Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology
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2099
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Published By Turkish Journal Of Agriculture - Food Science And Technology (Turjaf)

2148-127x

Author(s):  
Aysun Öztürk ◽  
Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

In the present study, totally 49 samples, which showed the symptoms of leaf and shoot blight and cankers with brown discoloration of necrotic tissues on mature branches, were collected from 22 districts and areas of Konya Province between 2017 and 2019. Presence rate of E. amylovora in collected samples, showing symptoms of the disease, from the province was determined to be 40% for blackberry and raspberry and 33% rosehip for rosehip in three years. Bacteria consistently isolated from the diseased tissues were identified on the basis of biochemical, physiological, and molecular tests, comparing with a reference strain of E. amylovora, isolated from blackberry (Kbb 371). Twenty seven representative bacterial strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped, mucoid, fermentative, positive for levan formation and acetoin production, no growth at 36°C, positive for gelatin hydrolysis, and negative for esculin hydrolysis, indole, urease, catalase, oxidase, arginine dehydrolase, reduction of nitrate, acid production from lactose, and inositol. All strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum cv. White Burley) 24 h after inoculation with a 108 CFU ml-1 bacterial suspension in sterile distilled water. The strains were identified as E. amylovora using the species-specific primers set A/B (1), which amplified a 1-kb DNA fragment in PCR, and the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method. In order to fulfill the Koch postulates, pathogenicity test was confirmed by injecting bacterial suspensions of 108 CFU ml-1 in sterile distilled water into the shoot tips of 3-year-old blackberry R. fruticosus cv. Chester, raspberry R. idaeus cv. Heritage and rosehip R. canina. All tests were repeated three times. The bacterium was re-isolated from inoculated plants and identified as E. amylovora. Phytosanitary measures are needed to prevent any further spread of the bacterium as potential inoculum sources to new blackberry, raspberry and rosehip growing areas.


Author(s):  
Rashmi Patil ◽  
Urmila Aswar

Pterostilbene (PTE) (3-5 dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-stilbenes) is an analogue of resveratrol. It is extracted and isolated from a natural source of the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., red grape skin, and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). Substantial evidence suggested that PTE displayed numerous preventive and therapeutic properties in many metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Metabolic diseases result in Insulin resistance (IR) which advances to impaired sensitivity to insulin-mediated glucose disposal. The prominent role of SIRT (silent information regulator proteins) is now getting emphasized in metabolic disorders. SIRT1 represses Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expressions which are further responsible for improving synthesis of ATP from glucose. This results in improving glucose utilization and insulin secretion, thus preventing IR. SIRT1 also exhibits prominent role in facilitating fatty acid mobilization thereby inhibiting adiposity. Metabolic disorders are therefore the consequences of SIRT1 downregulation. Pterostilbene, being a SIRT1 activator, increases insulin sensitivity reduces adiposity, therefore can prove to be beneficial in diabetes as well as obesity. The review summarizes therapeutic effects portrayed by Pterostilbene via the SIRT1 pathway in metabolic diseases.


Author(s):  
Emine Yurteri ◽  
Mücahit Salih Can ◽  
Fatih Seyis ◽  
Haydar Kuplemez

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the world's most popular beverage plant, as well as an important plantation crop with high commercial value. It has been maintained for centuries through conventional vegetative propagation. Tea clonal propagation in vitro has the advantage of producing a large number of elite plants. If an efficient in vitro regeneration technology is available, this technique could be exploited for selection of tea plants for desired trait. The selected plants could be later on multiplied through in vitro or ex vitro techniques. The study aimed to induced somatic embryogenesis from immature embryo explants to genetic variaton. Different concentrations of phenylboronic acid with benzyladenine and phenylboronic acid with kinetin were tested in MS medium with 30 g/L sucrose and 8 g/L agar. MS medium without any plant growth regulators was used as control group. Considering the embryo survival rate, 1.5 mg/ L-1 phenylboronic acid + 1 mg/ L-1 kinetin produced highest result as 87.3% while lowest was in control group as 36.7%. The highest plant regeneration rate was found in 1,5 mg/ L-1 phenylboronic acid + 1 mg/ L-1 kinetin and 1.5 mg/ L-1 phenylboronic acid + 1 mg/ L-1 benzyladenine medium respectively as 58.3% and 55.6%. Kinetin treatment with increasing phenylboronic acid concentrations gave the best results in terms of somatic embryo survival rate. Also, kinetin treatment produced better results when compared to benzyladenine concentrations.


Author(s):  
Seda Bice Ataklı ◽  
Sezer Şahin ◽  
Sabriye Belgüzar

One of the most important factors that increase soil fertility is the amount of soil organic matter. One of the ways to increase soil organic matter is the addition of organic fertilizers. Yemsoy soybean cultivar was used in the study, and pot study was carried out in 3 replications according to the randomized blocks experimental design. In the study, three different fertilizer doses (EC 0- 0.5- 1), three different grape pomace compost (0- 20-40 %) were applied to the peat perlite mixture, and mycorrhiza and bacteria inoculation to these environments. At the end of a 60-day growing period, the plants were harvested from the top of the pot, and measurements were made. In the study, there was an increase in the above-ground fresh and dry weights, root fresh, and root dry weights of soybean plants grown with increasing fertilizer rates. The addition of compost to the growing medium, the addition of mycorrhiza, and bacteria caused different results in the investigated properties. The increase in compost and plant nutrition doses was effective in increasing plant growth.


Author(s):  
Erdem Asaf Develi ◽  
Ayşegül Yavuz ◽  
Ümmügülsüm Erdoğan

In this study, in which the effects of different applications of vermicompost on the yield and quality of San Andreas strawberry variety were investigated 15, 30, 45, 60 g vermicompost was applied per plant. First flowering, first and last harvest dates, number of fruits per plant, yield per plant (g/plant), fruit weight (g), fruit flavor, macro and micro nutrient content, organic acid amounts were examined. The results showed that the differences between treatments in yield per plant were statistically significant. The highest total yield per plant was obtained from V45 and V30 applications with 972.8 g and 878.9 g respectively and the lowest yield was obtained from the control application with 384.2 g per plant. The largest fruits were obtained from the V60 (19.5 g) application. It was determined that nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, iron, zinc and boron concentrations in the leaves of strawberry plants fertilized with vermicompost were higher than the control. The highest values in organic acid values were determined in oxalic, propionic, malonic, lactic, fumaric and succinic acids in V60 application (5.62, 11.16, 49.00, 104.98 µg/100 g respectively). It seems that the application of vermicompost fertilizer in strawberry cultivation has a positive effect on yield and quality characteristics.


Author(s):  
Handan Karaoglu

Within the scope of this research, the chronic effects of ammonium nitrate, which is the most widely used fertilizer worldwide, on the tadpoles of Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus), the Iranian Long-Legged Frog (Rana macrocnemis), the Caucasian Parsley Frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) and the Variable Green Toad (Bufotes variabilis) were examined. To assess the chronic effects of the fertilizer, the tadpoles of all the species were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 mg/L concentrations in same conditions. The chronic concentrations were applied from the 25th developmental stage to the 42nd developmental stage. It was defined at the end of the experiments that although there were some variability between different populations of the same species or between different species in the observed effects, chronic levels of ammonium nitrate caused decreased growth rate, prolonging in time to complete metamorphosis, increased abnormalities, and mortality in general. Among the 4 amphibian species, the Variable Green Toad was the most damaged one in terms of growth reduction (on average 31-41 %), abnormality rates (on average 50-75 %), prolonged time to complete metamorphose (14-21 days on average) and mortality rates (%54-100). The most adaptive species and the least damaged one was an Iranian long-legged frog for growth reduction (on average 0-15 %), prolonged time to complete metamorphose (7-9 days on average), and mortality rates (%9-15). All the harmful effects of chronic fertilizer levels caused by agricultural activities in the region had very important for examined species in our researches and it can be said that important environmental and biodiversity problems may occur if certain precautions are not taken regarding the use of the fertilizers and if the attitudes of the farmers on this issue cannot be changed.


Author(s):  
Hasan Eleroğlu

In this study, the White Layer Pure Line that housing as individual cage system at the Poultry Research Institute in Ankara was used. Eggs obtained from 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks old eggs were collected 3 times a day in the morning (10:00), noon (12:00) and evening (15:00). Egg Size and Egg Width (YBE), Shape Index and Elongation (SIE), Egg Surface Area and Volume (YAH), Shell Weight and Shell Thickness (CAS), Number of Pores and Pore Density (GSY), Yellow Ratio and Yellow Weight (SOA), Albumen Weight and Albumen Ratio (AO) were examined in 438 eggs obtained from these chickens found in these cages which are three tiers as upper, middle and bottom. The difference in cage layer did not have a significant effect on the calculated properties. On the other hand, the effect of on all traits obtained from these calculations based on egg weight was found to be significant.


Author(s):  
Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Global climate is estimated to change drastically over the next century and the ecosystems will be affected in this changing environment. Plant-associated beneficial microorganisms can stimulate plant growth and increase resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Nowadays, the effects of climate change factors such as increased carbon dioxide (CO2), drought and warming on plant-beneficial microorganism interactions are increasingly being investigated in the scope of plant growth and health. Recent studies have shown that high CO2 level has a positive effect on the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi are more variable. Elevated CO2 conditions lead to increased colonization of beneficial fungi. Additionally, the results of increasing CO2 levels, warming and drought, depend upon the plant and the microbial genotype. Also, plant growth promoting microorganisms, especially bacteria, positively affect plants exposed to drought stress. Altered communities of beneficial microorganisms depending on climate changes, might have to compete with different microbial communities and, therefore microbial activities may also get affected. This work presents that climate change is an important factor affecting microorganism and plant interactions, needs to take into consideration the adaptation processes in plants and microorganisms and might require the selection of adapted plant cultivars.


Author(s):  
Sezer Şahin ◽  
Seda Bice Ataklı

Organic matter has a positive effect on the uptake of nutrients in the soil. The increase in mycorrhizal activities in the soil causes an increase in the activities in the rhizosphere region. Vermicompost is among the most useful organic fertilizers that can be added to the soil in recent years. Soil microflora is capable of realizing the return of mineral substances. Akkız cowpea variety was used in the study: The experiment was carried out as a viol study with 3 replications according to the randomized blocks trial design. In the study, seedling development was achieved by mixing vermicompost (0, 15, 30 and 45%) with and without mycorrhiza in a soil containing 16% lime into the viols in order to develop seedlings. Sufficient minerals have been applied to the plants for their growth. Seedlings were harvested when they were 40 days old, and seedling measurement parameters and macronutrients in plant leaves were checked. As the amount of vermicompost increased, it caused an increase in the above-ground fresh and dry weights, root fresh and root dry weights of the seedlings. As the organic fertilizer mixture increased, the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium concentrations of the plant leaves increased. The addition of mycorrhiza to the rearing medium has led to different results in the investigated characteristics. Addition of increasing organic fertilizer ratios in the study, Organic fertilizer and bacteria application of cowpea cultivars were effective in increasing the development of plants in calcareous soils.


Author(s):  
Emine Yurteri ◽  
Fatih Seyis ◽  
Haydar Kuplemez

The genus Helichrysum contains many species displaying therapeutical effects and use in folk medicine. Helichrysum pallasii (Spreng.) Ledeb. is one of these species, used in the region for traditional medicine and ornamental purposes. Plants have been used in the treatment in folk medicines since the earliest times of human history. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and other medicinal properties of plants are being investigated in laboratories throughout the world using the extracts and essential oils derived from medicinal plants. Essential oils are usually complex mixtures of natural compounds of both polar and apolar structure. Essential oils consist mainly of terpenoids and their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils, which have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, have therapeutic properties and are the raw materials of cosmetics, as well as acting as natural additives in foods and food products. In this study, the volatile components of the H. pallasii plants were investigated which collected from its natural habitat in the Armutlu district of Bayburt province (Turkey) at the time of flowering. The proportion of essential oils of the plant harvested during the full flowering period and the aromatic components in the essential oil of the plant were determined using the SPME (Solid Phase Microextraction) method in a Gas Chromatography (GC-MS) device. Almost 37 different components were found as a result of the analysis. The main components were found as α-Springene (34.89%), (-)-Isoledene (7.11%), δ-Selinene (5.79%) and Aristolene (5.09).


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