Organic Compounds
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenchao Cai ◽  
Yu’ang Xue ◽  
Yurong Wang ◽  
Wenping Wang ◽  
Na Shu ◽  

Polymicrobial co-fermentation is among the distinct character of high-temperature Daqu. However, fungal communities in the three types of high-temperature Daqu, namely, white high-temperature Daqu, black high-temperature Daqu, and yellow high-temperature Daqu, are yet to be characterized. In this study, the fungal diversity, taste, and aroma profiles in the three types of high-temperature Daqu were investigated by Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing, electronic tongue, and electronic nose, respectively. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were detected as the absolute dominant fungal phylum in all types of high-temperature Daqu samples, whereas Thermomyces, Thermoascus, Aspergillus, Rasamsonia, Byssochlamys, and Trichomonascus were identified as the dominant fungal genera. The fungal communities of the three types of high-temperature Daqu differed significantly (p < 0.05), and Thermomyces, Thermoascus, and Monascus could serve as the biomarkers in white high-temperature Daqu, black high-temperature Daqu, and yellow high-temperature Daqu, respectively. The three types of high-temperature Daqu had an extremely significant difference (p < 0.01) in flavor: white high-temperature Daqu was characterized by sourness, bitterness, astringency, richness, methane, alcohols, ketones, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur organic compounds; black high-temperature Daqu was characterized by aftertaste-A, aftertaste-B, methane-aliph, hydrogen, and aromatic compounds; and yellow high-temperature Daqu was characterized by saltiness, umami, methane, alcohols, ketones, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur organic compounds. The fungal communities in the three types of high-temperature Daqu were significantly correlated with taste but not with aroma, and the aroma of high-temperature Daqu was mainly influenced by the dominant fungal genera including Trichomonascus, Aspergillus, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces. The result of the present study enriched and refined our knowledge of high-temperature Daqu, which had positive implications for the development of traditional brewing technique.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2167
Karla Estefanía Saldaña-Flores ◽  
René Alejandro Flores-Estrella ◽  
Victor Alcaraz-Gonzalez ◽  
Elvis Carissimi ◽  
Bruna Gonçalves de Souza ◽  

In this work, a classical linear control approach for the peroxide (H2O2) dosage in a photo-Fenton process is presented as a suitable solution for improving the efficiency in the treatment of recalcitrant organic compounds that cannot be degraded by classical wastewater treatment processes like anaerobic digestion. Experiments were carried out to degrade Lignin, Melanoidin, and Gallic acid, which are typical recalcitrant organic compounds present in some kinds of effluents such as vinasses from the Tequila and Cachaça industries. Experiments were carried in Open-Loop mode for obtaining the degradation model for the three compounds in the form of a Transfer Function, and in Closed-Loop mode for controlling the concentration of each compound. First-order Transfer Functions were obtained using the reaction curve method, and then, based on these models, the parameters of Proportional Integral controllers were calculated using the direct synthesis method. In the Closed-Loop experiments, the Total Organic Carbon removal was 39% for lignin, 7% for melanoidin, and 29% for Gallic acid, which were greater than those obtained in the Open-Loop experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (12) ◽  
pp. 15-23
V.V. Samonin ◽  
E.A. Spiridonova ◽  
A.S. Zotov ◽  
M.L. Podvyaznikov ◽  
A.V. Garabajiu

Data demonstrate the possibility of manufacturing adsorbents by using inorganic industrial waste and provide raw material list for this purpose. Inorganic waste coming from water treatment, mining and construction industries, solid fuel combustion products, spent inorganic sorbents, catalysts and chemical absorbers, chemical, metallurgical and metal finishing industries waste are used as raw materials. Adsorbents production methods by using inorganic industrial waste have been analysed, and parameters of porous structure and adsorbents sorption activity in terms of organic compounds and cations of non-ferrous metals resulting from aqueous medium are listed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 47 (12) ◽  
pp. 791-860
V. V. Sharutin ◽  
A. I. Poddel’sky ◽  
O. K. Sharutina

2021 ◽  
Bhavna Sharma ◽  
Sauraj Singh ◽  
Arun Pandey ◽  
Dharm Dutt ◽  
Anurag Kulshreshtha

Abstract Organic solvents have been frequently and excessively used in the printing process for a long time. The use of organic solvents in solvent-based ink is responsible for fire hazards, volatile organic compounds emission, and high manufacturing cost during printing. The present study aimed at replacing solvent based ink with water-based ink for reducing the volatile organic compounds emissions and carbon footprints in gravure printing without affecting overall printing quality. The PET film was printed with a water-based ink laser engraved cylinder having reduced cell depth and it resulted in the transfer of a low volume of inks on printing substrate. The cost of printing one kg of polyester film with water-based ink was reduced by US$ 1.95 compared to solvent-based ink. The volatile organic compounds emissions for water-based ink were measured at 2478 ppm against 3373 ppm for solvent-based ink. The water-based ink reduced the carbon footprint by 3.04 kg, which was equivalent to CO2 during printing of one kg polyester film used for making flexible pouches compared to solvent-based ink. The outcome of this study may be the benchmark to authorities for green manufacturing systems in gravure printing applications for the betterment of the environment and humanity.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7283
Basma Najar ◽  
Ylenia Pieracci ◽  
Claudio Cervelli ◽  
Guido Flamini ◽  
Luisa Pistelli

Helichrysum decorum DC, Helichrysum lepidissimum S. Moore, and Helichrysum umbraculigerum are three species traditionally used in the South African medicine. The present work deals with the investigation of the spontaneous emission and the essential oils obtained from these plants cultivated in open field under uniform conditions. Fractions of the volatile organic compounds of the three species were rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons, representing more than 70% of the total composition. Pinene isomers were the most representative compounds: β-pinene in H. decorum (53.0%), and α-pinene in H. lepidissimum (67.9%) and H. umbraculigerum (54.8%). These latter two species evidenced an important amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SH) especially represented by γ-curcumene (H. lepidissimum) and α- and β-selinene (H. umbraculigerum). On the contrary, in the EOs, sesquiterpenes compounds prevailed, representing more than 64% of the identified fraction to reach more than 82 and 87% in H. umbraculigerum and H. lepidissimum, respectively. Although the chemical classes and their relative abundances were comparable among the three species, the individual compounds of EOs showed large differences. In fact, caryophyllene oxide (26.7%) and γ-curcumene (17.4%) were the main constituents in H. decorum, and H. lepidissimum respectively, while neo-intermedeol (11.2%) and viridiflorol (10.6%) characterized H. umbraculigerum.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2475
Guillaume Pillot ◽  
Oulfat Amin Ali ◽  
Sylvain Davidson ◽  
Laetitia Shintu ◽  
Yannick Combet-Blanc ◽  

Recent studies have shown the presence of an abiotic electrical current across the walls of deep-sea hydrothermal chimneys, allowing the growth of electroautotrophic microbial communities. To understand the role of the different phylogenetic groups and metabolisms involved, this study focused on electrotrophic enrichment with nitrate as electron acceptor. The biofilm density, community composition, production of organic compounds, and electrical consumption were monitored by FISH confocal microscopy, qPCR, metabarcoding, NMR, and potentiostat measurements. A statistical analysis by PCA showed the correlation between the different parameters (qPCR, organic compounds, and electron acceptors) in three distinct temporal phases. In our conditions, the Archaeoglobales have been shown to play a key role in the development of the community as the first colonizers on the cathode and the first producers of organic compounds, which are then used as an organic source by heterotrophs. Finally, through subcultures of the community, we showed the development of a greater biodiversity over time. This observed phenomenon could explain the biodiversity development in hydrothermal contexts, where energy sources are transient and unstable.

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