Objective This study explores the postacute-stroke management problems, particularly for patients with total dependency (Barthel Index <20), in home care service of Dr. Sardjito Hospital (SH) from the hospital personnel's and caregiver's points of view.
Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with hospital personnel and patients' caregivers based on the purposeful sampling. There were 10 hospital personnel that were interviewed: the director of medical service, head of home care unit, neurologists, general practitioners, nurses, and physiotherapist. There were eight caregivers who participated in the study.
Statistical Analysis Data from the interviews were analyzed using systematic text condensation using Nvivo 12 plus.
Results Our findings showed that all health personnel in SH agreed that home care service is a part of an integrated health care service for continuation of care. However, the preparedness by the hospital management is still lacking in infrastructures, such as standardized operational procedure, quality control, and financial system, as well as in terms of competent human resources and their welfare. In addition, the patient's family and caregiver are lacking in knowledge and independency to take care of the patients with the need of home care services' monitoring to deliver the expected home care for postacute-stroke's patient regularly.
Conclusion Home care service is an act of implementing hospital obligation to fulfill the patients' rights. An established hospital policy to ensure a comprehensive home care service delivery is necessary. The capability and welfare of the health care personnel should be put into account for the standardized human resources.
Background and Objectives Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have greater psychological morbidity, despite that research in this area is scarce from developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the association of quality of life, social support, coping strategies, and psychological morbidity in patients with RA.
Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients with RA, who were not receiving steroids or disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, were recruited through purposive sampling. Social support questionnaire, coping strategy check list, and World Health Organization quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered to assess social support, coping, and quality of life, respectively.
Results More than half of the patients had psychiatric disorders (60%), with depression being the commonest disorder (52.5%). Internalization coping and disease severity indicators like tender joints counts, swollen joints counts, pain, and disease activity were found as significant predictors for psychiatric disorders, while externalization coping, quality of life (all domains), and physical functions were found to protect against psychiatric morbidity.
Conclusions Coping, quality of life, disease severity, and physical functions predicted the psychiatric disorders in RA. Multipronged interventions to enhance quality of life with promoting adaptive coping and timely treatment may further improve their mental health and overall disease course.
Objectives The main aim of this study is to identify the deleterious effects of indiscriminately consumed high fructose on motor neurons that are critically affected in many neurological conditions causing movement disorders including paralysis.
Materials and Methods Neuroblastoma x mouse spinal cord motor neuron cell line (NSC-34) motor neuron cell lines were treated with high fructose and oxygen supplementation (18.8%) and assayed for cell proliferation/death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and oxidative stress response induction
Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation, significance with and without high fructose (F)-5%, were estimated by t-tests using GraphPad Prism ver. 8.2.1
Results F-5% along with O2 (18.8%) annihilates the cells (∼85%) by day10 and inhibits cell division as observed by the presence of multinucleated cells. Unexpectedly, 1 to 2% of cells that survived, differentiated and displayed progressive neurite extension. Though not healthy, they were viable up to 80 days. F-5% increased ROS levels (∼34%) not accompanied by concomitant enhanced expression of oxidative stress response regulator, the transcription factor, nrf-2, or downstream effector, sod-1.
Conclusion High fructose is extremely harmful to NSC-34 motor neuron cell line.
AbstractDecompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure done for innumerable etiologies. Though, not a technically demanding procedure, it has its own complications. Among many, sinking flap syndrome or syndrome of the trephined or paradoxical herniation of brain is frequently underestimated. It results from the pressure difference between the atmospheric pressure and the intracranial pressure causing the brain to shift inward at the craniectomy site. This can present with either nonspecific symptoms leading to delay in diagnosis or acute neurological deterioration, memory disturbances, weakness, confusion, lethargy, and sometimes death if not treated. Cranioplasty is a time validated procedure used to treat paradoxical brain herniation with good and early neurological recovery. We, here in, are going to describe a case report in which the paradoxical herniation occurred after cranioplasty which has not been described in literature.
Background Transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD) provides information on intracranial blood flow status in stroke patients and can predict rehabilitation outcomes.
Objective This study aimed to assess middle cerebral artery (MCA) parameters using TCCD in MCA territory stroke patients admitted for rehabilitation and correlate with clinical outcome measures.
Material and Methods Patients aged 18 to 65 years with a first MCA territory stroke, within 6 months of onset were recruited. The clinical outcome scales and TCCD parameters were assessed at both admission and discharge. The scales used were the Scandinavian stroke scale (SSS), Barthel Index (BI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Fugl–Meyer upper extremity scale (FMA-UE), modified motor assessment scale (mMAS) scores. TCCD parameters measured were MCA peak systolic, end diastolic, mean flow velocities (MFV), and index of symmetry (SI) and were correlated with clinical scores.
Results Fourteen patients were recruited with median age of 56.5 years, median duration of stroke was 42.5 days. Mean flow velocities of affected and unaffected MCA were 46.2 and 50.7 cm/s, respectively. Flow velocities and SI did not change between the two assessments. There was significant improvement in clinical outcome scores at discharge. Significant correlation was observed for patient group with SI > 0.9 at admission with FMA-UE, SSS, and BI scores at discharge (p < 0.05).
Conclusion Flow velocity parameters did not change during in-patient rehabilitation. Patients with symmetric flow at admission had improved clinical outcomes measure scores at discharge. Thus SI can predict rehabilitation outcomes in stroke survivors.
Background Epilepsy being one of the most prevalent neurological diseases in children is associated with psychopathology and academic concerns. Epilepsy surgery is considered for refractory epilepsy at some centers in India and hence this study was undertaken to find out prevalence and type of psychopathology in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy before epilepsy surgery.
Methods All data were analyzed from the records of patients undergoing preepilepsy surgery protocol workup in comprehensive center of epilepsy care at a general municipal hospital in Mumbai. A record of 150 children and adolescents in the age group of 3 to 18 years over a period of 10 years was taken and all details of demographics, epilepsy, and psychopathology were recorded.
Results The mean age for our sample was 11.4 ± 3.4 years and a male preponderance was seen. Majority (80%) of the children were pursuing education. The duration of seizure disorder was approximately 4.41 + 2.36 years and complex partial seizures were seen commonly in 50% of the children. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and video electroencephalography (VEEG) findings revealed right sided lateralization followed by left in majority of the patients. Psychopathology was seen in 70 (46%) patients with mental retardation, hyperkinetic disorders affecting attention and activity and oppositional defiant disorder, and unspecified mental disorder due to underlying brain damage being the type of International Classification of Disease-10th Revision (ICD-10) disorders seen. Patients with psychopathology showed a left-sided predominance on their MRI and VEEG findings for laterality of the epileptogenic focus as compared with right side.
Conclusion Refractory seizures and associated psychopathology impact family life, friendships, and academics and worsen prognosis and quality of life. Screening for psychopathology in children with epilepsy would therefore lead to better outcomes especially prior to epilepsy surgery.
Background Endovascular treatment of vascular pathologies through the transradial approach has been increasingly used and has demonstrated a low rate of complications.
Objective To report our initial experience in the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases with the transradial approach and to determine its safety and feasibility.
Methods Consecutive patients who underwent the transradial approach for endovascular treatment of aneurysms and vascular malformations were reviewed at a single institution. Technical success, fluoroscopy time, and access-related complications were analyzed.
Results Eight patients underwent endovascular treatment with the transradial approach. One arteriovenous fistula, one superficial temporal artery aneurysm, three arteriovenous malformations, and four aneurysms were treated successfully. The radial artery was successfully approached and a 6-F sheath was used in all the cases. Navigation of guiding catheters (5 and 6 F) was done without complications. The most commonly approached artery was the right internal carotid artery, followed by the right vertebral artery. Postoperative vasospasm was identified in three patients. Mean fluoroscopy time was 34.7 minutes. Conversion to transfemoral approach was not required. No postoperative complications were reported.
Conclusions In our initial experience, the transradial approach is a safe and feasible alternative for the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular pathologies.
Background Neoplastic meningitis (NM) is considered as a terminal event with poor prognosis. Its impact in clinical oncology is growing.
Objective To analyze the clinical outcome of patients with carcinoma breast diagnosed with NM.
Materials and Methods This study was an observational study in breast cancer patients diagnosed with NM. Patients with typical clinical symptoms and signs with either presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology positive for neoplastic cells or typical radiological features of leptomeningeal involvement in the presence of neurological symptoms or signs were taken as leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) or NM. The estimation of survival was done by Kaplan–Meier method.
Results Out of 1,200 patients diagnosed with carcinoma breast during the study period, 15 developed NM. The median age of study population was 51 (range: 44–55) years. Most common presentations were headache (47%), vomiting (47%), diplopia (20%), seizure (20%), and cerebellar signs (7%). Seven (46%) patients were hormone receptor positive, four (30%) were HER2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive and seven (46%) were triple-negative breast cancer. Median time to develop LM from the time of diagnosis of breast cancer was 6 (range: 3–8) months. Nine patients (90%) had features of NM in CSF cytology. Thirteen patients received palliative whole brain radiotherapy (20 Gy in five fractions). Nine out of 12 patients received single-agent Capecitabine as first-line chemotherapy after palliative radiation therapy (RT). Intrathecal methotrexate was given for seven patients. The median overall survival was 3 (range: 0.5–4) months.
Conclusion LM is a very aggressive metastatic disease with poor outcome. There is an unmet need for proper guidelines and an overwhelming necessity for a better focus on research for new modalities of disease in this scenario.
AbstractConfirmation bias is the tendency to seek information and evidence in order to confirm a preexisting hypothesis while giving less importance and overlook an alternative solution. This report describes the case of a 52-year-old man with a long history of neck pain and bilateral upper limbs paresthesias with a cervical intracanal inhomogeneously enhancing lesion. Despite all the preoperative radiological findings, a spinal meningioma an anterior approach was performed. The mass ended up being a large migrated hernia with the involvement of two levels. Before suggesting treatment, especially surgery, physicians and practitioners need to evaluate all of the possible alternatives in order to optimize patient outcome.
Background Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most commonly diagnosed neurological abnormality affecting children leading to severe neurological deficits and a cause of neonatal mortality. HIE constitutes a diagnostic challenge in the prematurely born and full-term neonates. HIE causes severe neurological deficit in children and many a times goes unnoticed in early stages. The various patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in HIE are dependent on factors, such as severity and duration of hypoxia, and brain maturity in preterm and full-term patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has prognostic significance in detecting patterns of HIE secondary to mild-to-moderate and severe hypoxias and the imaging findings are highly dependent on the time at which imaging is done. MRI helps determine the prognosis of brain development in patients with HIE.
Objective This retrospective study elucidates the spectrum of MRI findings in preterm and full-term patients with HIE on MRI.
Materials and Methods This retrospective descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary care center between April 2017 and May 2019 on 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of HIE using a General Electric (GE) 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner. Various patterns of HIE were evaluated on MRI in preterm and full-term patients.
Results This retrospective study evaluated MRI findings in 50 infants diagnosed with HIE. Eighteen (36%) were preterm and 32 (64%) were full-term patients. Thirty-five (70%) were male and 15 (30%) were female patients. In the current study, developmental delay was the most commonly associated clinical entity in both preterm and full-term patients. In preterm patients, periventricular leukomalacia was the most prevalent MRI finding, and in full-term patients, subcortical and periventricular white matter hyperintensities on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were most commonly encountered.
Conclusion MRI is the primary imaging modality of choice in preterm and full-term patients with HIE, as it helps determine the severity of hypoxic–ischemic injury by understanding the pattern of brain involvement. In the current study, distinguishable patterns of MRI findings secondary to birth asphyxia and ischemic insult were elucidated in both preterm and full-term patients who are highly dependent on the level of brain maturity at the time of imaging. Regular MRI follow-up has a prognostic significance in HIE with accurate prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome on follow-up studies.