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BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Manu Vats ◽  
Lovenish Bains ◽  
Pawan Lal ◽  
Shramana Mandal

Abstract Background Gallbladder cancer is a very aggressive type of biliary tract cancer. The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision of the tumour. However, even after surgery, there is still a risk of recurrence of the cancer. Case presentation A 63-year-old gentleman presented with the complaint of a non-healing ulcer at upper abdomen for the last 1 month. He had undergone a laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a private centre 4 months ago. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of epigastric port site metastasis from a primary from gall bladder adenocarcinoma. After undergoing completion radical cholecystectomy with wide local excision of the epigastric ulcer, he received 6 cycles of concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Eighteen months later, he presented to us with bilateral axillary swellings. Investigations confirmed isolated bilateral axillary metastasis and the patient underwent a bilateral axillary lymphadenectomy (Level 3). However, PET scan after 6 months showed widespread metastasis and the patient succumbed to the illness 1 month later. Conclusion Axillary metastasis probably occurs due to the presence of microscopic systemic metastasis at the time of development of port site metastasis. An R0 resection of the malignancy is the only viable option for effective therapy. The present case highlights the rare involvement of isolated bilateral axillary lymph nodes as a distant metastatic site with no evidence of disease in the locoregional site. However, the prognosis after metastasis remains dismal despite multiple treatment modalities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 943
Fen Sun ◽  
Hui Cai ◽  
Lunbo Tan ◽  
Dezhe Qin ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  

Pregnancy loss (PL) is one of the common complications that women can experience during pregnancy, with an occurrence rate of 1 to 5%. The potential causes of pregnancy loss are unclear, with no effective treatment modalities being available. It has been previously reported that the level of miR-125b was significantly increased in placentas of PL patients. However, the role of miR-125b in the development of PL still remains unknown. In the current study, an miR-125b placenta-specific over-expression model was constructed by lentiviral transfecting zona-free mouse embryos followed by embryo transfer. On gestation day 15, it was observed that the placenta was significantly smaller in the miR-125b placenta-specific overexpression group than the control group. Additionally, the abortion rate of the miR-125b placenta-specific overexpression group was markedly higher than in the control group. The blood vessel diameter was larger in the miR-125b-overexpressing specific placenta. In addition, miR-125b-overexpressing HTR8 and JEG3 cell lines were also generated to analyze the migration and invasion ability of trophoblasts. The results showed that miR-125b overexpression significantly suppressed the migration and invasion ability of HTR8 and JEG3 cells. Overall, our results demonstrated that miR-125b can affect embryo implantation through modulating placenta angiogenesis and trophoblast cell invasion capacity that can lead to PL.

Nahid Reisi ◽  
Pardis Nematolahy

The development of secondary malignancy (SM) is the most worrisome long-term complication of childhood cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most prevalent neoplasm that occurs after treatment with alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare lung neoplasm in children. Type II and type III of this cancer are markedly aggressive and have a recurrent nature. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) are treatment modalities that make these patients prone to secondary malignancy. Here was presented and discussed a case of myeloid leukemia 3.5 years after treatment of Pleuropulmonary blastoma in a 5.5-year-old boy who was a candidate for high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cells transplant (auto-SCT) because of frequent recurrence and lack of response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It seems this is the first reported case of therapy-related myeloid leukemia (t-AML) after PPB in children. Awareness of the creation of this complication following administration of cytotoxic therapies in the treatment of solid tumors will increase physician attention in the selection of treatment modality as well as the counseling of patients at the time of diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 306-310
Gajbhare Sunil Venkati ◽  
Ayushman Satpaty ◽  
Nityanand Pandey ◽  
Ravi Shankar Prasad

The aim of this study is to compare between various treatment modalities available for treatment of subaxial cervical spine injuries due to trauma A total of 172 patients of subaxial cervical spine injuries were assessed retrospectively about their mode of injury, clinical course, definitive treatment given and its outcome. As the study was Descriptive and retrospective in nature involving only patient case files, statistical test is not applied to the study In our study 44 patients suffered from vertebral body fracture while 108 patients had spinal canal compromise due to other injuries. 16 patients had quadriplegia, 24 patients had grade 4 power in upper and lower extremities, and roots were involved in 46 patients. In 44 patients complete corpectomy was performed with placement of tricorticate graft taken from fibula, this graft was fixed in place with titanium plate and four screws.From this study it can be concluded that Patients treated with anterior approach had better outcome in relation to the fixation and fusion of the spine, reconstruction is more better in anterior approach.

2022 ◽  
Natalie Clinkscales ◽  
Katherine Berlouis ◽  
Lisa Golds ◽  
Angus MacBeth

Background: Anxiety disorders are a relatively common occurring mental health issue during pregnancy and the perinatal period. There is evidence that untreated perinatal anxiety is a risk factor for adverse outcomes for mother and infant. Despite their potential acceptability to users, psychological interventions research for this population is still in its infancy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for reducing perinatal anxiety. Method: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Databases searched included EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, MIDIRS, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Search terms included: Psychological Therapy, Perinatal Period, Antenatal, Postnatal, Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Phobia. Results: The search strategy identified 2025 studies. A total of 21 studies published between 2004 and 2021 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Of those, 17 were included in the meta-analysis. Overall results indicated that psychological interventions were more effective than control conditions in reducing symptoms of perinatal anxiety with a medium post treatment effect size. Significant effect sizes were also identified for online, face-to-face, group and guided self-help treatment modalities. Limitations: A small sample of studies are represented and limited to articles published in English. The review was unable to draw specific conclusions about what works (i.e. therapeutic modality/delivery) for whom (i.e. specific diagnoses) due to purposefully broad inclusion criteria. The longer-term effects of psychological interventions for perinatal anxiety and infant outcomes could not be established. Conclusions: This review demonstrates that psychological interventions are effective in reducing symptoms of both anxiety and comorbid anxiety and depression in the antenatal and postnatal periods. The results also demonstrate the efficacy of delivering such interventions in multiple settings, including online, and in group format. Further research is required to optimise treatment delivery to individual needs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Marius Huguet ◽  
Xavier Joutard ◽  
Isabelle Ray-Coquard ◽  
Lionel Perrier

Abstract Background Studies of the hospital volume-outcome relationship have highlighted that a greater volume activity improves patient outcomes. While this finding has been known for years, most studies to date have failed to delve into what underlies this relationship. Objective This study aimed to shed light on the basis of the hospital volume effect on patient outcomes by comparing treatment modalities for epithelial ovarian carcinoma patients. Data An exhaustive dataset of 355 patients in first-line treatment for Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC) in 2012 in three regions of France was used. These regions account for 15% of the metropolitan French population. Methods In the presence of endogeneity induced by a reverse causality between hospital volume and patient outcomes, we used an instrumental variable approach. Hospital volume of activity was instrumented by the distance from patients’ homes to their hospital, the population density, and the median net income of patient municipalities. Results Based on our parameter estimates, we found that the rate of complete tumor resection would increase by 15.5 percentage points with centralized care, and by 8.3 percentage points if treatment decisions were coordinated by high-volume centers compared to decentralized care. Conclusion As volume alone is an imperfect correlate of quality, policy-makers need to know what volume is a proxy for in order to devise volume-based policies.

Sheema Sabahath ◽  
Abdullah Haitham Bogis ◽  
Taif Shabib Al Mutairi ◽  
Hasan Yousef Alshahabi ◽  
Hussain Ahmed Al Sayhab ◽  

A cystocele is usually found to protrude the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall. Various causes have been reported in the literature for the pathogenesis and development of cystocele. These can cumulatively lead to a remarkable weakness in the muscular and connective tissue layers related to the urinary bladder and anterior vaginal wall. The present study discusses the etiology, staging, and management of patients with cystocele. Evidence indicates that a defect within the pelvic-floor supporting system can significantly lead to the development of cystocele. Parity, increasing age, and obesity are the main associated risk factors for developing these events. Staging is important to decide the most suitable treatment plan, which might be conservative or surgical. Some patients do not require any management approach, being asymptomatic, and refuse the current treatment modalities. Surgery has been associated with enhanced outcomes and can be conducted via two different approaches, including anterior colporrhaphy and sacral colpopexy. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Oluseun Olufade

Background: There are few prospective studies evaluating the efficacy of various non-operative strategies for treatment of greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS). There is a diversity of available interventions and lack of clear consensus for the best modality thus far. Design: Observational prospective cohort study performed during the period of October 2017 and March 2019. Methods: The main objective was to determine if there is a difference in outcome of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) for subjects treated with conservative management (PT), corticosteroid injection (CSI), or percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy (PUT). Participants were assigned based on physician treatment in a non-randomized manner to PT, a single CSI, or the PUT treatment arm. Subjects participated in outcome assessments at baseline and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post intervention. Results: 112 individuals with unilateral GTPS were recruited for this study with 69 PT patients, 31 CSI patients, and 12 PUT patients. The adjusted mean LEFS scores averaged across all time periods remained statistically different between PT, CSI, and PUT (p = 0.0093), indicating significant difference between each treatment arm. PT group saw the greatest improvements from baseline score starting at 1 month and up to 1 year (p = .0004). CSI group did not see significant LEFS improvement until 6 months (p = 0.04) and did not maintain clinically significant improvement by 1 year. PUT group saw significant LEFS improvement at 3 months (p = 0.0001) and maintained clinically significant improvements (≥ 9 LEFS points) throughout the course of the study. Conclusion: PT patients over the study period showed the greatest improvements in LEFS scores compared to CSI and PUT patients. We believe that PT is the best indicated course of treatment for GTPS. PUT may be considered as an additional option if patients have failed other treatment modalities. CSI shows benefit at 6 months, but overall inferior to PT and PUT.

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