Plant Species
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
L. A. Ramí́rez-Camejo

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.

2022 ◽  
Vol 507 ◽  
pp. 120008
Katarzyna Rawlik ◽  
Marek Kasprowicz ◽  
Mirosław Nowiński ◽  
Andrzej M. Jagodziński

2022 ◽  
Yongxin Lin ◽  
Guiping Ye ◽  
Hang-Wei Hu ◽  
Ping Yang ◽  
Song Wan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 194 (2) ◽  
Łukasz Walas ◽  
Asma Taib

AbstractClustering methods based on environmental variables are useful in the planning of conservation strategies for species and ecosystems. However, there is a lack of work on the regionalization of the vast space of North Africa and the distribution of plant species. The current lists of endemic plants are focused mostly on an occurrence at the country level and not on regions with different conditions. The aim of this work was to lay out an environmental scheme for northwest Africa and to collect data about the occurrence of endemic plants in this area. Clustering with 12 of 33 tested environmental rasters was performed to divide the Maghreb into environmental clusters. Then, a list of 1618 endemic plant taxa (1243 species and 375 subspecies) was prepared and their distribution in estimated environmental clusters was examined. Eleven clusters with different conditions were estimated. The main drivers of regionalization were temperature amplitude, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the warmest quarter. According to the occurrence of endemic plants, northwest Africa may be divided into three zones: Atlas, Mediterranean (two environmental clusters), and southern zone (eight environmental clusters). The presented results provide a good basis for understanding the spatial patterns of the Maghreb, including its environment and species diversity. A designed list of endemic plant species together with environmental data may facilitate the planning of future research in north Africa and arranging methods of biodiversity protection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Arjun Adit ◽  
Vineet Kumar Singh ◽  
Monika Koul ◽  
Rajesh Tandon

Consumption of pollination reward by felonious means in a plant species can influence the foraging behavior of its pollinator and eventually the reproductive success. So far, studies on this aspect are largely confined to interaction involving plant-pollinators and nectar robbers or thieves. However, a foraging guild in such interactions may also include floral herbivores or florivores. There is a paucity of information on the extent to which nectar larcenists may influence the foraging behavior of the pollinator and reproductive fitness of plants in the presence of a florivore. We investigated various forms of larceny in the natural populations of Aerides odorata, a pollinator-dependent and nectar-rewarding orchid. These populations differed in types of foraging guild, the extent of larceny (thieving/robbing), which can occur with or without florivory, and natural fruit-set pattern. The nectariferous spur of the flower serves as an organ of interest among the foraging insects. While florivory marked by excision of nectary dissuades the pollinator, nectar thieving and robbing significantly enhance visits of the pollinator and fruit-set. Experimental pollinations showed that the species is a preferential outbreeder and experiences inbreeding depression from selfing. Reproductive fitness of the orchid species varies significantly with the extent of floral larceny. Although nectar thieving or robbing is beneficial in this self-compatible species, the negative effects of florivory were stronger. Our findings suggest that net reproductive fitness in the affected plant species is determined by the overarching effect of its breeding system on the overall interacting framework of the foraging guild.

2022 ◽  
Vol 93-94 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Victoria Gritsenko

Gymnospermium odessanum is a rare relict endemic plant species. The research was carried out during G. odessanum flowering in 2019–2021 at the botanical-geographical plot “Steppes of Ukraine” of the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NBG). Ecological and coenotic conditions of introduction at the NBG differ from natural habitats of the species and are not optimal for its vegetation. However, this species demonstrated ecological-coenotic plasticity and, over the decades, has formed a stable homeostatic introduction coenopopulation here. As of 2021, the area of introduction coenopopulation of G. odessanum at the NBG was 2,075 m2. It comprises 412 individuals of this species (including 40 seedlings, 241 juvenile, 45 immature, 40 virginal, 45 generative, and 1 sub-senile plants). Coenopopulation fragments with a high density of G. odessanum individuals are rare here, so the average density is low – only 0.2 individuals per 1 m2. In 2021, in the spectrum of age states, the total percentage of pregenerative individuals was very high and reached 88.8 %; the share of generative individuals was 10.9 %.In general, the age structure of the introduction coenopopulation of G. odessanum is characterized by long-term (2010–2021) stability. The spatial distribution of individuals in the introduction coenopopulation is of two kinds – random and in groups. This is due to combined myrmecochoric and barochoric propagation. Also due to myrmecochory, this coenopopulation tends to spread the area. Compared to natural coenopopulations, the introduction coenopopulation of G. odessanum at the NBG is characterized by a larger area, a much significant number, and, at the same time, a low average density of individuals. However, like in most of natural populations, its age spectrum is left-sided.The conducted research testifies the successful formation of the introduction coenopopulation of G. odessanum in the meadow-steppe cultural phytocoenosis of the NBG. This introduction coenopopulation is an example of a successful multi-year scientific experiment and effective ex situ protection and preservation of G. odessanum on the northern border of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, far beyond the natural range of this endemic plant species.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 210-214
Evan C. Fricke ◽  
Alejandro Ordonez ◽  
Haldre S. Rogers ◽  
Jens-Christian Svenning

Seed dispersal in decline Most plant species depend on animals to disperse their seeds, but this vital function is threatened by the declines in animal populations, limiting the potential for plants to adapt to climate change by shifting their ranges. Using data from more than 400 networks of seed dispersal interactions, Fricke et al . quantified the changes in seed disposal function brought about globally by defaunation. Their analyses indicate that past defaunation has severely reduced long-distance seed dispersal, cutting by more than half the number of seeds dispersed far enough to track climate change. In addition, their approach enables the prediction of seed dispersal interactions using species traits and an estimation of how these interactions translate into ecosystem functioning, thus informing ecological forecasting and the consequences of animal declines. —AMS

Ruminants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 74-89
Youssef Chebli ◽  
Samira El Otmani ◽  
Jean-Luc Hornick ◽  
Abdelhafid Keli ◽  
Jérôme Bindelle ◽  

The aim of this study was to study the feeding behaviour of indigenous goats and the selection drivers of different plant species in a Mediterranean forest rangeland. To achieve this goal, the seasonal variations in terms of forage availability and quality of ingested plant species were studied during three grazing seasons. In the same period, eight indigenous goats of Beni Arouss breed were selected to explore the seasonal changes in their browsing behaviour. Forage quality was determined by the hand-plucking technique. The results showed a wide seasonal variation in forage availability and quality, and feeding behaviour. Woody species were more selected independently of the season (p < 0.001). The crude protein content varied from 53.3 g/kg of dry mater (DM) for Erica arborea in summer to 197 g/kg DM for Calicotome villosa in autumn (p < 0.001). Despite the high condensed tannins content in selected shrubs, they were highly consumed. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) had recorded the highest contents in herbaceous during spring. Shrubs and trees contain the lowest levels of IVOMD (<500 g/kg) and ME (<7.2 MJ/kg) during autumn and summer. It is concluded that seasonal changes in forage availability and quality did not necessarily affect the indigenous goats’ preference. These findings could help goat herders to develop feeding and grazing systems while increasing the performance of goats in the Mediterranean silvopastoral system.

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