B Cell
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2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (23) ◽  
pp. 3827-3831
Teruhito Takakuwa ◽  
Yu Nakagama ◽  
Mayo Yasugi ◽  
Toshiki Maeda ◽  
Kenji Matsuo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jieshan Lin ◽  
Bin Tang ◽  
Zhanwu Feng ◽  
Wenke Hao ◽  
Wenxue Hu

Abstract Aim Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the risk of CVD increases with reductions in renal function. This study aims to investigate the potential roles of B lymphocyte populations in subclinical atherosclerosis (measured by intima-media thickness, IMT) and prognosis in elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CKD. Methods In this study, a total of 219 patients (143 moderate-to-severe CKD patients with stage 3–4 and 76 non-CKD controls) were recruited. B cell subsets: CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound. Correlations between the B cell subsets with IMT and clinical outcome was analyzed. Results CKD patients showed increased IMT (P = 0.006). The level of CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells were decreased in CKD patients. Correlation analysis showed that IMT was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure, protein/creatinine ratio and diabetes (P < 0.05), and were negatively correlated with CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B lymphocytes (P < 0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells had a significant independent association with IMT (P < 0.05). IMT was increased in lower level of total CD19(+) B cells (≤ 0.06 × 109 /L) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells (≤ 0.05 × 109 /L) (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with lower levels of CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells exhibited worse survival (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis showed that patients with lower CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B cells counts have a higher risk of all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our results showed that decreased CD19(+)CD5(+) and CD19(+)CD5(−) B lymphocytes were correlated with atherosclerosis and worse survival, which indicates that B lymphocytes might involve in atherosclerosis and associated the prognosis of elderly patients with moderate-to-severe CKD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Giulia A. Restivo ◽  
Marta Pillon ◽  
Lara Mussolin ◽  
Clara Mosa ◽  
Angela Guarina ◽  

Abstract Background Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is an extremely rare neoplasm in children; by definition, it manifests in the breast without evidence of lymphoma elsewhere, except ipsilateral axillary nodes. Case presentation We report a case of a 15-year-old girl diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the right breast: the patient received chemotherapy and rituximab, achieving complete remission. A literature review revealed other 11 cases of pediatric PBL; it mainly affects female adolescents and can involve right and left breast equally. Different histologic subtypes have been described, arising from both B-cell and T-cell. Therapeutic approaches were very different, from chemotherapy to local treatment with surgery and/or radiotherapy. Conclusions Our case is the first in which rituximab was administered, suggesting to be a promising therapy in B-cell PBL, as already demonstrated in pediatric B-cell lymphoma from other sites. Further investigations are needed to identify prognostic factors and establish the most effective treatment.

Rodrigo Cervantes-Díaz ◽  
Víctor Andrés Sosa-Hernández ◽  
Jiram Torres-Ruíz ◽  
Sandra Romero-Ramírez ◽  
Mariana Cañez-Hernández ◽  
B Cell ◽  

2021 ◽  
R. Camille Brewer ◽  
Nitya S. Ramadoss ◽  
Lauren J. Lahey ◽  
Shaghayegh Jahanbani ◽  
William H. Robinson ◽  

2021 ◽  
Mengyang Di ◽  
Tamra Keeney ◽  
Emmanuelle Belanger ◽  
Orestis A. Panagiotou ◽  
Adam J. Olszewski

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of global risk, a measure comprising age, comorbidities, function, and cognitive statuses, on treatment selection and outcomes among older home care recipients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: From SEER-Medicare, we selected home care recipients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 2011-2015, who had pretreatment Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) evaluations. We created a global risk indicator categorizing patients as low-, moderate-, or high-risk on the basis of OASIS assessments. We examined the association of global risk with receipt of therapy and among chemotherapy recipients, with mortality, emergency department visits, hospitalization, and intensive care unit admission within 30 days from first treatment in logistic models, reporting adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. We compared overall survival across risk groups estimating adjusted hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of the 1,232 patients (median age, 80 years), 65% received chemotherapy. High-risk patients ( v moderate-risk) were less likely to receive any chemotherapy (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.64) and curative regimens (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86) if treated, although even in the moderate-risk group, only 61% received curative regimens. High-risk patients were more likely to experience acute mortality (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.43 to 3.52), emergency department visits (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.83), hospitalization (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.19 to 2.17), or intensive care unit admission (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.22) and had inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.78). CONCLUSION: Global risk on the basis of OASIS is easily available, suggesting a potential way to improve patient selection for curative treatment and institution of preventive measures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Taruna Mohinani ◽  
Aditya Saxena ◽  
Shoor Vir Singh

Background: Mycobacterium ulcerans is the fundamental agent of the third most common Mycobacterial disease known as Buruli Ulcer (BU). It is an infection of the skin and soft tissue affecting the human population worldwide. Presently, the vaccine is not available against BU. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the vaccine potential of virulence proteins of M. ulcerans computationally. Methods: Chromosome encoded virulence proteins of Mycobacterium ulcerans strain Agy99 were selected, which were available at the VFDB database. These proteins were analyzed for their subcellular localization, antigenicity, and human non-homology analysis. Ten virulence factors were finally chosen and analyzed for further study. Three-dimensional structures for selected proteins were predicted using Phyre2. B cell and T cell epitope analysis was done using methods available at Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource. Antigenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity analysis were also done to predict epitopes. Molecular docking analysis was done for T cell epitopes, those showing overlap with B cell epitopes. Results: Selected virulence proteins were predicted with B cell and T cell epitopes. Some of the selected proteins were found to be already reported as antigenic in other mycobacteria. Some of the predicted epitopes also had similarities with experimentally identified epitopes of M. ulcerans and M. tuberculosis which further supported our predictions. Conclusion : In-silico approach used for the vaccine candidate identification predicted some virulence proteins that could be proved important in future vaccination strategies against this chronic disease. Predicted epitopes require further experimental validation for their potential use as peptide vaccines.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Ilana Fox-Fisher ◽  
Sheina Piyanzin ◽  
Bracha Lea Ochana ◽  
Agnes Klochendler ◽  
Judith Magenheim ◽  

Blood cell counts often fail to report on immune processes occurring in remote tissues. Here we use immune cell type-specific methylation patterns in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for studying human immune cell dynamics. We characterized cfDNA released from specific immune cell types in healthy individuals (N=242), cross sectionally and longitudinally. Immune cfDNA levels had no individual steady state as opposed to blood cell counts, suggesting that cfDNA concentration reflects adjustment of cell survival to maintain homeostatic cell numbers. We also observed selective elevation of immune-derived cfDNA upon perturbations of immune homeostasis. Following influenza vaccination (N=92), B-cell-derived cfDNA levels increased prior to elevated B-cell counts and predicted efficacy of antibody production. Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (N=21) and B-cell lymphoma (N=27) showed selective elevation of eosinophil and B-cell cfDNA respectively, which were undetectable by cell counts in blood. Immune-derived cfDNA provides a novel biomarker for monitoring immune responses to physiological and pathological processes that are not accessible using conventional methods.

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