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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huaguo Zhao ◽  
Rong Ren ◽  
Weihu Ma ◽  
Song Xu ◽  
Linrui Peng ◽  
...  

ObjectivesLaminoplasty (LP) and laminectomy (LC) with or without fusion are recommended as treatment procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis to analyze the results of CSM patients undergoing LP or LC surgery.MethodsWe systematically and comprehensively searched Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, VIP database, Google Scholar, Chinese Bio-medicine Literature database, and China Scientific Journal Full-text database to July 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational case series that compared LP and LC in patients with CSM. The main endpoints were the surgical process, radiographic outcomes, clinical outcomes, and surgical complications.ResultsA total of 19 were included the inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis (n = 4,348 patients). There was no significant difference in range of motion (ROM), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA), Cobb angle, visual analog scale (VAS), cervical curvature index (CCI), Nurick score, Neck Dysfunction Index (NDI), and complications. LP was found to be superior than LC in terms of complications of C5 radiculopathy and surperficial infection.ConclusionOur results indicate that LP can achieve better results in C5 radiculopathy and superficial infection in surgical treatment of CSM compared with LC. Further high-quality research is warranted to further verify our findings.Systematic Review RegistrationPRISMA: CRD42018107070.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Muhammad Chutiyami ◽  
Allen M. Y. Cheong ◽  
Dauda Salihu ◽  
Umar Muhammad Bello ◽  
Dorothy Ndwiga ◽  
...  

ObjectiveThis meta-review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of overall mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodWe conducted a comprehensive literature search on Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE. A predefined eligibility criterion was used to screen the articles. The methodology quality of eligible studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for systematic reviews. The data were narratively synthesised in line with the meta-review aim.ResultForty systematic reviews (represented as K = 40), which reported data from 1,828 primary studies (N) and 3,245,768 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The findings from a pooled prevalence indicate that anxiety (16–41%, K = 30, N = 701), depression (14–37%, K = 28, N = 584), and stress/post-traumatic stress disorder (18.6–56.5%, K = 24, N = 327) were the most prevailing COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health conditions affecting healthcare workers. Other reported concerns included insomnia, burnout, fear, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatization symptoms, phobia, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Considering regions/countries, the highest anxiety was reported in the United-Kingdom [22.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):7–38, N = 4] compared to other countries, while the highest depression was in the Middle-East, (41, 95% CI:16–60, N = 5) and stress in the Eastern Mediterranean region (61.6, 95% CI:56.4–66.8, N = 2) compared to other regions. The most significant risk factors include female gender, younger age, being a nurse, and frontline professional. The most-reported coping strategies include individual/group psychological support, family/relative support, training/orientation, and the adequacy of personal protective equipment.ConclusionIt was concluded that healthcare professionals (nurses, doctors, allied health) have experienced various mental health issues during COVID-19 pandemic. The meta-review, therefore, recommends targeted interventions and health policies that address specific mental health issues to support health professionals worldwide during the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and similar future health crises.Systematic Review Registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD4202126200, identifier: CRD42021262001.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dexin Chen ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Xing Xin ◽  
Long Zhang ◽  
Aihong Yu ◽  
...  

ObjectiveCalcium supplementation can prevent gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. However, besides the non-consensus of existing studies, there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal dosing of calcium.MethodEight electronic databases, namely, the Cochrane Library, PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE, WANGFANG, VIP, CBM, and CNKI, were searched. The studies were retrieved from inception to July 13, 2021. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and evaluated the methodological quality based on the inclusion criteria. In particular, the calcium supplementation doses were divided into three groups, namely, the high-dose (≥1.5 g), medium-dose (1.0–1.49 g), and the low-dose group (<1.0 g). The participants were also divided into high-risk and low-risk groups, according to the risk of developing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.Results and DiscussionA total of 48 studies were incorporated into the final analyses. All doses of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in the low-risk population (low dose - three studies; medium dose- 11 studies; high dose- 28 studies), whereas the medium-dose (three studies) reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in high-risk groups. Moreover, a medium dose of calcium supplementation had the maximum effect in reducing gestational hypertension in low-risk and high-risk populations. The medium (three studies) and high doses (13 studies) of calcium supplementation reduced the incidence of pre-eclampsia in the low-risk groups. However, a medium-dose calcium supplementation maximally prevented pre-eclampsia in the low-risk population. The authenticity and reliability of the results were reduced due to the limitations of contemporary studies in terms of experimental design, result measurement, statistics, and evidence quality. Therefore, high-quality studies with larger sample size are required to evaluate further the effect of calcium supplementation in preventing gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shijie Zhang ◽  
Xiang Tong ◽  
Tianli Zhang ◽  
Dongguang Wang ◽  
Sitong Liu ◽  
...  

BackgroundSarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is associated with poor prognosis, conferring up to a 10-fold increase in mortality in patients with sarcoidosis, but the actual prevalence of SAPH is unknown.MethodsThe PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for epidemiological studies reporting the prevalence of SAPH up to July 2021. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment. Studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.ResultsThis meta-analysis included 25 high-quality studies from 12 countries, with a pooled sample of 632,368 patients with sarcoidosis. The prevalence of SAPH by transthoracic echocardiography in Europe, the United States and Asia was 18.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1–26.5%], 13.9% (95% CI: 5.4–22.4%) and 16.2% (95% CI: 7.1–25.4%) separately, and the overall pooled prevalence was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.2–20.5%). By right heart catheterization (RHC), the pooled prevalence of SAPH was 6.4% (95% CI: 3.6–9.1%) in general sarcoidosis population, and subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of SAPH was 6.7% (95% CI: 2.4–11.0%) in Europe and 8.6% (95% CI: −4.1 to 21.3%) in the United States. Further, the prevalence of pre-capillary PH was 6.5% (95% CI: 2.9–10.2%). For the population with advanced sarcoidosis, the pooled prevalence of SAPH and pre-capillary PH by RHC was as high as 62.3% (95% CI: 46.9–77.6%) and 55.9% (95% CI: 20.1–91.7%), respectively. Finally, the pooled prevalence of SAPH in large databases with documented diagnoses (6.1%, 95% CI: 2.6–9.5%) was similar to that of RHC. Substantial heterogeneity across studies was observed for all analyses (I2 > 80%, P < 0.001).ConclusionsThe sarcoidosis population has a relatively low burden of PH, mainly pre-capillary PH. However, as the disease progresses to advanced sarcoidosis, the prevalence of SAPH increases significantly.


Author(s):  
Sarah Batson ◽  
Rohit Shankar ◽  
Joan Conry ◽  
Jane Boggs ◽  
Rodney Radtke ◽  
...  

AbstractVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) Therapy® is an adjunctive neurostimulation treatment for people with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) who are unwilling to undergo resective surgery, have had unsuccessful surgery or are unsuitable for surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the treatment effects of VNS Therapy as an adjunct to anti-seizure medications (ASMs) for the management of adults with DRE. A literature search was performed in August 2020 of the Medline®, Medline® Epub Ahead of Print, Embase, and the Cochrane library databases. Outcomes examined included reduction in seizure frequency, seizure freedom, ASM load, discontinuations, and serious adverse events (SAEs). Comparators included best medical practice, ASMs, low-stimulation or sham VNS Therapy. Four RCTs and six comparative observational studies were identified for inclusion. Against comparators, individuals treated with VNS had a significantly better odds of experiencing a ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency (OR: 2.27 [95% CI 1.47, 3.51]; p = 0.0002), a ≥ 75% reduction in seizure frequency (OR: 3.56 [95% CI 1.59, 7.98]; p = 0.002) and a reduced risk for increased ASM load (risk ratio: 0.36 [95% CI 0.21, 0.62]; p = 0.0002). There was no difference in the odds of discontinuation or the rate of SAEs between VNS versus comparators. This meta-analysis demonstrated the benefits of VNS Therapy in people with DRE, which included improvement in seizure frequency without an increase in the rate of SAEs or discontinuations, thereby supporting the consideration of VNS Therapy for people who are not responding to ASMs and those unsuitable or unwilling to undergo surgery.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatima Safi ◽  
Anna M. Aniserowicz ◽  
Heather Colquhoun ◽  
Jill Stier ◽  
Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

Abstract Background Eating disorders (ED) can reduce quality of life by limiting participation and performance in social and occupational roles, including paid or unpaid work. The association between ED pathologies and work participation and performance must be well understood to strengthen vocational rehabilitation programmes and prevent occupational disruptions in the ED population. The aims of this study are: (1) to examine the degree of association between ED pathologies and work participation and performance in 15-year-olds and older; (2) to highlight the specific ED symptoms that are most correlated with changes in work performance and participation; (3) to compile the most common metrics and assessments used to measure work participation and performance with ED. Methods Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library will be searched for observational and experimental studies that meet the following criteria: (1) a clinical sample of typical or atypical ED; (2) paid or unpaid employment or training; (3) an association between ED pathologies and work participation or performance. Unpublished data will also be examined. Title and abstract, and full-text screening will be conducted in duplicate. Risk of bias and quality of evidence assessments will be completed. A random-effect meta-analysis will be performed. Discussion This synthesis can clarify knowledge and gaps around the impact of ED on work functioning, thereby allowing better evaluation, improvements and development of current workplace assessments, interventions, and policies. Trial registration The registration number for this systematic review on PROSPERO is CRD42021255055.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 367
Author(s):  
Gail Rees ◽  
Louise Brough ◽  
Gustavo Moya Orsatti ◽  
Anna Lodge ◽  
Steven Walker

Maternal dietary micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids support development of the fetal and neonatal immune system. Whether supplementation is similarly beneficial for the mother during gestation has received limited attention. A scoping review of human trials was conducted looking for evidence of biochemical, genomic, and clinical effects of supplementation on the maternal immune system. The authors explored the literature on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases from 2010 to the present day using PRISMA-ScR methodology. Full-length human trials in English were searched for using general terms and vitamin A, B12, C, D, and E; choline; iodine; iron; selenium; zinc; and docosahexaenoic/eicosapentaenoic acid. Of 1391 unique articles, 36 were eligible for inclusion. Diverse biochemical and epigenomic effects of supplementation were identified that may influence innate and adaptive immunity. Possible clinical benefits were encountered in malaria, HIV infections, anemia, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, and preventing preterm delivery. Only limited publications were identified that directly explored maternal immunity in pregnancy and the effects of micronutrients. None provided a holistic perspective. It is concluded that supplementation may influence biochemical aspects of the maternal immune response and some clinical outcomes, but the evidence from this review is not sufficient to justify changes to current guidelines.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mingtao Zhang ◽  
Zhitao Yang ◽  
Borong Zhang ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
Jin Jiang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common shoulder injuries in the older population. This study aimed to determine whether acromioplasty reliably decreases the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and describe any associated complications. Methods A systematic literature review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Database. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts using prespecified criteria. Studies where the acromioplasty was performed as a surgical procedure were included. Patient characteristics and degree of CSA reduction were collected from each individual study. All statistical analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.4.1 software. A random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Results A total of 9 studies involving 1236 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The age of patients ranged from 23 to 82 years. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 30 months. Of the 9 studies, 8 (88.9%) were retrospective, 1 (11.1%) was prospective, 5 were comparative, and 4 were case series. The mean CSA was significantly reduced from 36.1° ± 4.6° to 33.7° ± 4.2 (p < 0.05). The meta-analysis showed an overall best estimate of the mean difference in pre- and postoperative CSA equal to 2.63° (95% confidence interval: 2.15, 3.11] (p < 0.00001). Conclusions Acromioplasty can significantly reduce CSA, notably in cases of high preoperative CSA. In addition, the effect of lateral acromioplasty on the CSA was more significant compared to anterolateral acromioplasty. Acromioplasty was not associated with complications during the short-term follow-up.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kavous Shahsavarinia ◽  
Golnarz Rahvar ◽  
Hassan Soleimanpour ◽  
Mohammad Saadati ◽  
Leila Vahedi ◽  
...  

Objectives: COVID-19 patients develop Life-threatening complications like pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax and emphysema which might experience prolonged hospital stays and additional costs might be imposed on the patient and the health system. The clinical features and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection who develop a pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema has not been rigorously described or compared to those who do not develop these complications. So a systematic review of studies conducted on this subject was carried out to better manage these complications by investigating the underlying factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The search was conducted between early January and late December 2020 in databases including PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, using the following keywords and their combinations: COVID-19 Complication, Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumopericardium, and Subcutaneous Emphysema. The extracted studies were screened separately by two researchers based on the PRISMA statement. After eliminating the duplicate studies, the title, abstract, and full text of the remaining studies were reviewed. Disagreements in the screening and selection of the studies were resolved by consensus or through a third-party opinion.  Results: A total of 793 articles were retrieved through the literature search, and 99 studies conducted on a total of 139 patients were finally included The patient mortality was found to have a significant relationship with positive pressure ventilation (P=0.0001). There was no significant relationship between the patients’ death and chest tube insertion (P=0.2) or between the interval of time from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of pneumothorax (P=0.7). The mean age was higher in the deceased cases, and the mean difference observed was statistically significant (P=0.001).  Conclusion: With the expansion of our clinical understanding of COVID-19, recognition of the uncommon complications of COVID-19 especially pneumothorax is crucial. Although in our review we couldn’t find a causal relationship between COVID-19 and pneumothorax or association between pneumothorax and death, as it is limited by many variables such as included studies’ design, or incomplete outcome data especially more information about the associated risk factors, we recommend performing more well-designed studies to describe the pneumothoraxes› incidence, risk factors, and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5529 How to cite this:Shahsavarinia K, Rahvar G, Soleimanpour H, Saadati M, Vahedi L, Mahmoodpoor A. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema in critically ill COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5529 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Author(s):  
Valentina Bellini ◽  
Marina Valente ◽  
Giorgia Bertorelli ◽  
Barbara Pifferi ◽  
Michelangelo Craca ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Risk stratification plays a central role in anesthetic evaluation. The use of Big Data and machine learning (ML) offers considerable advantages for collection and evaluation of large amounts of complex health-care data. We conducted a systematic review to understand the role of ML in the development of predictive post-surgical outcome models and risk stratification. Methods Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we selected the period of the research for studies from 1 January 2015 up to 30 March 2021. A systematic search in Scopus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and MeSH databases was performed; the strings of research included different combinations of keywords: “risk prediction,” “surgery,” “machine learning,” “intensive care unit (ICU),” and “anesthesia” “perioperative.” We identified 36 eligible studies. This study evaluates the quality of reporting of prediction models using the Transparent Reporting of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) checklist. Results The most considered outcomes were mortality risk, systemic complications (pulmonary, cardiovascular, acute kidney injury (AKI), etc.), ICU admission, anesthesiologic risk and prolonged length of hospital stay. Not all the study completely followed the TRIPOD checklist, but the quality was overall acceptable with 75% of studies (Rev #2, comm #minor issue) showing an adherence rate to TRIPOD more than 60%. The most frequently used algorithms were gradient boosting (n = 13), random forest (n = 10), logistic regression (LR; n = 7), artificial neural networks (ANNs; n = 6), and support vector machines (SVM; n = 6). Models with best performance were random forest and gradient boosting, with AUC > 0.90. Conclusions The application of ML in medicine appears to have a great potential. From our analysis, depending on the input features considered and on the specific prediction task, ML algorithms seem effective in outcomes prediction more accurately than validated prognostic scores and traditional statistics. Thus, our review encourages the healthcare domain and artificial intelligence (AI) developers to adopt an interdisciplinary and systemic approach to evaluate the overall impact of AI on perioperative risk assessment and on further health care settings as well.


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