cardiopulmonary bypass
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 753-761
Xue-Mei Zheng ◽  
Zhuo Yang ◽  
Guang-Li Yang ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Jie-Ru Peng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Zrinka Požgain ◽  
Grgur Dulić ◽  
Goran Kondža ◽  
Siniša Bogović ◽  
Ivan Šerić ◽  

Abstract Background Postoperative cognitive decline following cardiac surgery is one of the frequently reported complications affecting postoperative outcome, characterized by impairment of memory or concentration. The aetiology is considered multifactorial and the research conducted so far has presented contradictory results. The proposed mechanisms to explain the cognitive decline associated with cardiac surgery include the neurotoxic accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) proteins similar to Alzheimer's disease. The comparison of coronary artery bypass grafting procedures concerning postoperative cognitive decline and plasmatic Aβ1-42 concentrations has not yet been conducted. Methods The research was designed as a controlled clinical study of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing surgical myocardial revascularization with or without the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass machine. All patients completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and plasmatic Aβ1-42 concentrations were collected. Results The neuropsychological test results postoperatively were significantly worse in the cardiopulmonary bypass group and the patients had larger shifts in the Aβ1-42 preoperative and postoperative values than the group in which off-pump coronary artery bypass was performed. Conclusions The conducted research confirmed the earlier suspected association of plasmatic Aβ1-42 concentration to postoperative cognitive decline and the results further showed that there were less changes and lower concentrations in the off-pump coronary artery bypass group, which correlated to less neurocognitive decline. There is a lot of clinical contribution acquired by this research, not only in everyday decision making and using amyloid proteins as biomarkers, but also in the development and application of non-pharmacological and pharmacological neuroprotective strategies.

BMC Surgery ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xiaodong Wei ◽  
Tiange Li ◽  
Yunfei Ling ◽  
Zheng Chai ◽  
Zhongze Cao ◽  

Abstract Background Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Pulmonary regurgitation is the most common and severe comorbidity after transannular patch (TAP) repair of TOF patients. It has not been confirmed whether a TAP repair with monocusp valve reconstruction would benefit TOF patients in perioperative period compared to those without monocusp valve reconstruction. The purpose of the study is to review and analyze all clinical studies that have compared perioperative outcomes of TOF patients undergoing TAP repair with or without monocusp valve reconstruction and conduct a preferable surgery. Methods Eligible studies were identified by searching the electronic databases. The year of publication of studies was restricted from 2000 till present. The primary outcome was perioperative mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, ventilation duration, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, perioperative right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pressure gradient, and moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR). The meta-analysis and forest plots were drawn using Review Manager 5.3. Statistically significant was considered when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results Eight studies were included which consisted of 8 retrospective cohort study and 2 randomized controlled trial. The 10 studies formed a pool of 526 TOF patients in total, in which are 300 undergoing TAP repair with monocusp valve reconstruction (monocusp group) compared to 226 undergoing TAP repair without monocusp valve reconstruction (non-monocusp group). It demonstrated no significant differences between two groups in perioperative mortality (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.20–2.41, p = 0.58). It demonstrated significant differences in perioperative cardiopulmonary bypass time (minute, 95% CI 17.93–28.42, p < 0.00001), mean length of ICU stay (day, 95% CI − 2.11–0.76, p < 0.0001), and the degree of perioperative PR (OR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.010.12, p < 0.00001). Significant differences were not found in other secondary outcomes. Conclusion Transannular patch repair with monocusp valve reconstruction have significant advantages on decreasing length of ICU stay and reducing degree of PR for TOF patients. Large, multicenter, randomized, prospective studies which focuse on perioperative outcomes and postoperative differences based on long-term follow-up between TAP repair with and without monocusp valve reconstruction are needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Muhammad Farhan Ali Rizvi ◽  
Syed Muhammad Arslan Yousuf ◽  
Attaullah Younas ◽  
Mirza Ahmad Raza Baig

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of Del-Nido cardioplegia as myocardial protective agent with Saint Thomas cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical patients. Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted in cardiac surgery department of Bahawal Victoria hospital Bahawalpur, from October 2020 to March 2021. Eighty adult patients who underwent primary Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or isolated Valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into Del Nido (DN, n=40) and Saint Thomas (ST, n=40) groups. Data regarding operative and post-operative variables such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross clamp (AXC) times, inotropic requirements, resumption of sinus rhythm, need for electrical defibrillation, post-operative CKMB, blood requirement and ICU stay were noted. Results: CPB and AXC times were statistically insignificantly different. Resumption of Sinus rhythm was seen significantly in more patients of DN group (95%) than in ST group (72.5%) [p-value 0.05]. Less patients of DN group (5%) were candidates of electrical defibrillation than ST group (17.5%) [p-value <0.001). Post- operative CKMB values were significantly lower in DN group as compared to ST group (30.5±22.6 IU vs 50.5±50.28 IU, p value.008). Blood transfusion was significantly lower in DN group; 50% versus 80% in ST group (p-value 0.005). Ventilation time was significantly less in DN group than ST group (165.95±48.09 minutes versus 165.95±48.09 minutes respectively, p-value 0.03). While ICU stay was also less in DN group; 5.2±0.8 days versus 6.05±1.6 days in ST group (p-value 0.003). Conclusion: Del-Nido cardioplegia is a reliable and better myocardial protective agent than Saint Thomas cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical procedures. doi: How to cite this:Rizvi MFA, Yousuf SMA, Younas A, Baig MAR. Prospective randomized study comparing outcome of myocardial protection with Del-Nido Cardioplegia versus Saint Thomas Cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Güclü Aykut ◽  
Halim Ulugöl ◽  
Uğur Aksu ◽  
Sakir Akin ◽  
Hasan Karabulut ◽  

Background: Blood cardioplegia attenuates cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, which may favorably influence the microvascular system in this cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate whether blood cardioplegia would offer advantages over crystalloid cardioplegia in the preservation of microcirculation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with CPB.Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 20 patients who received crystalloid (n = 10) or blood cardioplegia (n = 10) were analyzed. The microcirculatory measurements were obtained sublingually using incident dark-field imaging at five time points ranging from the induction of anesthesia (T0) to discontinuation of CPB (T5).Results: In the both crystalloid [crystalloid cardioplegia group (CCG)] and blood cardioplegia [blood cardioplegia group (BCG)] groups, perfused vessel density (PVD), total vessel density (TVD), and proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) were reduced after the beginning of CPB. The observed reduction in microcirculatory parameters during CPB was only restored in patients who received blood cardioplegia and increased to baseline levels as demonstrated by the percentage changes from T0 to T5 (%Δ)T0−T5 in all the functional microcirculatory parameters [%ΔTVDT0−T5(CCG): −10.86 ± 2.323 vs. %ΔTVDT0−T5(BCG): 0.0804 ± 1.107, p &lt; 0.001; %ΔPVDT0−T5(CCG): −12.91 ± 2.884 vs. %ΔPVDT0−T5(BCG): 1.528 ± 1.144, p &lt; 0.001; %ΔPPVT0−T5(CCG): −2.345 ± 1.049 vs. %ΔPPVT0−T5(BCG): 1.482 ± 0.576, p &lt; 0.01].Conclusion: Blood cardioplegia ameliorates CPB-induced microcirculatory alterations better than crystalloid cardioplegia in patients undergoing CABG, which may reflect attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. Future investigations are needed to identify the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of blood cardioplegia on microcirculation.

eJHaem ◽  
2022 ◽  
Rengina Kefalogianni ◽  
Farah Kamani ◽  
Mihaela Gaspar ◽  
TC Aw ◽  
Jackie Donovan ◽  

Charlene V. Chabata ◽  
James W. Frederiksen ◽  
Lyra B. Olson ◽  
Ibtehaj A. Naqvi ◽  
Sharon E. Hall ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 341-344
Omar Hasan ◽  
Robert Tung ◽  
Hadley Freeman ◽  
Whitney Taylor ◽  
Stephen Helmer ◽  

Introduction.  This study aimed to determine if thromboelastography (TEG) is associated with reduced blood product use and surgical re-intervention following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) compared to traditional coagulation tests. Methods.  A retrospective review was conducted of 698 patients who underwent CPB  at a tertiary-care, community-based, university-affiliated hospital from February 16, 2014 – February 16, 2015 (Period I) and May 16, 2015 - May 16, 2016 (Period II).  Traditional coagulation tests guided transfusion during Period I and TEG guided transfusion during Period II.  Intraoperative and postoperative administration blood products (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate), reoperation for hemorrhage or graft occlusion, duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay and mortality were recorded.  Results.  Use of a TEG-directed algorithm was associated with a 13.5% absolute reduction in percentage of patients requiring blood products intraoperatively (48.2% vs. 34.7%, p <0.001).  TEG resulted in a 64.3% and 43.1% reduction in proportion of patients receiving FFP and platelets, respectively, with a 50% reduction in volume of FFP administered (0.3 vs. 0.6 units, p < 0.001).  Use of TEG was not observed to significantly decrease postoperative blood product usage or mortality.  The median length of hospital stay was reduced by 1 day after TEG guided transfusion was implemented (nine days vs. eight days, p = 0.01). Conclusions.  Use of TEG-directed transfusion of blood products following CPB appears to decrease the need for intraoperative transfusions, but the effect on clinical outcomes has yet to be clearly determined.

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