human semen
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Author(s):  
Zahra Ait Yachou ◽  

It is already well established that the percentage of normal sperm and specific sperm abnormalities has diagnostic value in vivo. The spermocytogram is an important part of the analysis of human semen, this kind of analysis, simple at first sight, brings real difficulties because the results from one laboratory to another are very relatively reliable. When analyzing abnormal sperm morphology, the observer has to estimate the respective size of the different spermatozoa or their components, the length of all the spermatozoa (too small or too big) and to identify the shape (sperm with a coiled flagellum, or no flagellum as an example). The objective of our work is first of all to make a comparative study of the results of the morphological evaluation of 50 semen samples between the manual technique versus the automated one (SCA) in order to find a possible correlation between these two techniques. According to the analytical stage of the manual and automatic results, the two latter led us to obtain significantly different percentages.


Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1368
Author(s):  
Florence Boitrelle ◽  
Rupin Shah ◽  
Ramadan Saleh ◽  
Ralf Henkel ◽  
Hussein Kandil ◽  
...  

Semen analysis is the cornerstone of male fertility evaluation with WHO guidelines providing the basis for procedural standardization and reference values worldwide. The first WHO manual was published in 1980, and five editions have been subsequently released over the last four decades. The 6th Edition was published in July 2021. In this review, we identify the key changes of this 6th Edition. Additionally, we evaluate the utility of this 6th Edition in clinical practice using SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis. This new Edition has made the analysis of basic semen parameters more robust, taking into account the criticisms and grey areas of the previous editions. The tests assessing sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal oxidative stress are well-described. The main novelty is that this latest edition abandons the notion of reference thresholds, suggesting instead to replace them with “decision limits”. While this seems attractive, no decision limits are proposed for either basic semen parameters, or for extended or advanced parameters. This critical review of the 6th Edition of the WHO laboratory manual combined with a SWOT analysis summarizes the changes and novelties present in this new Edition and provides an in-depth analysis that could help its global use in the coming years.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (48) ◽  
pp. e2107832118
Author(s):  
Bhawana Shrestha ◽  
Kathleen Vincent ◽  
Alison Schaefer ◽  
Yong Zhu ◽  
Gracie Vargas ◽  
...  

Nonhormonal products for on-demand contraception are a global health technology gap; this unmet need motivated us to pursue the use of sperm-binding monoclonal antibodies to enable effective on-demand contraception. Here, using the cGMP-compliant Nicotiana-expression system, we produced an ultrapotent sperm-binding IgG antibody possessing 6 Fab arms per molecule that bind a well-established contraceptive antigen target, CD52g. We term this hexavalent antibody “Fab-IgG-Fab” (FIF). The Nicotiana-produced FIF had at least 10-fold greater sperm-agglutination potency and kinetics than the parent IgG, while preserving Fc-mediated trapping of individual spermatozoa in mucus. We formulated the Nicotiana-produced FIF into a polyvinyl alcohol–based water-soluble contraceptive film and evaluated its potency in reducing progressively motile sperm in the sheep vagina. Two minutes after vaginal instillation of human semen, no progressively motile sperm were recovered from the vaginas of sheep receiving FIF Film. Our work supports the potential of multivalent contraceptive antibodies to provide safe, effective, on-demand nonhormonal contraception.


F&S Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephanie Gunderson ◽  
Ashley Eskew ◽  
Dylan Stoutenburg ◽  
Joan K. Riley ◽  
Molly J. Stout ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wen Han Tong ◽  
Jana Hlaváčová ◽  
Samira Abdulai-Saiku ◽  
Šárka Kaňková ◽  
Jaroslav Flegr ◽  
...  

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely prevalent protozoan parasite in human populations. This parasite is thought to be primarily transmitted through undercooked meat and contamination by cat feces. Here, we demonstrate that Toxoplasma gondii cysts can be found within human semen, thus suggesting a potential for sexual transmission. We visualized Toxoplasma gondii cysts in ejaculates of immune-competent and latently infected human volunteers. We confirmed the encystment by probing transcription of a bradyzoite-specific gene in these structures. These observations extend previous observations of the parasite in semen of several non-human host species, including rats, dogs, and sheep. Toxoplasma gondii infection is a clinically significant infection, in view of its high prevalence, its purported role in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, as well as in the more serious form of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our demonstration of intact Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the ejaculate supports the possibility of sexual transmission of the parasite and provides an impetus for further investigations.


Author(s):  
Francesca M. Branch ◽  
Melissa J. Perry ◽  
Zhen Chen ◽  
Germaine M. Buck Louis
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