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Author(s):  
Preeti Singh ◽  
Karanvir Attri ◽  
Deonath Mahto ◽  
Virendra Kumar ◽  
Dipti Kapoor ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ambreen Tharani ◽  
Salima Farooq ◽  
Maryam Ali ◽  
Uroosa Talib ◽  
Murad Moosa Khan

Abstract Background: Self-Harm (SH) is a major global public health problem which is under-researched in Pakistan. A prior act of self-harm is one of the strongest predictors of future suicide.Method: This retrospective descriptive study describes the characteristics of SH cases (n=350) that presented to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2013 to December 2017. Details related to demography, history, associated factors, access to methods used, and intent to die were collected on a structured proforma and analysed using STATA version 14. Results: It was found that self-harm acts were twice as more common in females than in males. More than half of the reported cases were in the age group 20-39 years. Drug overdose and use of insecticides were the two most common methods used in both genders. Depression was identified in nearly half of the reported SH cases. Intention to die was found to be 3 times greater among patients with psychiatric illness as compared to those with no history of psychiatric illness. Conclusion: This study suggests that limiting access to lethal means, regulating over-the-counter sale of medications, and safe storage of pesticides can possibly serve as effective measures to minimize self-harm incidences. Moreover, integration of suicide assessment and prevention programmes for the general population is also suggested.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Valentina Guarnieri ◽  
Maria Moriondo ◽  
Mattia Giovannini ◽  
Lorenzo Lodi ◽  
Silvia Ricci ◽  
...  

Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a central role in handling the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Monitoring HCWs, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, through screening programs, are critical to avoid the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the hospital environment to rapidly identify and isolate infected individuals and to allow their prompt return to work as soon as necessary. We aim to describe our healthcare surveillance experience (April 2–May 6, 2020) based on a combined screening consisting of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and rapid serologic tests (RST) for SARS-CoV-2 in all HCWs of Meyer Children's University Hospital in Florence. Among the analyzed workers, 13/1690 (0.8%), all of them without clinical manifestations, was found positive for SARS-CoV-2 by using RT-PCR on NP swab: 8/1472 (0.5%) were found positive during the screening, 1/188 (0.5%) during contact with a positive individual (p > 0.05 vs. screening group), while 4/30 (13.3%) were found positive on the day of re-admission at work after an influenza-like-illness (p < 0.05). Concerning working areas, the majority of RT-PCR positivity (12/13) and serologic positivity (34/42) was found in non-COVID-19 dedicated areas (p > 0.05 vs. COVID-19 dedicated areas). No cases were registered among non-patients-facing workers (p = 0.04 vs. patient-facing group). Nurses and residents represented, respectively, the working role with the highest and lowest percentage of RT-PCR positivity. In conclusion, accurate surveillance is essential to reduce virus spread among HCWs, patients, and the community and to limit the shortage of skilled professionals. The implementation of the surveillance system through an efficient screening program was offered to all professionals, regardless of the presence of clinical manifestations and the level of working exposure risk, maybe wise and relevant.


Author(s):  
Surbhi . ◽  
Bangali Majhi

Background: The aim of the study was to determine association of abnormal lipid profile in early second trimester (14 to 20 weeks) with development of pre-eclampsia.Methods: A prospective observational study included 260 women between 14-20 weeks of pregnancy attending a tertiary care Hospital in New Delhi. Serum lipid profile analysis was performed at the time of enrolment and cohort was followed up for occurrence of pre-eclampsia till 48 hours after delivery. Outcomes measured were difference in mean lipid levels in study (abnormal lipid profile) and control group (normal lipid profile) and accuracy of abnormal lipid profile to predict pre-eclampsia.Results: The incidence of pre-eclampsia in our study was 11.13%. The mean serum total cholesterol was significantly higher in pre-eclampsia group (199.74 mg/dl vs 171.7 mg/dl; p<0.05). The difference in mean triglyceride, HDL, VLDL and LDL levels between two groups was not significant. Total cholesterol has 44.83% sensitivity, 84.85% specificity, 27.08% PPV, 92.45% NPV with diagnostic accuracy of 80.38% in predicting pre-eclampsia (with 0.65% AUC with 95% confidence interval). While VLDL has maximum sensitivity of 68.97% while HDL has maximum specificity of 86.15% in predicting pre-eclampsia.Conclusions: Abnormal total cholesterol levels have diagnostic accuracy of 80.38% to predict pre-eclampsia and abnormal lipid profile in early second trimester is a simple, non-invasive and economical test for prediction of pre-eclampsia. 


Author(s):  
Neha Pruthi Tondon ◽  
Renuka Malik ◽  
Kanika Kumari ◽  
Anjali Singh

Background: Health care workers (HCW) are the frontline warriors who are at a high risk of acquiring the COVID-19. HCW in obstetrical department are at high-risk due to their close proximity with the patient for examination, giving treatment and in delivery. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the positivity rate of COVID-19 in the initial 3 months of pandemic in health care personnel working in obstetric unit in a tertiary care hospital.Methods: Prospective cohort study was conducted in department of obstetrics and gynecology at tertiary care hospital in Delhi from 10 April to 10 June 2020. Predesigned questionnaire was used to record data of HCWs exposed to COVID-19 patients.Results: In a period of 3 months (April-June 2020), 152 health care workers were exposed to 30 COVID-19 patients.  Out of this, 10 HCW were found to be positive on testing, showing a positivity rate of 6.58%. Positivity ratio was 6:3:1 among nurses, auxiliary workers and doctors respectively. Labor room was area of high infection as 80% of HCW were infected in the labor room .80% HCW acquired infection during patient care in hospital and 20% were infected in contact with asymptomatic COVID-19 positive HCW.Conclusions: Positivity rate in obstetric department is comparable to that of general population. Appropriate infection prevention measures like use of PPE, handwashing and maintain safe distance from the patient is the key to prevention of infection. Gloves and N95 masks have been shown to provide superior protection as compared to triple layer masks. Nursing staff and auxiliary workers should be reinforced the importance of use of PPE, hand hygiene and physical distancing.


Author(s):  
Chaitra Krishna ◽  
Savitha Chandraiah ◽  
Chandana Krishna

Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth commonest cancer affecting women worldwide and the second most common cancer in women aged 15-44 years. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has been the cornerstone of screening for cervical neoplasm for the last 50 years. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) was introduced in mid-1990s as an alternative technique to process cervical samples has many benefits over Pap. A new second generation technique, Liquiprep was introduced after a decade has the advantage of a much lower cost. However, the information available on second generation liquid based cytology is limited. The objective was to look for the efficacy of LBC and to compare it to that of conventional cytology.Methods: This hospital based comparative study was undertaken 100 women who attended gynaecology OPD during 2017 at a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru. Two cervical smears were simultaneously prepared from each subject, one for Pap smear and another for LBC followed by colposcopy and biopsy.Results: Among the study subjects, 89% of Pap smear analysis and 100% of smears in LBC showed satisfactory smear. Cytological abnormality was detected in 11% and 21% in pap and LBC, respectively. The present study showed higher sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 75% by LBC when compared to Pap smear (55% and 100% respectively).Conclusions: The present study showed that liquid based cytology is better in detecting cervical lesions when compared to conventional smear. 


2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (02) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zahidullah Khan ◽  
Ahmar Rashid ◽  
Iqbal Haider ◽  
Shams Suleman ◽  
Aliena Badshah ◽  
...  

Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP), a known complication of cirrhosis Liver is an acute bacterial infection of the peritoneum. Usually no source of infection is easily identifiable. Objective: To compare the efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime in Cirrhosis Liver patients with SBP. Material and Methods: This prospective, comparative, single center study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from 1st October 2017 to 31st December 2018. A total of 300 admitted patients having Cirrhosis Liver with SBP were included in this study. The patients were randomized into Group A and Group B. Group A was treated with Intravenous Ciprofloxacin and Group B was treated with Intravenous Cefotaxime given twice daily for a period of 5 days. Diagnostic peritoneal paracentesis was done before the start of the treatment and repeated after 5 days therapy. Patients who were either non cirrhotic or had secondary bacterial peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 300 Cirrhosis Liver patients with SBP were studied in two equal randomized groups. Out of these 168 were male and 132 were female. The mean age of patients in study was 51.14±11.9 years. The age ranged between 15-75 years. In Group A, 82 percent responded to ciprofloxacin and in group B, 86 percent responded to cefotaxime. Conclusion: Both intravenous ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime are effective in treating spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with Cirrhosis Liver. Key Words: Ciprofloxacin, Cefotaxime, Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, Efficacy.


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