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2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (5) ◽  
pp. 1285-1290
Author(s):  
Román Carlos Ríos ◽  
Vinicyus Jorge Mordaski Visni da Cruz

We report the first occurrence of the family Triuridaceae in the Atlantic Forest of Paraná state, Brazil. We found Triuris hyalina Miers in a nature reserve and present a description, taxonomic and ecological comments, distribution data, and images. It is a small, mycoheterotrophic plant species. We found it in an area of dense ombrophilous forest in the municipality of Piraquara, eastern Paraná. Our new record represents the first of the family in the state and the southernmost known occurrence of the species. The new occurrence highlights the importance of floristic surveys to better understand the flora of the Atlantic Forest.


Author(s):  
Senad Murtić ◽  
Ćerima Zahirović ◽  
Hamdija Čivić ◽  
Emina Sijahović ◽  
Josip Jurković ◽  
...  

This study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of eight native plant species on heavy metal polluted soils along the Spreča river valley (the northeast region of Bosnia and Herzegovina). Plants selected for screening were: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), common nettle (Urtica dioica L.), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.), wild mint (Mentha arvensis L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), dwarf nettle (Urtica urens L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.). All aboveground parts of selected native plants and their associated soil samples were collected and analysed for total concentration of Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu. The bioaccumulation factor for each element was also calculated. The levels of Cr (90.9–171.1 mg/kg) and Ni (80.1–390.5 mg/kg) in the studied soil plots were generally higher than limits prescribed by European standards, indicating that the soils in the Spreča river valley are polluted by Cr and Ni. Among the eight screened plant species, no hyperaccumulators for toxic heavy metals Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb were identified. However, the concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the above-ground parts of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Trifolium repens L. were significantly higher than in the other studied plants, indicating that both plant species are useful for heavy metal removal.  


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257243
Author(s):  
Suthira Yanaso ◽  
Ampai Phrutivorapongkul ◽  
Darunee Hongwiset ◽  
Sirivipa Piyamongkol ◽  
Aekkhaluck Intharuksa

Kamlang Suea Khrong (KSK) crude drug, a traditional Thai medicine used for oral tonic and analgesic purposes, is obtained from three origins: the inner stem bark of Betula alnoides (BA) or the stems of Strychnos axillaris (SA) or Ziziphus attopensis (ZA). According to the previous reports, SA contains strychnine-type alkaloids that probably cause poisoning; however, only organoleptic approaches are insufficient to differentiate SA from the other plant materials. To ensure the botanical origin of KSK crude drug, powerful and reliable tools are desperately needed. Therefore, molecular and chemical identification methods, DNA barcoding and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), were investigated. Reference databases, i.e., the ITS region and phytochemical profile of the authentic plant species, were conducted. In case of molecular analysis, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on species-specific primers was applied. Regarding species-specific primers designation, the suitability of three candidate barcode regions (ITS, ITS1, and ITS2) was evaluated by genetic distance using K2P model. ITS2 presented the highest interspecific variability was verified its discrimination power by tree topology. Accordingly, ITS2 was used to create primers that successfully specified plant species of authentic samples. For chemical analysis, TLC with toluene:ethyl acetate:ammonia (1:9:0.025) and hierarchical clustering were operated to identify the authentic crude drugs. The developed multiplex PCR and TLC methods were then applied to identify five commercial KSK crude drugs (CK1-CK5). Both methods correspondingly indicated that CK1-CK2 and CK3-CK5 were originated from BA and ZA, respectively. Molecular and chemical approaches are convenient and effective identification methods that can be performed for the routine quality-control of the KSK crude drugs for consumer reliance. According to chemical analysis, the results indicated BA, SA, and ZA have distinct chemical profiles, leading to differences in pharmacological activities. Consequently, further scientific investigations are required to ensure the quality and safety of Thai ethnobotanical medicine known as KSK.


PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12165
Author(s):  
Yuzu Sakata ◽  
Nami Shirahama ◽  
Ayaka Uechi ◽  
Kunihiro Okano

Increased ungulate browsing alters the composition of plant communities and modifies forest ecosystems worldwide. Ungulates alter their diet following changes in availability of plant species; however, we know little about how browse selection and plant community composition change with different stages of deer establishment. Here, we provide insight into this area of study by combining multiple approaches: comparison of the understory plant community, analysis of records of browsing damage, and DNA barcoding of sika deer feces at 22 sites in forests in northern Japan varying in when deer were first established. The coverage of vegetation and number of plant species were only lower at sites where deer were present for more than 20 years, while the difference in plant coverage among deer establishment years varied among plant species. Deer diet differed across establishment years, but was more affected by the site, thereby indicating that food selection by deer could change over several years after deer establishment. Plant life form and plant architecture explained the difference in plant coverage across establishment years, but large variability was observed in deer diet within the two categories. Integrating these results, we categorized 98 plant taxa into six groups that differed in vulnerability to deer browsing (degree of damage and coverage). The different responses to browsing among plant species inferred from this study could be a first step in predicting the short- and long-term responses of forest plant communities to deer browsing.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ivona Kubalova ◽  
Amanda Souza Camara ◽  
Petr Capal ◽  
Tomas Beseda ◽  
Jean-Marie Rouillard ◽  
...  

The higher-order metaphase chromosome organization has been under controversial discussion already for 140 years. Classical light and electron microscopy proposed chromatids to be composed of helically organized chromatin fibers, so-called chromonemata. More recently also non-helical models were suggested. We studied the chromosome organization in barley by interdisciplinary cutting-edge approaches, such as chromosome sorting, chromosome conformation capture, oligonucleotide-fluorescence in situ hybridization, base analog incorporation, super-resolution microscopy, and polymer simulation to elucidate the arrangement of chromatids of large mitotic metaphase chromosomes. Our data provide cumulative evidence for the presence of a helically arranged 400 nm chromatin fiber representing the chromonema within the chromatid arms. The number of turns is positively correlated with the arm length. Turn size and chromatin density decrease towards the telomeres. Due to the specialized functions of centromeres and nucleolus-organizing regions, the helical organization is interrupted at these regions, which display several thinners and straight chromatin fibers. Based on our findings and re-analyzing previously published data from other plant and non-plant species we conclude that the helical turning of metaphase chromatid arms is a conserved feature of large eukaryotic chromosomes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4-5) ◽  
pp. 243-249
Author(s):  
Dinkarrao Amrutrao Patil

This communication is an effort to decipher phytogeographic alterations particularly due to exotic plants associated with the teachings and disclosures of Lord Buddha. The various exotic taxa on Indian landmass in Lord Buddha’s time had an important role to play in human sustenance and civilization. The present author, therefore, analysed plant species as contained in ‘Pali Tipitaka’ in view of plant invasion in ancient period in Indian territory. It was possible to identify total 70 exotic plant species pertaining to 66 genera and 41 angiospermic families. Majority of them (47 species) are introduced for cultivation in India to sustain human life, while 19 species exhibit wildness and integral to Indian biodiversity in present time. Their native geographical regions are deciphered consulting relevant literature. They belong to both Old and New Worlds. Importance of ancient religious scriptures is brought under clearer focus from standpoint of phytogeography and plant invasion.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4-5) ◽  
pp. 214-224
Author(s):  
Dinkarrao Amrutrao Patil

India is a biodiversity rich country as well as mosaic of cultural traditions. Plant invasion has been demonstrated by biodiversity studies in India. Mankind had always determined the status of plant, whether indigenous or exotic and developed with them abstract relationships. The present author revealed a role of 26 exotic plant species in the development plant iconography and simultaneous forces of plant invasion in India even during pre-Columbian period. India being rich in ancient literary sources in the form of Vedas, Puranas, epics, caves, temples, Sanskrit writings etc. and replete with plant references, afforded numerous sources of plant iconography. It is an outstanding resource for research on plant history and diversity. However, study of plant iconography demands a wide collaboration with researchers of different subjects or disciplines. At the same, plant invasion hand-in-hand plant iconography are discussed pertinently in Indian context, a hitherto virgin area of research.


Author(s):  
Ulises G. Castillo ◽  
Ayato Komatsu ◽  
Morena L. Martínez ◽  
Jenny Menjívar ◽  
Marvin J. Núñez ◽  
...  

AbstractChagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and in Central America, it is considered one of the four most infectious diseases. This study aimed to screen the anti-trypanosomal activity of plant species from Salvadoran flora. Plants were selected through literature search for plants ethnobotanically used for antiparasitic and Chagas disease symptomatology, and reported in Museo de Historia Natural de El Salvador (MUHNES) database. T. cruzi was incubated for 72 h with 2 different concentrations of methanolic extracts of 38 species, among which four species, Piper jacquemontianum, Piper lacunosum, Trichilia havanensis, and Peperomia pseudopereskiifolia, showed the activity (≤ 52.0% viability) at 100 µg/mL. Separation of the methanolic extract of aerial parts from Piper jacquemontianum afforded a new flavanone (4) and four known compounds, 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxymethoxychroman-4-one (1), 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxychroman-4-one (2), cardamomin (3), and pinocembrin (5), among which cardamomin exhibited the highest anti-trypanosomal activity (IC50 = 66 µM). Detailed analyses of the spectral data revealed that the new compound 4, named as jaqueflavanone A, was a derivative of pinocembrin having a prenylated benzoate moiety at the 8-position of the A ring. Graphic abstract


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4-5) ◽  
pp. 257-265
Author(s):  
Swapnil Khare ◽  
Shubhangi Pawar ◽  
D A Patil

Plants have been, since time immemorial, the focus of religious purposes for many human societies worldwide. Because of efficacious use in religious aspects, some plant species are said to be important. Certain plants are held sacred due to their intimate association with special locations like temple courtyards. These locations are easily overlooked for scientific investigations. People are closely associated with the plant-wealth in such places as well although on religious ground. These need to be tapped for indigenous wisdom for human welfare. The present authors inventorised three districts of Khandesh region (Maharashtra) to divulge plantlore. Total 28 species belonging to 27 genera and 21 angiospermic families are presently focussed touching four aspects viz., sacredness, miscellaneous uses, cosmetics and medicinal utilities. The worshippers, trustees and people intimately associated with temples and religious places have been interviewed to tap down traditional ethnobotanical information. This work provides an account of religious and cultural ways of conserving biodiversity. At the same, these places help improve local environment. Further studies in a country like India are desired to unearth the potentials of religious locations.


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