Abstract Now a day’s multidrug resistance phenomenon has become the main cause for concern and there has been an inadequate achievement in the development of novel antibiotics to treat the bacterial infections. Therefore, there is an unmet need to search for novel adjuvant. Vitamin C is one such promising adjuvant. The present study was aimed to elucidate the antibacterial effect of vitamin C at various temperatures (4°C, 37°C and 50°C) and pH (3, 8, and 11), against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at various concentrations (5-20 mg/ml) through agar well diffusion method. Growth inhibition of all bacterial strains by vitamin C was concentration-dependent. Vitamin C significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus licheniformis (25.3 ± 0.9 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (22.0 ± 0.6 mm), Bacillus subtilis (19.3 ± 0.3 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus mirabilis (27.67 ± 0.882 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.33±0.9 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.0 ± 1.5 mm) and Escherichia coli (18.3 ± 0.3 mm). The stability of vitamin C was observed at various pH values and various temperatures. Vitamin C showed significant antibacterial activity at acidic pH against all bacterial strains. Vitamin C remained the stable at different temperatures. It was concluded that vitamin C is an effective and safe antibacterial agent that can be used in the future as an adjunct treatment option to combat infections in humans.
With more than 70 different histological sarcoma subtypes, accurate classification can be challenging. Although characteristic genetic events can largely facilitate pathological assessment, large-scale molecular profiling generally is not part of regular diagnostic workflows for sarcoma patients. We hypothesized that whole genome sequencing (WGS) optimizes clinical care of sarcoma patients by detection of diagnostic and actionable genomic characteristics, and of underlying hereditary conditions. WGS of tumor and germline DNA was incorporated in the diagnostic work-up of 83 patients with a (presumed) sarcomas in a tertiary referral center. Clinical follow-up data were collected prospectively to assess impact of WGS on clinical decision making. In 12/83 patients (14%), the genomic profile led to revision of cancer diagnosis, with change of treatment plan in eight. All twelve patients had undergone multiple tissue retrieval procedures and immunohistopathological assessments by regional and expert pathologists prior to WGS analysis. Actionable biomarkers with therapeutic potential were identified for 30/83 patients. Pathogenic germline variants were present in seven patients. In conclusion, unbiased genomic characterization with WGS identifies genomic biomarkers with direct clinical implications for sarcoma patients. Given the diagnostic complexity and high unmet need for new treatment opportunities in sarcoma patients, WGS can be an important extension of the diagnostic arsenal of pathologists.
Asthma is a common chronic airway disease affecting about 358 million people worldwide, and an estimated 7 million children globally. Approximately 10% of patients with asthma have severe refractory disease, which is difficult to control on high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and other modifiers. Among these, are patients with severe neutrophilic asthma. Neutrophilic asthma is a severe phenotype of asthma, characterized by frequent exacerbations, persistent airway obstruction, and poor lung function. Immunopathologically, it is characterized by the presence of high levels of neutrophils in the airways and lungs. Interleukin-17 produced by Th17 cells, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neutrophilic asthma by expressing the secretion of chemoattractant cytokines and chemokines for the recruitment, and activation of neutrophils. Interleukin-8 is a powerful chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. Activated neutrophils produce an oxidative burst, releasing multiple reactive oxygen species, proteinases, cytokines, which cause airway epithelial cell injury, inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling. Furthermore, exasperated neutrophils due to viral, bacterial or fungal infections, and chemical irritants can release extracellular nucleic acids (DNA), designated as NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are more toxic to the airway epithelial cells, and orchestrate airway inflammation, and release alarmin cytokines. Dysregulated NETs formation is associated with severe asthma. Most patients with neutrophilic asthma are unresponsive to the standard of care, including high dose inhaled corticosteroids, and to targeted biologics, such as mepolizumab, and dupilumab, which are very effective in treating eosinophilic asthma. There is unmet need to explore for novel biologics for the treatment of neutrophilic asthma, and in refining therapies, such as bronchial thermoplasty.
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are regulatory RNAs which have recently been shown to have clinical significance in several diseases, including, but not limited to, various cancers, neurological diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The function of such regulatory RNAs is largely dependent on their subcellular localization. Several circRNAs have been shown to conduct antagonistic roles compared to the products of the linear isoforms, and thus need to be characterized distinctly from the linear RNAs. However, conventional fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques cannot be employed directly to distinguish the signals from linear and circular isoforms because most circRNAs share the same sequence with the linear RNAs. In order to address this unmet need, we adapted the well-established method of single-molecule FISH by designing two sets of probes to differentiate the linear and circular RNA isoforms by virtue of signal colocalization. We call this method ‘circular fluorescent in situ hybridization’ (circFISH). Linear and circular RNAs were successfully visualized and quantified at a single-molecule resolution in fixed cells. RNase R treatment during the circFISH reduced the levels of linear RNAs while the circRNA levels remain unaltered. Furthermore, cells with shRNAs specific to circRNA showed the loss of circRNA levels, whereas the linear RNA levels were unaffected. The optimization of the in-situ RNase R treatment allowed the multiplexing of circFISH to combine it with organelle staining. CircFISH was found to be compatible with multiple sample types, including cultured cells and fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed tissue sections. Thus, we present circFISH as a versatile method for the simultaneous visualization and quantification of the distribution and localization of linear and circular RNA in fixed cells and tissue samples.
Problems related to the stagnation of the family planning program in Indonesia are thought to be caused by the level of contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning, a decrease in fertility or fertility rates, an increase in the proportion of early marriage, limited knowledge of reproductive health, and sexual activity outside of marriage which leads to Total Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). The purpose of this activity is to implement the ¨KOPIKu¨ application. This community partnership service is carried out in Cilamajang Village. Kawalu District, Tasikmalaya City, which is the working area of ??the Karanganyar Community Health Center for 35 primigravida III trimester pregnant women. This activity is an application of the ¨KOPIKu¨ My Choice of Contraception which is installed on a smartphone. The results show that the knowledge of mothers before using the KOPIKu application was mostly in the less category at 85.7%, while the mother's knowledge after using the ¨KOPIKu aplikasi application was mostly in the good category at 82.9%.
The sustained release of small, tumor-targeted cytotoxic drugs is an unmet need in cancer therapies, which usually rely on punctual administration regimens of non-targeted drugs. Here, we have developed a novel concept of protein–drug nanoconjugates, which are packaged as slow-releasing chemically hybrid depots and sustain a prolonged secretion of the therapeutic agent. For this, we covalently attached hydrophobic molecules (including the antitumoral drug Monomethyl Auristatin E) to a protein targeting a tumoral cell surface marker abundant in several human neoplasias, namely the cytokine receptor CXCR4. By this, a controlled aggregation of the complex is achieved, resulting in mechanically stable protein–drug microparticles. These materials, which are mimetics of bacterial inclusion bodies and of mammalian secretory granules, allow the slow leakage of fully functional conjugates at the nanoscale, both in vitro and in vivo. Upon subcutaneous administration in a mouse model of human CXCR4+ lymphoma, the protein–drug depots release nanoconjugates for at least 10 days, which accumulate in the tumor with a potent antitumoral effect. The modification of scaffold cell-targeted proteins by hydrophobic drug conjugation is then shown as a novel transversal platform for the design of slow releasing protein–drug depots, with potential application in a broad spectrum of clinical settings.
The global urgency to uncover medical countermeasures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has revealed an unmet need for robust tissue culture models that faithfully recapitulate key features of human tissues and disease. Infection of the nose is considered the dominant initial site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and models that replicate this entry portal offer the greatest potential for examining and demonstrating the effectiveness of countermeasures designed to prevent or manage this highly communicable disease. Here, we test an air–liquid-interface (ALI) differentiated human nasal epithelium (HNE) culture system as a model of authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Progenitor cells (basal cells) were isolated from nasal turbinate brushings, expanded under conditionally reprogrammed cell (CRC) culture conditions and differentiated at ALI. Differentiated cells were inoculated with different SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates. Infectious virus release into apical washes was determined by TCID50, while infected cells were visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. We demonstrate robust, reproducible SARS-CoV-2 infection of ALI-HNE established from different donors. Viral entry and release occurred from the apical surface, and infection was primarily observed in ciliated cells. In contrast to the ancestral clinical isolate, the Delta variant caused considerable cell damage. Successful establishment of ALI-HNE is donor dependent. ALI-HNE recapitulate key features of human SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nose and can serve as a pre-clinical model without the need for invasive collection of human respiratory tissue samples.
AbstractDespite encouraging preclinical data, therapies to reduce ARDS mortality remains a globally unmet need, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. We previously identified extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) as a novel damage-associated molecular pattern protein (DAMP) via TLR4 ligation which regulates inflammatory cascade activation. eNAMPT is tightly linked to human ARDS by biomarker and genotyping studies in ARDS subjects. We now hypothesize that an eNAMPT-neutralizing mAb will significantly reduce the severity of ARDS lung inflammatory lung injury in diverse preclinical rat and porcine models. Sprague Dawley rats received eNAMPT mAb intravenously following exposure to intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or to a traumatic blast (125 kPa) but prior to initiation of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) (4 h). Yucatan minipigs received intravenous eNAMPT mAb 2 h after initiation of septic shock and VILI (12 h). Each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model was strongly associated with evidence of severe inflammatory lung injury with NFkB pathway activation and marked dysregulation of the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. eNAMPT neutralization dramatically reduced inflammatory indices and the severity of lung injury in each rat/porcine ARDS/VILI model (~ 50% reduction) including reduction in serum lactate, and plasma levels of eNAMPT, IL-6, TNFα and Ang-2. The eNAMPT mAb further rectified NFkB pathway activation and preserved the Akt/mTORC2 signaling pathway. These results strongly support targeting the eNAMPT/TLR4 inflammatory pathway as a potential ARDS strategy to reduce inflammatory lung injury and ARDS mortality.
AbstractDegree of expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is related with Immune check point inhibitors (ICIs) response but it needs sufficient tumor tissue. There is unmet need for easily accessible and prognostic peripheral blood (PB) biomarkers. We investigated the application of serum peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) as a predictive PB biomarker for ICI response in patients with NSCLC. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the patients with NSCLC who were treated with ICIs from April 1, 2016, to March 31, 2019. The PLC before and after 1 month of immunotherapy was collected. We evaluated the association between PLC and progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events. A total of 231 patients were treated with ICIs for NSCLC. The median follow-up period was 4.7 months and the disease progressed in 138 patients (59.7%). Compared with the lowest quartile (Q1: the lowest 25%), the highest quartile (Q4: the highest 25%) of post-treatment PLC showed a significantly higher PFS (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.16–0.52) and OS (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.19–0.65) in the adjusted model. An association between adverse events and PLC was not observed. We revealed that an increased pre- and post-treatment PLC was associated with favorable PFS and OS with NSCLC patients treated with ICIs. PLC could be a helpful for ICI responses in NSCLC.
Despite Ethiopia’s efforts to avail postpartum family planning (PPFP) services, the unmet need for family planning among postpartum women remains high. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess barriers and determinants of postpartum family-planning uptake among women visiting Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health (MNCH) services in public health facilities of western Ethiopia.
A facility-based cross-sectional study design with a quantitative method was conducted on 989 postpartum women in Western Ethiopia from September 1 to October 30, 2020. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using pretested structured questionnaires, entered using EPI-INFO version 7.0, and analyzed by SPSS version 25. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were performed. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used and statistical significance was declared at P-value < 0.05.
In this study, 56.1% of participants had used PPFP in the last year. The most commonly used method was injectable (51.7%). Family planning use before the index pregnancy (AOR = 2.09;95%CI:1.29,3,41),counselling on PPFP during antenatal care and delivery (AOR = 4.89;95%CI:2.31,10.37),health facility delivery (AOR = 7.61;95%CI:4.36,13.28), skilled birth attendance (AOR = 4.99;95%CI:2.88,8.64),COVID-19 restrictions (AOR = 0.59;95%CI:0.39,0.90) were factors associated with PPFP utilization. Being breastfeeding and amenorrhea were major reasons for not using postpartum family planning.
Post-partum family planning utilization among study participants was low. Given the associated factors, it is recommended that health facilities should make postpartum family planning one of their top priorities and focus on these factors to improve its utilization.