morphological evaluation
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Zahra Ait Yachou ◽  

It is already well established that the percentage of normal sperm and specific sperm abnormalities has diagnostic value in vivo. The spermocytogram is an important part of the analysis of human semen, this kind of analysis, simple at first sight, brings real difficulties because the results from one laboratory to another are very relatively reliable. When analyzing abnormal sperm morphology, the observer has to estimate the respective size of the different spermatozoa or their components, the length of all the spermatozoa (too small or too big) and to identify the shape (sperm with a coiled flagellum, or no flagellum as an example). The objective of our work is first of all to make a comparative study of the results of the morphological evaluation of 50 semen samples between the manual technique versus the automated one (SCA) in order to find a possible correlation between these two techniques. According to the analytical stage of the manual and automatic results, the two latter led us to obtain significantly different percentages.

2021 ◽  
Xiaoming Jiang ◽  
Jiali Cai ◽  
Lanlan Liu ◽  
Zhenfang Liu ◽  
Wenjie Wang ◽  

Abstract BackgroundAdvanced models including time-lapse imaging and artificial intelligence technologies have been used to predict blastocyst formation. However, the conventional morphological evaluation of embryos is still widely used. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the predictive power of conventional morphological evaluation regarding blastocyst formation.MethodsRetrospective evaluation of data from 15613 patients receiving blastocyst culture from January 2013 through December 2020 in our institution were reviewed. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to establish the morphology-based model. To estimate whether including more features regarding patient characteristics and cycle parameters improve the predicting power, we also establish models including 27 more features with either LASSO regression or XGbosst. The predicted number of blastocyst were associated with the observed number of the blastocyst and were used to predict the blastocyst transfer cancellation either in fresh or frozen cycles. ResultsBased on early cleavage and routine observed morphological parameters (cell number, fragmentation, and symmetry), the GEE model predicted blastocyst formation with an AUC of 0.779(95%CI: 0.77-0.787) and an accuracy of 74.7%(95%CI: 73.9%-75.5%) in the validation set. LASSO regression model and XGboost model based on the combination of cycle characteristics and embryo morphology yielded similar predicting power with AUCs of 0.78(95%CI: 0.771-0.789) and 0.754(95%CI: 0.745-0.763), respectively. For per-cycle blastocyst yield, the predicted number of blastocysts using morphological parameters alone strongly correlated with observed blastocyst number (r=0.897, P<0.0001) and predicted blastocyst transfer cancel with an AUC of 0.926((95%CI: 0.911-0.94). ConclusionThe data suggested that routine morphology observation remained a feasible tool to support an informed decision regarding the day of transfer. However, models based on the combination of cycle characteristics and embryo morphology do not increase the predicting power significantly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 213-219
Alessia Leggio ◽  
Francesco Introna

The degree of ossification of the thyroid cartilage in anthropological studies is related to other methods of determining the age of a skeleton. The endochondral ossification process begins at the age of approximately 15–20 years and is generally completed in the fifth or sixth decade of life. In the present case, early and complete mineralization of the thyroid cartilage of a skeleton belonging to a 21-year-old young soldier who died in 1946 was observed. Ossified thyroid cartilage at a very young age is rare and may be associated with specific symptoms, such as compression due to trauma, or may also be related to hormonal dysfunction and various diseases that may cause early mineralization. A macroscopic morphological evaluation and radiographic examination of the thyroid cartilage were performed and a decalcification test was applied to a sample taken from the thyroid cartilage to confirm that the structure was indeed mineralized. There is nothing to exclude that this is simply a physiological anatomical variation. Knowledge of this rare anatomical abnormality at a young age would be useful for the diagnosis of various pathological conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Andrea Lienhard ◽  
Günther Krisper

AbstractA challenge for taxonomists all over the world and across all taxonomic groups is recognizing and delimiting species, and cryptic species are even more challenging. However, an accurate identification is fundamental for all biological studies from ecology to conversation biology. We used a multidisciplinary approach including genetics as well as morphological and ecological data to assess if an easily recognizable, widely distributed and euryoecious mite taxon represents one and the same species. According to phylogenetic (based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes) and species delimitation analyses, five distinct putative species were detected and supported by high genetic distances. These genetic lineages correlate well with ecological data, and each species could be associated to its own (micro)habitat. Subsequently, slight morphological differences were found and provide additional evidence that five different species occur in Central and Southern Europe. The minuteness and the characteristic habitus of Caleremaeus monilipes tempted to neglect potential higher species diversity. This problem might concern several other “well-known” euryoecious microarthropods. Five new species of the genus Caleremaeus are described, namely Caleremaeus mentobellus sp. nov., C. lignophilus sp. nov., C. alpinus sp. nov., C. elevatus sp. nov., and C. hispanicus sp. nov. Additionally, a morphological evaluation of C. monilipes is presented.

2021 ◽  

In this work, the properties of alkali silicate geopolymer type materials and diatomite as additive to fly coal ash was investigated using thermic coal plant’s fly ash in alkaline solution. The reacted products of alumino-silicate geopolymers using fly ash plus diatomite were pseudo-amorphous aluminosilicate gel and calcite and their mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated by the addition of diatomite. The compressive strength of this geopolymer is similar to that of the Portland cement mortar of PC20 (± 20 %) when cured for 28 days while the density and thermal properties are much lower that indicates the insulator properties. Alkaline solution was produced by NaOH in different concentrations to determine the least alkaline solution molarity in the range of 1 M, 3 M and 5 M. The characterization of geopolymers were done by using XRD for phase analysis, SEM for surface and morphological evaluation, compression tests for mechanical properties and transient plane source thermal analysis for thermal insulation properties. The results showed that, 1 M of NaOH alkaline solution and 10wt% diatomite addition can provide enough strength of 18 MPa which is a good candidate for constructional materials. The thermal conductivity coefficient of 10 wt.% diatomite added geopolymer was evaluated as 0.0018 W/m×K which can also be a good candidate for insulator materials to be used in green lateral wall production.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Shruti Gupta ◽  
Upasana Gautam ◽  
Shaily Susheilia ◽  
Baneet Bansal ◽  
Radha Uppal ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Cell blocks (CBs) are an essential adjunct in cytopathology practice. The aim of this study was to compare 2 techniques of CB preparation – plasma thrombin (PT) method with sodium alginate (SA) method for overall cellularity, morphological preservation, obscuring artefacts, immunocytochemistry (ICC), suitability for molecular analysis, and cost of preparation. <b><i>Design:</i></b> A total of 80 fine-needle aspirates from various sites and serous effusion samples were included. Of these cases, by random selection, 40 each were prepared by PT method and SA methods, respectively. The haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CBs from both methods were evaluated in a blinded fashion by 2 cytopathologists and scored for cellularity, artefacts, and morphological preservation and analysed by χ<sup>2</sup> test with Yates correction. We evaluated 6 cases from each method by ICC for a range of membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear marker expression. DNA was extracted from four cases to evaluate their utility for molecular analysis. <b><i>Results:</i></b> CB sections from PT and SA techniques showed comparable cellularity and excellent cytomorphological preservation. Blue gel-like artefacts were common in the SA technique but did not interfere with morphological evaluation. ICC staining results were also similar. DNA yield and utility for PCR were also comparable. The SA-CB cost half that of PT-CB (USD 0.4 vs. USD 1). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> SA technique of CB preparation is an excellent low-cost alternative to PT method for CB preparation.

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