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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Yukui Luo ◽  
Shijin Duan ◽  
Xiaolin Xu

With the emerging cloud-computing development, FPGAs are being integrated with cloud servers for higher performance. Recently, it has been explored to enable multiple users to share the hardware resources of a remote FPGA, i.e., to execute their own applications simultaneously. Although being a promising technique, multi-tenant FPGA unfortunately brings its unique security concerns. It has been demonstrated that the capacitive crosstalk between FPGA long-wires can be a side-channel to extract secret information, giving adversaries the opportunity to implement crosstalk-based side-channel attacks. Moreover, recent work reveals that medium-wires and multiplexers in configurable logic block (CLB) are also vulnerable to crosstalk-based information leakage. In this work, we propose FPGAPRO: a defense framework leveraging P lacement, R outing, and O bfuscation to mitigate the secret leakage on FPGA components, including long-wires, medium-wires, and logic elements in CLB. As a user-friendly defense strategy, FPGAPRO focuses on protecting the security-sensitive instances meanwhile considering critical path delay for performance maintenance. As the proof-of-concept, the experimental result demonstrates that FPGAPRO can effectively reduce the crosstalk-caused side-channel leakage by 138 times. Besides, the performance analysis shows that this strategy prevents the maximum frequency from timing violation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-37
M. G. Sarwar Murshed ◽  
Christopher Murphy ◽  
Daqing Hou ◽  
Nazar Khan ◽  
Ganesh Ananthanarayanan ◽  

Resource-constrained IoT devices, such as sensors and actuators, have become ubiquitous in recent years. This has led to the generation of large quantities of data in real-time, which is an appealing target for AI systems. However, deploying machine learning models on such end-devices is nearly impossible. A typical solution involves offloading data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. To address this issue, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e., close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge computing devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning systems have been deployed at the edge of computer networks, focusing on the operational aspects including compression techniques, tools, frameworks, and hardware used in successful applications of intelligent edge systems.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 450
Haftay Gebreslasie Abreha ◽  
Mohammad Hayajneh ◽  
Mohamed Adel Serhani

Edge Computing (EC) is a new architecture that extends Cloud Computing (CC) services closer to data sources. EC combined with Deep Learning (DL) is a promising technology and is widely used in several applications. However, in conventional DL architectures with EC enabled, data producers must frequently send and share data with third parties, edge or cloud servers, to train their models. This architecture is often impractical due to the high bandwidth requirements, legalization, and privacy vulnerabilities. The Federated Learning (FL) concept has recently emerged as a promising solution for mitigating the problems of unwanted bandwidth loss, data privacy, and legalization. FL can co-train models across distributed clients, such as mobile phones, automobiles, hospitals, and more, through a centralized server, while maintaining data localization. FL can therefore be viewed as a stimulating factor in the EC paradigm as it enables collaborative learning and model optimization. Although the existing surveys have taken into account applications of FL in EC environments, there has not been any systematic survey discussing FL implementation and challenges in the EC paradigm. This paper aims to provide a systematic survey of the literature on the implementation of FL in EC environments with a taxonomy to identify advanced solutions and other open problems. In this survey, we review the fundamentals of EC and FL, then we review the existing related works in FL in EC. Furthermore, we describe the protocols, architecture, framework, and hardware requirements for FL implementation in the EC environment. Moreover, we discuss the applications, challenges, and related existing solutions in the edge FL. Finally, we detail two relevant case studies of applying FL in EC, and we identify open issues and potential directions for future research. We believe this survey will help researchers better understand the connection between FL and EC enabling technologies and concepts.

Saish Bavalekar ◽  
Ninad Gaonkar

A Smart mirror is a mirror with technology integrated with it. It uses a two-way mirror and has an inbuilt display at the back showing us different information in the form of widgets about the date, time, temperature, daily news updates. The Raspberry Pi acts as the central controller, which powers the display and collects data through sensors. The data collected is stored on cloud servers for further use. The mirror comes with facial recognition technology, which helps authenticate the user every time the user comes in the mirror range. With the help of voice commands, the mirror application can be queried to get the desired data. This automation has helped in multitasking which strives to optimize time in our daily life. In this manuscript we will review different applications of smart mirror.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Tao He ◽  
Kunxin Zhu ◽  
Zhipeng Chen ◽  
Ruomei Wang ◽  
Fan Zhou

Live streaming service usually delivers the content in mobile edge computing (MEC) to reduce the network latency and save the backhaul capacity. Considering the limited resources, it is necessary that MEC servers collaborate with each other and form an overlay to realize more efficient delivery. The critical challenge is how to optimize the topology among the servers and allocate the link capacity so that the cost will be lower with delay constraints. Previous approaches rarely consider server collaborations for live streaming service, and the scheduling delay is usually ignored in MEC, leading to suboptimal performances. In this paper, we propose a popularity-guided overlay model which takes the scheduling delay into consideration and utilizes MEC collaboration to achieve efficient live streaming service. The links and servers are shared among all channel streams and each stream is pushed from cloud servers to MEC servers via the trees. Considering the optimization problem is NP-hard, we propose an effective optimization framework called cost optimization for live streaming (COLS) to predict the channel popularity by a LSTM model with multiscale input data. Finally, we compute topology graph by greedy scheme and allocate the capacity with convex programming. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves higher prediction accuracy, reducing the capacity cost by more than 40% with an acceptable delay compared with state-of-the-art schemes.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 340
Wen-Chung Tsai ◽  
Tzu-Hsuan Tsai ◽  
Te-Jen Wang ◽  
Mao-Lun Chiang

The ecosystem for an Internet of Things (IoT) generally comprises endpoint clients, network devices, and cloud servers. Thus, data transfers within the network present multiple security concerns. The recent boom in IoT applications has accelerated the need for a network infrastructure that provides timely and safe information exchange services. A shortcoming of many existing networks is the use of static key authentication. To enable the use of automatic key update mechanisms in IoT devices and enhance security in lightweight machine-to-machine (M2M) communications, we propose a key update mechanism, namely, double OTP (D-OTP), which combines both one-time password (OTP) and one-time pad to achieve an IoT ecosystem with theoretically unbreakable security. The proposed D-OTP was implemented into the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) through the commonly used libcoap library. The experimental results revealed that an additional 8.93% latency overhead was required to obtain an unbreakable guarantee of data transfers in 100 CoAP communication sessions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Fog computing and Edge computing are few of the latest technologies which are offered as solution to challenges faced in Cloud Computing. Instead of offloading of all the tasks to centralized cloud servers, some of the tasks can be scheduled at intermediate Fog servers or Edge devices. Though this solves most of the problems faced in cloud but also encounter other traditional problems due to resource-related constraints like load balancing, scheduling, etc. In order to address task scheduling and load balancing in Cloud-fog-edge collaboration among servers, we have proposed an improved version of min-min algorithm for workflow scheduling which considers cost, makespan, energy and load balancing in heterogeneous environment. This algorithm is implemented and tested in different offloading scenarios- Cloud only, Fog only, Cloud-fog and Cloud-Fog-Edge collaboration. This approach performed better and the result gives minimum makespan, less energy consumption along with load balancing and marginally less cost when compared to min-min and ELBMM algorithms

2022 ◽  
pp. 320-339
Aydin Abadi

Cloud computing offers clients flexible and cost-effective resources. Nevertheless, past incidents indicate that the cloud may misbehave by exposing or tampering with clients' data. Therefore, it is vital for clients to protect the confidentiality and integrity of their outsourced data. To address these issues, researchers proposed cryptographic protocols called “proof of storage” that let a client efficiently verify the integrity or availability of its data stored in a remote cloud server. However, in these schemes, the client either has to be online to perform the verification itself or has to delegate the verification to a fully trusted auditor. In this chapter, a new scheme is proposed that lets the client distribute its data replicas among multiple cloud servers to achieve high availability without the need for the client to be online for the verification and without a trusted auditor's involvement. The new scheme is mainly based on blockchain smart contracts. It illustrates how a combination of cloud computing and blockchain technology can resolve real-world problems.

2022 ◽  
pp. 245-261
Geetha J. J. ◽  
Jaya Lakshmi D. S. ◽  
Keerthana Ningaraju L. N.

Distributed caching is one such system used by dynamic high-traffic websites to process the incoming user requests to perform the required tasks in an efficient way. Distributed caching is currently employing hashing algorithm in order to serve its purpose. A significant drawback of hashing in this circumstance is the addition of new servers that would result in a change in the previous hashing method (rehashing), hence, goes into a rigmarole. Thus, we need an effective algorithm to address the problem. This technique has served as a solution for distributed and rehashing problems. Most of upcoming internet of things will have to be latency aware and will not afford the data transmission and computation time in the cloud servers. The real-time processing in proximal distance device would be much needed. Hence, the authors aim to employ a real-time task scheduling algorithm. Computations referring to the user requests that are to be handled by the servers can be efficiently handled by consistent hashing algorithms.

Pallapu Himavanth Reddy

Abstract: Cloud computing provides customers with storage as a service, allowing data to be stored, managed, and cached remotely. Users can also access it online. A major concern for users is the integrity of the data stored in the cloud, as it is possible for external invaders or criminals to attack, repair, or destroy the data stored in the cloud. Data auditing is a trending concept that involves hiring a third-party auditor to perform a data integrity test (TPA). The main purpose of this project is to provide a safe and effective testing system that combines features such as data integrity, confidentiality, and privacy protection. The cloud server is only used to store encrypted data blocks in the proposed system. It is not subject to any additional computer verification. TPA and the data owner are in charge of all the functions of the scheme. A variety of materials are used to evaluate the proposed audit process. The proposed solution meets all the processes while minimizing the load on cloud servers. Data dynamics actions such as data review, deletion, and installation will be performed in the future. Keywords: Cloud storage; Third Party Auditor; Public Auditing; Privacy Preserving; Integrity;

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