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2022 ◽  
Vol 464 ◽  
pp. 109798
Ruth Joy ◽  
Robert S. Schick ◽  
Michael Dowd ◽  
Tetyana Margolina ◽  
John E. Joseph ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Lydia Trippler ◽  
Mohammed Nassor Ali ◽  
Shaali Makame Ame ◽  
Said Mohammed Ali ◽  
Fatma Kabole ◽  

Abstract Background Fine-scale mapping of schistosomiasis to guide micro-targeting of interventions will gain importance in elimination settings, where the heterogeneity of transmission is often pronounced. Novel mobile applications offer new opportunities for disease mapping. We provide a practical introduction and documentation of the strengths and shortcomings of GPS-based household identification and participant recruitment using tablet-based applications for fine-scale schistosomiasis mapping at sub-district level in a remote area in Pemba, Tanzania. Methods A community-based household survey for urogenital schistosomiasis assessment was conducted from November 2020 until February 2021 in 20 small administrative areas in Pemba. For the survey, 1400 housing structures were prospectively and randomly selected from shapefile data. To identify pre-selected structures and collect survey-related data, field enumerators searched for the houses’ geolocation using the mobile applications Open Data Kit (ODK) and MAPS.ME. The number of inhabited and uninhabited structures, the median distance between the pre-selected and recorded locations, and the dropout rates due to non-participation or non-submission of urine samples of sufficient volume for schistosomiasis testing was assessed. Results Among the 1400 randomly selected housing structures, 1396 (99.7%) were identified by the enumerators. The median distance between the pre-selected and recorded structures was 5.4 m. A total of 1098 (78.7%) were residential houses. Among them, 99 (9.0%) were dropped due to continuous absence of residents and 40 (3.6%) households refused to participate. In 797 (83.1%) among the 959 participating households, all eligible household members or all but one provided a urine sample of sufficient volume. Conclusions The fine-scale mapping approach using a combination of ODK and an offline navigation application installed on tablet computers allows a very precise identification of housing structures. Dropouts due to non-residential housing structures, absence, non-participation and lack of urine need to be considered in survey designs. Our findings can guide the planning and implementation of future household-based mapping or longitudinal surveys and thus support micro-targeting and follow-up of interventions for schistosomiasis control and elimination in remote areas. Trial registration ISRCTN, ISCRCTN91431493. Registered 11 February 2020,

Anusha Shankar ◽  
Isabelle N. H. Cisneros ◽  
Sarah Thompson ◽  
Catherine H. Graham ◽  
Donald R. Powers

Many endotherms use torpor, saving energy by a controlled reduction of their body temperature and metabolic rate. Some species (e.g., arctic ground squirrels, hummingbirds) enter deep torpor, dropping their body temperatures by 23-37°C, while others can only enter shallow torpor (e.g., pigeons, 3-10°C reductions). However, deep torpor in mammals can increase predation risk (unless animals are in burrows or caves), inhibit immune function, and result in sleep deprivation, so even for species that can enter deep torpor, facultative shallow torpor might help balance energy savings with these potential costs. Deep torpor occurs in three avian orders, but the trade-offs of deep torpor in birds are unknown. Although the literature hints that some bird species (mousebirds and perhaps hummingbirds) can use both shallow and deep torpor, little empirical evidence of such an avian heterothermy spectrum within species exists. We infrared imaged three hummingbird species that are known to use deep torpor, under natural temperature and light cycles, to test if they were also capable of shallow torpor. All three species used both deep and shallow torpor, often on the same night. Depending on the species, they used shallow torpor for 5-35% of the night. The presence of a heterothermic spectrum in these bird species indicates a capacity for fine-scale physiological and genetic regulation of avian torpid metabolism.

2022 ◽  
Clariana Lima André ◽  
Marina Corrêa Côrtes ◽  
Neander Marcel Heming ◽  
Mauro Galetti ◽  
Rafael Souza Cruz Alves ◽  

Eos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
Morgan Rehnberg

Using 1D and 2D data sources as model constraints yields fine-scale insights into real-world aurorae.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Manoj Pokharel ◽  
Asmit Subba ◽  
Dipa Rai ◽  
Simrik Bhandari ◽  
Yadav Ghimirey

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