An optimization task with nonlinear differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) was approached. In special cases in heat and mass transfer engineering, a classical direct shooting approach cannot provide a solution of the DAE system, even in a relatively small range. Moreover, available computational procedures for numerical optimization, as well as differential- algebraic systems solvers are characterized by their limitations, such as the problem scale, for which the algorithms can work efficiently, and requirements for appropriate initial conditions. Therefore, an αDAE model optimization algorithm based on an α-model parametrization approach was designed and implemented. The main steps of the proposed methodology are: (1) task discretization by a multiple-shooting approach, (2) the design of an α-parametrized system of the differential-algebraic model, and (3) the numerical optimization of the α-parametrized system. The computations can be performed by a chosen iterative optimization algorithm, which can cooperate with an outer numerical procedure for solving DAE systems. The implemented algorithm was applied to solve a counter-flow exchanger design task, which was modeled by the highly nonlinear differential-algebraic equations. Finally, the new approach enabled the numerical simulations for the higher values of parameters denoting the rate of changes in the state variables of the system. The new approach can carry out accurate simulation tests for systems operating in a wide range of configurations and created from new materials.
Several studies show that impedance spectroscopy is a suitable method for online battery diagnosis and State-of-Health (SoH) estimation. However, the most common method is to model the acquired impedance spectrum with equivalent circuits and focus on the most sensitive parameters, namely the charge-transfer resistance. This paper introduces first a detailed model of a battery cell, which is then simplified and adapted to the observable spectrum behavior. Based on the physical meaning of the model parameters, we propose a novel approach for SoH assessment combining parameters of the impedance spectrum by building the ratio of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) resistance to the total resistance of SEI and the charge transfer. This ratio characterizes the charge-transfer efficiency at the electrodes’ surfaces and should decrease systematically with SoH. Four different cells of the same type were cycled 400 times for the method validation, and impedance spectroscopy was performed at every 50th cycle. The results show a systematic correlation between the proposed ratio and the number of cycles on individual cell parameters, which build the basis of a novel online method of SoH assessment.
Background: Enhancement of the temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution would increase its cleaning potential and decontamination of the root canal system. Therefore, the aim of the present in vitro investigation was to compare the efficacy of different methods of NaOCl heating by evaluating the temperature profiles developed at different levels of the root canal system. Methods: Five thermocouples were applied at different levels of the root canal system of extracted human premolars. NaOCl solution was heated according to two methods: extraoral heating (50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C) using a magnetic hotplate heater and intracanal heating by F-06, XF-30/04, and ML-12 pluggers at 100 °C, 150 °C, and 180 °C. Results: The extraoral heating method was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the root apex. Comparable results were obtained using the intracanal heating method through the ML-12 plugger that showed slightly better results only when set at 180 °C. On the other hand, negligible differences were observed in terms of temperature maintenance at several levels of the root between the F-06 and XF-30/04 pluggers, even though the time intervals were higher in case of XF-30/04. Conclusions: The intracanal heating method provided a better temperature persistence in the middle third of the root canal system. Conversely, extraoral heating was ineffective to produce a significant temperature increase at the apex of the root. Comparable results were obtained even using the ML-12 plugger.
The group velocity dispersion (GVD) occurring in the front end of high-power lasers is one of the primary factors leading to the conversion of frequency modulation (FM) to amplitude modulation (AM). In this paper, we propose a modified, active, closed-loop feedback compensation device for GVD-induced FM–AM conversion, using a two-dimensional, electric, adjustable mirror mount and parallel grating pair to improve the long-term stability, efficiency of adjustment, and accuracy of compensation. Experimental results of a 12 h FM–AM depth test revealed that the depth varied between 2.28% and 5.22%. Moreover, we formulated a mathematical relationship between the dispersion parameters and temperature in optical fibers to analyze the intrinsic effect of temperature on FM–AM. The related simulation and experimental results consistently validated the quantitative relationship between the temperature and FM–AM depth.
This paper demonstrates the fabrication of radiation-resistant fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors using infrared femtosecond laser irradiation. FBG sensors were written inside acrylate-coated fluorine-doped single-mode specialty optical fibers. We detected the Bragg resonance at 1542 nm. By controlling the irradiation conditions, we improved the signal strength coming out from the FBG sensors. A significant reduction in the Bragg wavelength shift was detected in the fabricated FBG sensors for a radiation dose up to 105 gray, indicating excellent radiation resistance capabilities. We also characterized the temperature sensitivity of the radiation-resistant FBG sensors and detected outstanding performance.
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have attracted increasing attention in acting as a relay for effectively improving the coverage and data rate of wireless systems, and according to this vision, they will be integrated in the future sixth generation (6G) cellular network. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and mmWave band are planned to support ubiquitous connectivity towards a massive number of users in the 6G and Internet of Things (IOT) contexts. Unfortunately, the wireless terrestrial link between the end-users and the base station (BS) can suffer severe blockage conditions. Instead, UAV relaying can establish a line-of-sight (LoS) connection with high probability due to its flying height. The present paper focuses on a multi-UAV network which supports an uplink (UL) NOMA cellular system. In particular, by operating in the mmWave band, hybrid beamforming architecture is adopted. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) spectral estimation method is considered at the hybrid beamforming to detect the different direction of arrival (DoA) of each UAV. We newly design the sum-rate maximization problem of the UAV-aided NOMA 6G network specifically for the uplink mmWave transmission. Numerical results point out the better behavior obtained by the use of UAV relays and the MUSIC DoA estimation in the Hybrid mmWave beamforming in terms of achievable sum-rate in comparison to UL NOMA connections without the help of a UAV network.
Password hygiene plays an essential part in securing systems protected with single-factor authentication. A significant fraction of security incidents happen due to weak or reused passwords. The reasons behind differences in security vulnerable behaviour between various user groups remains an active research topic. The paper aims to identify the impact of age and gender on password strength using a large password dataset. We recovered previously hashed passwords of 102,120 users from a leaked customer database of a car-sharing company. Although the measured effect size was small, males significantly had stronger passwords than females for all age groups. Males aged 26–45 were also significantly different from all other groups, and password complexity decreased with age for both genders equally. Overall, very weak password hygiene was observed, 72% of users based their password on a word or used a simple sequence of digits, and passwords of over 39% of users were found in word lists of previous leaks.
Hybrid renewable energy systems are subject to extensive research around the world and different designs have found their way to the market and have been commercialized. These systems usually employ multiple components, both renewable and conventional, combined in a way to increase the system’s overall efficiency and resilience and to lower GHG emissions. In this paper, a hybrid renewable energy system was designed for residential use and its annual energy performance was investigated and optimized. The multi-module hybrid system consists of a Ground-Air Heat Exchanger (GAHX), Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) panels and Air to Water Heat Pump (AWHP). The developed system’s annual performance was simulated in the TRaNsient SYStem (TRNSYS) environment and optimized using the General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) platform. Multi-objective non-linear optimization algorithms were developed and applied to define optimal system design and performance parameters while reducing cost and GHG emissions. The results revealed that the designed system was able to satisfy building thermal heating/cooling loads throughout the year. The ground source heat exchanger contributed 21.3% and 26.3% of the energy during heating and cooling seasons, respectively. The initial design was optimized in terms of key performance parameters and module sizes. The annual simulation analysis showed that the system was able to self-generate and meet nearly 29.4% of the total HVAC electricity needs, with the rest being supplied by the grid. The annual system module performance efficiencies were 13.4% for the PVT electric and 5.5% for the PVT thermal, with an AWHP COP of 4.0.
This study focuses on the finite-time set reachability of probabilistic Boolean multiplex control networks (PBMCNs). Firstly, based on the state transfer graph (STG) reconstruction technique, the PBMCNs are extended to random logic dynamical systems. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition for the finite-time set reachability of PBMCNs is obtained. Finally, the obtained results are effectively illustrated by an example.
The use of worn-out agricultural nozzles in pesticide application has a negative effect on the efficiency and cost of the application process. It also has an effect on environmental pollution due to an excessive amount of pesticide being applied when spraying with worn-out nozzles. In this paper, the resistance to wear of three different internal design hydraulic nozzles was ascertained. Changes in the flow rate and spray distribution as a result of this wear were also investigated. The wear test was done inside a closed system, and it was accelerated using an abrasive material to generate 100 h of wear. The tested nozzles were the Turbo TeeJet (TT)-twin chambered, Turbo Twinjet (TTj60)-dual outlet, and Drift Guard (DG)-pre-orifice. Wear rate, flow rate, and the virtual coefficient of variation (CVv) were measured at different wear intervals. The results showed that the TTj60 type was the most resistant to wear, followed by the TT type and DG. The latter two types showed an increase in the flow rate only in the first 45 h of wear. Virtual coefficient of variation (CVv) values were less than 10% after finishing the test (after 100 h of wear) for the three types of nozzles, which are acceptable values according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 16122-2, 2015.