dynamic networks
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Yiji Zhao ◽  
Youfang Lin ◽  
Zhihao Wu ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Haomin Wen

Dynamic networks are widely used in the social, physical, and biological sciences as a concise mathematical representation of the evolving interactions in dynamic complex systems. Measuring distances between network snapshots is important for analyzing and understanding evolution processes of dynamic systems. To the best of our knowledge, however, existing network distance measures are designed for static networks. Therefore, when measuring the distance between any two snapshots in dynamic networks, valuable context structure information existing in other snapshots is ignored. To guide the construction of context-aware distance measures, we propose a context-aware distance paradigm, which introduces context information to enrich the connotation of the general definition of network distance measures. A Context-aware Spectral Distance (CSD) is then given as an instance of the paradigm by constructing a context-aware spectral representation to replace the core component of traditional Spectral Distance (SD). In a node-aligned dynamic network, the context effectively helps CSD gain mainly advantages over SD as follows: (1) CSD is not affected by isospectral problems; (2) CSD satisfies all the requirements of a metric, while SD cannot; and (3) CSD is computationally efficient. In order to process large-scale networks, we develop a kCSD that computes top- k eigenvalues to further reduce the computational complexity of CSD. Although kCSD is a pseudo-metric, it retains most of the advantages of CSD. Experimental results in two practical applications, i.e., event detection and network clustering in dynamic networks, show that our context-aware spectral distance performs better than traditional spectral distance in terms of accuracy, stability, and computational efficiency. In addition, context-aware spectral distance outperforms other baseline methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Lili Wang ◽  
Chenghan Huang ◽  
Ying Lu ◽  
Weicheng Ma ◽  
Ruibo Liu ◽  

Complex user behavior, especially in settings such as social media, can be organized as time-evolving networks. Through network embedding, we can extract general-purpose vector representations of these dynamic networks which allow us to analyze them without extensive feature engineering. Prior work has shown how to generate network embeddings while preserving the structural role proximity of nodes. These methods, however, cannot capture the temporal evolution of the structural identity of the nodes in dynamic networks. Other works, on the other hand, have focused on learning microscopic dynamic embeddings. Though these methods can learn node representations over dynamic networks, these representations capture the local context of nodes and do not learn the structural roles of nodes. In this article, we propose a novel method for learning structural node embeddings in discrete-time dynamic networks. Our method, called HR2vec , tracks historical topology information in dynamic networks to learn dynamic structural role embeddings. Through experiments on synthetic and real-world temporal datasets, we show that our method outperforms other well-known methods in tasks where structural equivalence and historical information both play important roles. HR2vec can be used to model dynamic user behavior in any networked setting where users can be represented as nodes. Additionally, we propose a novel method (called network fingerprinting) that uses HR2vec embeddings for modeling whole (or partial) time-evolving networks. We showcase our network fingerprinting method on synthetic and real-world networks. Specifically, we demonstrate how our method can be used for detecting foreign-backed information operations on Twitter.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Edward Edward ◽  
Amjad Fayoumi ◽  
Azar Shahgholian ◽  
Achmad Hidayanto

The Brexit referendum has impacted both the UK and the EU economies in several ways. The uncertainty around Brexit highlighted the importance of a relationships network between directors of companies to access information and resources that are necessary for optimal decision making. It is difficult to develop informed business and economy policies without a deep understanding of the magnitude of Brexit on business-to-business relationships with EU-based firms. This study aims to analyze the impact of the passage of the Brexit referendum on the evolution of board interlock networks. The study uses network analysis to measure the evolution of UK-EU directors’ relationships over the Brexit period, predominantly between the 2010 and 2020 period. The study models the structural changes in dynamic networks by converting this evolving network into static graphs on yearly basis. The analysis indicates that links formation in the UK is affected negatively by the Brexit referendum. It also has a negative impact on forming a new link with potential companies’ directors in the EU, but it shows a rising tendency for shared affiliation bias analysis. Interestingly, the contradicted trend in 2007, the number of directors’ connection in consumer service and food & drug sectors was decreasing in the UK while rocketing in the EU. Doi: 10.28991/ESJ-2022-06-01-01 Full Text: PDF

Qin Tao ◽  
Lin Jiang ◽  
Fali Li ◽  
Yuan Qiu ◽  
Chanlin Yi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 18, Issue 1 ◽  
L. Nenzi ◽  
E. Bartocci ◽  
L. Bortolussi ◽  
M. Loreti

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) consist of inter-wined computational (cyber) and physical components interacting through sensors and/or actuators. Computational elements are networked at every scale and can communicate with each other and with humans. Nodes can join and leave the network at any time or they can move to different spatial locations. In this scenario, monitoring spatial and temporal properties plays a key role in the understanding of how complex behaviors can emerge from local and dynamic interactions. We revisit here the Spatio-Temporal Reach and Escape Logic (STREL), a logic-based formal language designed to express and monitor spatio-temporal requirements over the execution of mobile and spatially distributed CPS. STREL considers the physical space in which CPS entities (nodes of the graph) are arranged as a weighted graph representing their dynamic topological configuration. Both nodes and edges include attributes modeling physical and logical quantities that can evolve over time. STREL combines the Signal Temporal Logic with two spatial modalities reach and escape that operate over the weighted graph. From these basic operators, we can derive other important spatial modalities such as everywhere, somewhere and surround. We propose both qualitative and quantitative semantics based on constraint semiring algebraic structure. We provide an offline monitoring algorithm for STREL and we show the feasibility of our approach with the application to two case studies: monitoring spatio-temporal requirements over a simulated mobile ad-hoc sensor network and a simulated epidemic spreading model for COVID19.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-1
Gongmian Wang ◽  
Xing Xu ◽  
Fumin Shen ◽  
Huimin Lu ◽  
Yanli Ji ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Lauro Reyes-Cocoletzi ◽  
Ivan Olmos-Pineda ◽  
J. Arturo Olvera-Lopez

The cornerstone to achieve the development of autonomous ground driving with the lowest possible risk of collision in real traffic environments is the movement estimation obstacle. Predicting trajectories of multiple obstacles in dynamic traffic scenarios is a major challenge, especially when different types of obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are involved. According to the issues mentioned, in this work a novel method based on Bayesian dynamic networks is proposed to infer the paths of interest objects (IO). Environmental information is obtained through stereo video, the direction vectors of multiple obstacles are computed and the trajectories with the highest probability of occurrence and the possibility of collision are highlighted. The proposed approach was evaluated using test environments considering different road layouts and multiple obstacles in real-world traffic scenarios. A comparison of the results obtained against the ground truth of the paths taken by each detected IO is performed. According to experimental results, the proposed method obtains a prediction rate of 75% for the change of direction taking into consideration the risk of collision. The importance of the proposal is that it does not obviate the risk of collision in contrast with related work.

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