Cervical Spine
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Francesca Monari ◽  
Stefano Busani ◽  
Maria Giovanna Imbrogno ◽  
Isabella Neri ◽  
Massimo Girardis ◽  

Abstract Background Vertebral artery dissection is an uncommon, but potentially fatal, vascular event. This case aimed to describe the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vertebral artery dissection in a term pregnant patient. Moreover, we focused on the differential diagnosis, reviewing the available evidence. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian woman presented at 38 + 4 weeks of gestation with a short-term history of vertigo, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms appeared a few days after cervical spine manipulation by an osteopathic specialist. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging of the head was obtained and revealed an ischemic lesion of the right posterolateral portion of the brain bulb. A subsequent computed tomography angiographic scan of the head and neck showed a right vertebral artery dissection. Based on the correlation of the neurological manifestations and imaging findings, a diagnosis of vertebral artery dissection was established. The patient started low-dose acetylsalicylic acid and prophylactic enoxaparin following an urgent cesarean section. Conclusion Vertebral artery dissection is a rare but potential cause of neurologic impairments in pregnancy and during the postpartum period. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis for women who present with headache and/or vertigo. Women with a history of migraines, hypertension, or autoimmune disorders in pregnancy are at higher risk, as well as following cervical spine manipulations. Prompt diagnosis and management of vertebral artery dissection are essential to ensure favorable outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 524
Enyinna Nwachuku ◽  
Confidence Njoku-Austin ◽  
Kevin P. Patel ◽  
Austin W. Anthony ◽  
Aditya Mittal ◽  

Background: Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) have been reported in up to 4–16% of individuals suffering cervical spine trauma. The current management of OCF fractures relies on a rigid cervical collar for 6 weeks or longer. Here, we calculated the rate of acute and delayed surgical intervention (occipitocervical fusion) for patients with isolated OCF who were managed with a cervical collar over a 10-year period at a single institution. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis performed on all patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center between 2008 and 2018 who suffered traumatic isolated OCF managed with an external rigid cervical orthosis. Radiographic imaging was reviewed by several board-certified neuroradiologists. Demographic and clinical data were collected including need for occipitocervical fusion within 12 months after trauma. Results: The incidence of isolated OCF was 4% (60/1536) for those patients admitted with cervical spine fractures. They averaged 49 years of age, and 58% were male falls accounted for the mechanism of injury in 47% of patients. Classification of OCF was most commonly classified in 47% as type I Anderson and Montesano fractures. Of the 60 patients who suffered isolated OCF that was managed with external cervical orthosis, 0% required occipitocervical fusion within 12 months posttrauma. About 90% were discharged, while the remaining 10% sustained traumatic brain/orthopedic injury that limited an accurate neurological assessment. Conclusion: Here, we documented a 4% incidence of isolated OCF in our cervical trauma population, a rate which is comparable to that found in the literature year. Most notably, we documented a 0% incidence for requiring delayed occipital-cervical fusions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 532
Nancy E Epstein ◽  
John Lancione Esq

Background: The package insert for DuraSeal (Integra LifeSciences, Princeton NJ) states it is Contraindicated for use in the anterior cervical spine (confined space): “Do not apply DuraSeal® hydrogel to confined bony structures where nerves are present since neural compression may result due to hydrogel swelling (…up to 12% of its size in any direction).” Further, it should not be used to treat massive unrepaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in any location; “…(it) is indicated as an adjunct to sutured dural repair during spine surgery to provide watertight closure,” but it is not to be used “...for a gap greater than 2 mm….” Methods: A spinal surgeon interpreted a geriatric patient’s MR as showing severe C3-C4 to C5-C6 anterior cord compression due to disc disease/spondylosis. However, he never reviewed the CT report/images that documented marked ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with multiple signs of dural penetrance. Results: The anterior C4, C5 corpectomy, and C3-C6 strut fusion/plating resulted in a massive, irreparable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Despite the contraindications, the surgeon mistakenly applied DuraSeal which caused the patient’s postoperative quadriplegia (i.e., as documented on the delayed postoperative MR scan). Following a secondary surgery consisting of a laminectomy/posterior fusion, the patient was still quadriplegic. Further, as he requested no postoperative MR scan and performed no subsequent corrective surgery (i.e., anterior removal of DuraSeal), the patient remained permanently quadriplegic. Conclusion: DuraSeal is directly contraindicated for use in the anterior cervical spine, with/without a CSF leak. Here, utilizing DuraSeal for anterior cervical OPLL surgery resulted in permanent quadriplegia, and was below the standard of care.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Matthias K. Jung ◽  
Gregor V. R. von Ehrlich-Treuenstätt ◽  
Holger Keil ◽  
Paul A. Grützner ◽  
Niko R. E. Schneider ◽  

AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare the remaining motion of an immobilized cervical spine using an innovative cervical collar as well as two traditional cervical collars. The study was performed on eight fresh human cadavers. The cervical spine was immobilized with one innovative (Lubo Airway Collar) and two traditional cervical collars (Stifneck and Perfit ACE). The flexion and lateral bending of the cervical spine were measured using a wireless motion tracker (Xsens). With the Weinman Lubo Airway Collar attached, the mean remaining flexion was 20.0 ± 9.0°. The mean remaining flexion was lowest with the Laerdal Stifneck (13.1 ± 6.6°) or Ambu Perfit ACE (10.8 ± 5.8°) applied. Compared to that of the innovative Weinmann Lubo Airway Collar, the remaining cervical spine flexion was significantly decreased with the Ambu Perfit ACE. There was no significant difference in lateral bending between the three examined collars. The most effective immobilization of the cervical spine was achieved when traditional cervical collars were implemented. However, all tested cervical collars showed remaining motion of the cervical spine. Thus, alternative immobilization techniques should be considered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (10) ◽  
pp. 1449-1454
Sung Do Cho ◽  
Dong Hyun Kim ◽  
Hee Kyung Yang ◽  
Jeong Min Hwang

Purpose: To describe a patient with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) after cervical spine surgery who recovered after treatment.Case summary: A 51-year-old woman presented with eye pain and decreased visual acuity in the left eye, which had begun 8 hours after cervical spine surgery in the prone position. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and hand motion in the left eye; a relative afferent pupillary defect was present in the left eye. Ductions and versions were normal with pain in the left eye. The results of slit lamp examination, fundoscopic examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography were unremarkable in both eyes. Brain and orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormal findings in the visual pathway, such as brain infarction or intracranial artery stenosis. The patient was diagnosed with PION in the left eye. Because postoperative anemia had developed with a rapid decrease in hemoglobin from 14.7 g/dL to 9.9 g/dL, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was performed together with intravenous high-dose steroid therapy and subcutaneous epoetin alfa injection. After 3 weeks, the patient’s BCVA improved to 20/22 in the left eye.Conclusions: Unilateral PION developed after cervical spine surgery in the prone position. Visual improvement was observed after RBC transfusion, intravenous high-steroid therapy, and subcutaneous epoetin alfa injection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
C. Maurer-Grubinger ◽  
J. Haenel ◽  
L. Fraeulin ◽  
F. Holzgreve ◽  
E. M. Wanke ◽  

AbstractMusculoskeletal disorders of the trunk and neck are common among cleaners. Vacuum cleaning is a demanding activity. The aim of this study was to present the movement profile of the trunk and neck during habitual vacuuming. The data were collected from 31 subjects (21f./10 m) using a 3D motion analysis system (Xsens). 10 cycles were analysed in vacuuming PVC and carpet floors with 8 vacuum cleaners. The joint angles and velocities were represented statistically descriptive. When vacuuming, the trunk is held in a forwardly inclined position by a flexion in the hip and rotated from this position. In the joint angles and velocities of the spine, the rotation proved to be dominant. A relatively large amount of movement took place in the cervical spine and also in the lumbar spine. The shown movement profile is rather a comfort area of vacuuming which may serve as a reference for ergonomics in vacuuming.

John P. Ziegler ◽  
Kate Davidson ◽  
Rebecca L. Cooper ◽  
Kendrea L. Garand ◽  
Shaun A. Nguyen ◽  

BACKGROUND: Post-operative dysphagia is one of the most common complications of anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). OBJECTIVE: Examine post-operative structural and physiologic swallowing changes in patients with dysphagia following ACSS as compared with healthy age and gender matched controls. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic swallow studies of adults with dysphagia after ACSS were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-five patients were divided into early (≤2 months) and late (>  2 months) post-surgical groups. Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP), Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, and pharyngeal wall thickness (PWT) metrics were compared. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified for all parameters between the control and early post-operative group. MBSImP Pharyngeal Total (PT) scores were greater in the early group (Interquartile Range (IQR) = 9–14, median = 12) versus controls (4–7, 5, P <  0.001) and late group (0.75–7.25, 2, P <  0.001). The early group had significantly higher maximum PAS scores (IQR = 3–8, median = 7) than both the control group (1–2, 1, P <  0.001) and late post-operative group (1–1.25, 1, P <  0.001). PWT was significantly greater in the early (IQR = 11.12–17.33 mm, median = 14.32 mm) and late groups (5.31–13.01, 9.15 mm) than controls (3.81–5.41, 4.68 mm, P <  0.001). CONCLUSION: Dysphagic complaints can persist more than two months following ACSS, but often do not correlate with validated physiologic swallowing dysfunction on VFSS. Future studies should focus on applications of newer technology to elucidate relevant deficits.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014556132110405
Jyun-Yi Liao ◽  
Chien-Yu Huang ◽  
Wei-Chuan Liao ◽  
Bor-Hwang Kang ◽  
Kuo-Ping Chang

A 73-year-old woman having a throat lump sensation and dysphagia for the past several months presented at our otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic. A physical examination disclosed a protruding subepithelial mass over the right tonsil fossa. The mass was not tender and had no mucosal lesions or signs of active infection. Therefore, we arranged face and neck computed tomography scans, which reported a solitary osseous lesion over the anterior-right aspect of the C1-2 joint. Considering the rarity and unfamiliar anatomy of this disease, we built a 3D-printed model to assist with the surgical rehearsal of the procedure as well as with a preoperation discussion with the patient and her family. We arranged a combined Otolaryngology-Neurosurgery department approach after discussion with the neurosurgeon and successfully removed the lesion without sacrificing the overlying longus capitis muscle. The pathology examination revealed no evidence of malignancy. The final diagnosis was cervical spine solitary osteochondroma. The patient had a complete recovery of both oral cavity and normal swallowing function. No tumor recurred during the 3-year follow-up. On the basis of this case, in-house 3D-printing technology can offer a rapid, reliable model for an interdisciplinary team to use to enhance personalized presurgical planning, thus providing better patient engagement during hospitalization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 145-157
Jibran Ahmed Khan ◽  
Vipin Kumar Pandey

The main aim of this review article is to identify the evidence-based diagnosis and physiotherapy management of musculoskeletal disorder of cervical spine. Neck pain from cervical spine disorders is the most common cause of musculoskeletal disorders. Neck pain can exist alone or with the presence of upper-extremity symptoms. Key words: Neck Pain, Cervical Spine, Joint mobilization, Massage.

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