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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Xingwei Zhang ◽  
Xiaolong Zheng ◽  
Wenji Mao

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been verified to be easily attacked by well-designed adversarial perturbations. Image objects with small perturbations that are imperceptible to human eyes can induce DNN-based image class classifiers towards making erroneous predictions with high probability. Adversarial perturbations can also fool real-world machine learning systems and transfer between different architectures and datasets. Recently, defense methods against adversarial perturbations have become a hot topic and attracted much attention. A large number of works have been put forward to defend against adversarial perturbations, enhancing DNN robustness against potential attacks, or interpreting the origin of adversarial perturbations. In this article, we provide a comprehensive survey on classical and state-of-the-art defense methods by illuminating their main concepts, in-depth algorithms, and fundamental hypotheses regarding the origin of adversarial perturbations. In addition, we further discuss potential directions of this domain for future researchers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-35
José Mena ◽  
Oriol Pujol ◽  
Jordi Vitrià

Decision-making based on machine learning systems, especially when this decision-making can affect human lives, is a subject of maximum interest in the Machine Learning community. It is, therefore, necessary to equip these systems with a means of estimating uncertainty in the predictions they emit in order to help practitioners make more informed decisions. In the present work, we introduce the topic of uncertainty estimation, and we analyze the peculiarities of such estimation when applied to classification systems. We analyze different methods that have been designed to provide classification systems based on deep learning with mechanisms for measuring the uncertainty of their predictions. We will take a look at how this uncertainty can be modeled and measured using different approaches, as well as practical considerations of different applications of uncertainty. Moreover, we review some of the properties that should be borne in mind when developing such metrics. All in all, the present survey aims at providing a pragmatic overview of the estimation of uncertainty in classification systems that can be very useful for both academic research and deep learning practitioners.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-37
M. G. Sarwar Murshed ◽  
Christopher Murphy ◽  
Daqing Hou ◽  
Nazar Khan ◽  
Ganesh Ananthanarayanan ◽  

Resource-constrained IoT devices, such as sensors and actuators, have become ubiquitous in recent years. This has led to the generation of large quantities of data in real-time, which is an appealing target for AI systems. However, deploying machine learning models on such end-devices is nearly impossible. A typical solution involves offloading data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. To address this issue, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e., close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge computing devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning systems have been deployed at the edge of computer networks, focusing on the operational aspects including compression techniques, tools, frameworks, and hardware used in successful applications of intelligent edge systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jeewoo Yoon ◽  
Jinyoung Han ◽  
Junseo Ko ◽  
Seong Choi ◽  
Ji In Park ◽  

AbstractCentral serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is the fourth most common retinopathy and can reduce quality of life. CSC is assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT), but deep learning systems have not been used to classify CSC subtypes. This study aimed to build a deep learning system model to distinguish CSC subtypes using a convolutional neural network (CNN). We enrolled 435 patients with CSC from a single tertiary center between January 2015 and January 2020. Data from spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) images of the patients were analyzed using a deep CNN. Five-fold cross-validation was employed to evaluate the model’s ability to discriminate acute, non-resolving, inactive, and chronic atrophic CSC. We compared the performances of the proposed model, Resnet-50, Inception-V3, and eight ophthalmologists. Overall, 3209 SD-OCT images were included. The proposed model showed an average cross-validation accuracy of 70.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.676–0.718) and the highest test accuracy was 73.5%. Additional evaluation in an independent set of 104 patients demonstrated the reliable performance of the proposed model (accuracy: 76.8%). Our model could classify CSC subtypes with high accuracy. Thus, automated deep learning systems could be useful in the classification and management of CSC.

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