0001). Serum interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the IFN-treated RRMS (8.06 ± 5.39) and in HC (8.38 ± 2.84) compared to untreated RRMS (5.07 ± 1.44) and the patients with NMOSD (5.33 ± 2.56) (p < 0.003). Conclusions The lower proportion of CD3−CD56+ CD16+ NK and CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. Based on the differences in CD19+CD5+ B cells and serum IL-10 between patients and HC, supplementary assessments could be of value in clarifying their roles in autoimmunity.

2022 ◽  
Stephen Coleman ◽  
Xaquin Castro Dopico ◽  
Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam ◽  
Paul DW Kirk ◽  
Chris Wallace

Systematic differences between batches of samples present significant challenges when analysing biological data. Such batch effects are well-studied and are liable to occur in any setting where multiple batches are assayed. Many existing methods for accounting for these have focused on high-dimensional data such as RNA-seq and have assumptions that reflect this. Here we focus on batch-correction in low-dimensional classification problems. We propose a semi-supervised Bayesian generative classifier based on mixture models that jointly predicts class labels and models batch effects. Our model allows observations to be probabilistically assigned to classes in a way that incorporates uncertainty arising from batch effects. We explore two choices for the within-class densities: the multivariate normal and the multivariate t. A simulation study demonstrates that our method performs well compared to popular off-the-shelf machine learning methods and is also quick; performing 15,000 iterations on a dataset of 500 samples with 2 measurements each in 7.3 seconds for the MVN mixture model and 11.9 seconds for the MVT mixture model. We apply our model to two datasets generated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a spectrophotometric assay often used to screen for antibodies. The examples we consider were collected in 2020 and measure seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. We use our model to estimate seroprevalence in the populations studied. We implement the models in C++ using a Metropolis-within-Gibbs algorithm; this is available in the R package at https://github.com/stcolema/BatchMixtureModel. Scripts to recreate our analysis are at https://github.com/stcolema/BatchClassifierPaper.

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