Vitro Fertilization
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2021 ◽  
Chih-Wei Lin ◽  
Meng-Hsing Wu ◽  
Yu-Lin Mau ◽  
Pei-Fang Su ◽  
Huang-Tz Ou

Abstract BackgroundThe use of atosiban during embryo transfer (ET), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, has been demonstrated to enhance pregnancy rate among infertile patients with endometriosis. However, its efficacy has not been assessed among those with concurrent adenomyosis, which may further affect pregnancy rate.MethodsThis retrospective cohort study assessed in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy, and the effect of atosiban among 34 women with both endometriosis and adenomyosis (with 66 ET cycles), compared to 34 endometriosis patients without adenomyosis (with 54 ETs) and 38 patients with tubal factor (with 56 ETs). Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation analyses were performed to assess pregnancy outcomes with adjustment for maternal and treatment characteristics.ResultsSignificantly higher chances of biochemical pregnancy and live birth among endometriosis patients without adenomyosis versus those with both endometriosis and adenomyosis were found (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 2.981 [1.307, 6.803]; p=0.009, 2.694 [1.151, 6.304]; p=0.022). A significant positive association between atosiban use and biochemical pregnancy existed among endometriosis cases without adenomyosis (a 2.43-fold [1.01, 5.89] increase in successful pregnancy; p<0.05), but not for the other groups. An insignificant increase in pregnancy rates was found for atosiban-treated extensive adenomyosis cases (i.e., ≥50%) versus non-treated cases (biochemical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth: 42.9% versus 33.3%, 37.5% versus 14.3%, and 25.0% versus 14.3%, respectively).ConclusionsPoor pregnancy outcomes among adenomyosis-affected women were confirmed. The use of atosiban significantly enhanced IVF pregnancy among endometriosis patients without adenomyosis. Atosiban use might benefit those with more extensive adenomyosis.

E. López-Pérez ◽  
F. Cortés-Villavicencio ◽  
C. Muñoz-García ◽  
J. Gallegos-Sánchez ◽  
Alejandro Ávalos-Rodríguez

Objective: To describe the anatomy, morphology and physiology of the reproductive system of male jaguars, as well as assisted reproduction techniques. Methodology: A literature review on the anatomy and morphology of the jaguar´s reproductive system, its physiological characteristics and assisted reproduction techniques were carried out to document relevant information on the topic. Results: With this review, basic aspects of the morphology of the reproductive system of the jaguars are disclosed, although scarce knowledge is available on their reproduction. The advances in the collection, evaluation and cryopreservation of semen of this feline are shown, in addition to assisted reproduction techniques such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization, which have a great potential to safeguard the species. Study limitations: The jaguar, an emblematic species of Latinamerica, is an endangered species, like other wild felids species as ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and margay (Leopardus wiedii), which makes it necessary to have a national assisted reproduction program. However, for this to be possible, information about their reproductive physiology is necessary, which is complicated in wild animals and even more so because the reproductive mechanisms greatly differ between felids species. There is scarce information in this regard from its free-living or Mexican zoos, it is for this reason necessary to generate such information. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue working on designing protocols for artificial insemination and other assisted reproduction techniques such as in-vitro fertilization specifically for male Panthera onca.

Saeideh Dashti ◽  
Maryam Eftekhar

It has been shown that in controlled ovarian hyper stimulation cycles, defective luteal phase is common. There are many protocols for improving pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing fresh and frozen in vitro fertilization cycles. These approaches include progesterone supplements, human chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and recombinant luteinizing hormone. The main challenge is luteal-phase support (LPS) in cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering. There is still controversy about the optimal component and time for starting LPS in assisted reproductive technology cycles. This review aims to summarize the various protocols suggested for LPS in in vitro fertilization cycles. Key words: Luteal-phase support, IVF, HCG, Progesterone, GnRH agonist, Recombinant LH.

Elnaz Hosseinalipour ◽  
Mojtaba Karimipour ◽  
Abbas Ahmadi

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) as an important nanomaterial have a wide range of applications in many fields and human beings’ exposure to this nanomaterial is unavoidable. The effects of CeO2 NPs on the male reproductive system are controversial. Objective: To determine the effects of the administration of CeO2 NPs on the testis tissue, sperm parameters, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male mice were divided into three groups (n = 8/each): one control and two experimental groups receiving CeO2 NPs at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 35 days. At the end of the experiment, the diameter of seminiferous tubules (SNTs), epithelial height of SNTs, spermiogenesis index in testes, sperm parameters (count, motility, viability, and morphology), sperm chromatin condensation, DNA integrity, and IVF assays were analyzed. Results: Histological results showed that the tubular diameter, the epithelial height of the SNTs, and the spermiogenesis index were significantly decreased in the experimental groups receiving CeO2 NPs. All sperm parameters in the experimental groups were significantly reduced and, additionally, the percentages of immature sperms and sperms with DNA damage were significantly increased in groups treated with CeO2 NPs compared to the control. Furthermore, the rates of IVF and in vitro embryo development were decreased. Conclusion: Collectively, the current study showed that oral administration of CeO2 NPs in mice had detrimental effects on the male reproductive system through inducing testicular tissue alterations, decreasing sperm parameters quality, and also diminishing the IVF rate and in vitro embryonic development. Key words: Cerium oxide, Testis, Sperm, Fertilization, Mice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Qingyi Lin ◽  
Quynh Anh Le ◽  
Koki Takebayashi ◽  
Chommanart Thongkittidilok ◽  
Manita Wittayarat ◽  

Abstract Objective Lipofection-mediated introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in porcine zygotes provides a simple method for gene editing, without requiring micromanipulation. However, the gene editing efficiency is inadequate. The aim of this study was to improve the lipofection-mediated gene editing efficiency by optimizing the timing and duration of lipofection. Results Zona pellucida (ZP)-free zygotes collected at 5, 10, and 15 h from the start of in vitro fertilization (IVF) were incubated with lipofection reagent, guide RNA (gRNA) targeting GGTA1, and Cas9 for 5 h. Lipofection of zygotes collected at 10 and 15 h from the start of IVF yielded mutant blastocysts. Next, ZP-free zygotes collected at 10 h from the start of IVF were incubated with lipofection reagent, gRNA, and Cas9 for 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 h. The blastocyst formation rate of zygotes treated for 20 h was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of the other groups, and no mutant blastocysts were obtained. Moreover, the mutation rates of the resulting blastocysts decreased as the incubation time increased. In conclusion, a lipofection-mediated gene editing system using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in ZP-zygotes is feasible; however, further improvements in the gene editing efficiency are required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Jianhua Li ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Tiecheng Sun ◽  
Shuiwen Zhang ◽  
Tingting Jiao ◽  

Abstract Background In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) is being increasingly approached in assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of embryos generated by in-vitro matured immature follicles, as a guideline for further clinical decision-making. Methods A total of 52 couples with normal karyotypes underwent in vitro fertilization, and 162 embryos were donated for genetic screening. Embryos in IVF group were generated by mature follicles retrieved during gonadotrophin-stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. And embryos in IVM group were fertilized from IVM immature oocytes. Results The average age of the women was 30.50 ± 4.55 years (range 21–42 years) with 87 embryos from IVF group and 75 embryos from IVM group. The rate of aneuploid with 28 of the 87 (32.2%) embryos from IVF group and 21 of the 75 (28%) embryos from IVM group, with no significant difference. The frequency of aneuploid embryos was lowest in the youngest age and increased gradually with women’s age, whether in IVF group or IVM group and risen significantly over 35 years old. The embryos with morphological grade 1 have the lowest aneuploidy frequency (16.6%), and increase by the grade, especially in IVF group. In grade 3, embryos in IVM group were more likely to be euploid than IVF group (60% vs 40%, respectively). Conclusions IVM does not affect the quality of embryos and does not increase the aneuploidy rate of embryos. It is clinically recommended that women more than 35 years have a high aneuploidy rate and recommended to test by PGS (strongly recommended to screened by PGS for women more than 40 years). Women aged less than 35 years old for PGS according to their physical and economic conditions. Embryo with poor quality is also recommended to test by PGS, especially for grade III embryos.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 248-249
Sung Woo Kim ◽  
Jae-Yeong Lee ◽  
Chan-Lan Kim ◽  
In-Sul Hwang ◽  
Yeoung-Gyu Ko ◽  

Abstract The objective of the present study was to establish conditions for using technology that can potentially enhance the efficiency of bovine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF) with frozen semen. Frozen semen from selected bulls can be stored indefinitely in liquid nitrogen as genetic resources; however, these resources are considered consumable because they cannot be regenerated. Therefore, to optimize the utilization of frozen semen, as many oocytes as possible should be fertilized with one straw. However, a sufficient number of prepared oocytes might not be available for one experiment, which can limit the use of the total spermatozoa population. Thus, an economical method for producing embryos needs to be established by optimizing technology for transplantable embryos. In this study, the utilization of frozen semen was increased by dividing the straw with an ultrasonic cutter. The post-thaw survival rate of uncut straws from Korean Proven Bulls did not differ from that of half cuttings. When ultrasonic cutting was applied to frozen semen, spermatozoa could be prepared for IVF trials at least four times, and blastocysts were produced. Therefore, cutting frozen semen with an ultrasonic cutter represents a potentially useful tool to expand genetic resources from excellent breeding stocks. This approach could also be valuable in the field of IVF of endangered species or rare breeds for their preservation, as well as in ovum pick-up (OPU) techniques.

2021 ◽  
Itay Erlich ◽  
Assaf Ben-Meir ◽  
Iris Har-Vardi ◽  
James A Grifo ◽  
Assaf Zaritsky

Automated live embryo imaging has transformed in-vitro fertilization (IVF) into a data-intensive field. Unlike clinicians who rank embryos from the same IVF cycle cohort based on the embryos visual quality and determine how many embryos to transfer based on clinical factors, machine learning solutions usually combine these steps by optimizing for implantation prediction and using the same model for ranking the embryos within a cohort. Here we establish that this strategy can lead to sub-optimal selection of embryos. We reveal that despite enhancing implantation prediction, inclusion of clinical properties hampers ranking. Moreover, we find that ambiguous labels of failed implantations, due to either low quality embryos or poor clinical factors, confound both the optimal ranking and even implantation prediction. To overcome these limitations, we propose conceptual and practical steps to enhance machine-learning driven IVF solutions. These consist of separating the optimizing of implantation from ranking by focusing on visual properties for ranking, and reducing label ambiguity.

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