protective agent
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-279
Deandra Maharani Widiatmaja ◽  
Alyaa Ulaa Dhiya Ul Haq ◽  
Dinda Dwi Purwati ◽  
Arifa Mustika

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence keeps increasing worldwide and being particular concern due to its morbidity and mortality. However, current CKD therapy are known to be economically costly and not necessarily provide better outcomes. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the substances that widely studied as perspective therapeutic agents of CKD due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and enhancing mitochondrial function ability. However, the use of EGCG is limited to low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Encapsulation of EGCG with PLGA is expected to increase the efficacy of EGCG especially for its use as the kidney protective agent and optimize therapy of CKD. Thus, this study aims to analyze the potency of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG as the adjuvant therapy for CKD. This study was a narrative review summarizes studies related to current adjuvant therapy of CKD. EGCG has beneficial effects in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines among chronic kidney disease. EGCG also can increase scavenging of free radicals to decrease reactive oxygen species. EGCG is known to enhance mitochondrial function and increase mitochondrial protection to prevent apoptosis in various kidney diseases. Combination of PLGA encapsulation with EGCG has a beneficial effect in improving the delivery, bioavailability, stability, and the pharmacokinetic profile of EGCG. PLGA-encapsulated EGCG also provides a better therapeutic effect on preventing and decreasing progression of kidney damage. Finally, this study concluded that combination of PLGA-encapsulated EGCG has a potency as the adjuvant therapy of CKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Muhammad Farhan Ali Rizvi ◽  
Syed Muhammad Arslan Yousuf ◽  
Attaullah Younas ◽  
Mirza Ahmad Raza Baig

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of Del-Nido cardioplegia as myocardial protective agent with Saint Thomas cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical patients. Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted in cardiac surgery department of Bahawal Victoria hospital Bahawalpur, from October 2020 to March 2021. Eighty adult patients who underwent primary Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or isolated Valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into Del Nido (DN, n=40) and Saint Thomas (ST, n=40) groups. Data regarding operative and post-operative variables such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross clamp (AXC) times, inotropic requirements, resumption of sinus rhythm, need for electrical defibrillation, post-operative CKMB, blood requirement and ICU stay were noted. Results: CPB and AXC times were statistically insignificantly different. Resumption of Sinus rhythm was seen significantly in more patients of DN group (95%) than in ST group (72.5%) [p-value 0.05]. Less patients of DN group (5%) were candidates of electrical defibrillation than ST group (17.5%) [p-value <0.001). Post- operative CKMB values were significantly lower in DN group as compared to ST group (30.5±22.6 IU vs 50.5±50.28 IU, p value.008). Blood transfusion was significantly lower in DN group; 50% versus 80% in ST group (p-value 0.005). Ventilation time was significantly less in DN group than ST group (165.95±48.09 minutes versus 165.95±48.09 minutes respectively, p-value 0.03). While ICU stay was also less in DN group; 5.2±0.8 days versus 6.05±1.6 days in ST group (p-value 0.003). Conclusion: Del-Nido cardioplegia is a reliable and better myocardial protective agent than Saint Thomas cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical procedures. doi: How to cite this:Rizvi MFA, Yousuf SMA, Younas A, Baig MAR. Prospective randomized study comparing outcome of myocardial protection with Del-Nido Cardioplegia versus Saint Thomas Cardioplegia in adult cardiac surgical patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------.  doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Jonas Dittrich ◽  
Christin Brethauer ◽  
Liudmyla Goncharenko ◽  
Jens Bührmann ◽  
Viktoria Zeisler-Diehl ◽  

In times of a constantly growing world population and increasing demand for food, sustainable agriculture is crucial. To reduce the amount of applied nutrients, herbicides, and fungicides, the rainfastness of plant protection agents is of pivotal importance. As a result of protective agent wash-off, plant protection is lost, and soils and groundwater are severely polluted. To date, rainfastness of plant protection products is achieved by adding polymeric adjuvants to the agrochemicals. However, polymeric adjuvants will be regarded as microplastics in the future, and environmentally friendly alternatives are needed. Anchor peptides (APs) are promising biobased and biodegradable adhesion promoters. While the adhesion of anchor peptides to artificial surfaces, such as polymers, has already been investigated in theory and experimentally, exploiting the adhesion to biological surfaces remains challenging. The complex nature and composition of biological surfaces such as plant leaf and fruit surfaces complicate the generation of accurate models. Here, we present the first detailed three-layered atomistic model of the surface of apple leaves and use it to compute free energy profiles of the adhesion and desorption of APs to and from that surface. Our model is validated by a novel fluorescence-based MTP assay that mimicks these complex processes and allows quantifying them. For the AP Macaque Histatin, we demonstrate that aromatic and positively charged amino acids are essential for binding to the waxy apple leaf surface. The established protocols should generally be applicable for tailoring the binding properties of APs to biological interfaces.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026010602110732
Ana Paula Azevêdo Macêdo ◽  
Mariane dos Santos Gonçalves ◽  
Jairza Maria Barreto Medeiros ◽  
Jorge Mauricio David ◽  
Cristiane Flora Villarreal ◽  

Background: Green tea, obtained from the plant Camellis sinensis, is one of the oldest drinks in the world and contains numerous bioactive compounds. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of green tea in preventing obesity and cardiovascular diseases that may be related to the reduction of lipid levels. Aim: This study aimed to evidence, through a systematic review, the therapeutic potential of green tea on the lipid profile in preclinical studies in obese animals and clinical studies in obese individuals. Methods: This systematic review follows the recommendations of the preferred report items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The electronic databases, PubMed (Medline), Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science were consulted. Articles from January 2009 to December 2019 were selected. Results: This search resulted in twenty-nine articles were included cirtically reviewed. In experimental studies, green tea administration has been shown to reduce total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in animals exposed to obesity-inducing diet. In humans’ studies green tea was not shown to be effective for obese lipid control. Because supplementation with green tea extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein for three months at a specific dose. Conclusion: Therefore, green tea appears to act as a protective agent for dyslipidemia in obesity-induced animals. In human studies, green tea has not been shown to be effective in controlling obese lipids.

Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 133602
Jimin Hyun ◽  
Bomi Ryu ◽  
Yun-Fei Jiang ◽  
Jun-Geon Je ◽  
Hye-Won Yang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1767-1780
Thompson T. Falowo ◽  
Ikechukwu P. Ejidike ◽  
Labunmi Lajide ◽  
Hadley S. Clayton

Polyphenols are known for their bioactive potentials and have been used as drugs and preservatives for decades. The drive around this research is to estimate the usefulness of bananas and plantain bracts. The bracts of banana (Musa acuminata) and plantain (Musa paradisiaca) were investigated for their chemical composition, antibacterial, and antioxidant capacity. The result of proximate analysis revealed appreciable amount of moisture content (8.45%; 7.83%), crude protein (1.53%; 1.57%), crude fiber (21.2%; 16.5%), fat content (2.01%; 2.25%), ash content (16.60 %; 15.10%), and carbohydrate (52.6%; 56.8%) dry matter (DM) for M. acuminata and M. paradisiaca respectively. The cellulose and lignin content of the bract samples revealed M. acuminata (34.61 ± 1.06%; 9.13 ± 0.31%) and M. paradisiaca (35.68 ± 0.31%; 11.68 ± 0.75%) respectively. The phytochemical analysis showed that the bracts contained (g/100g) tannins (29.01%; 24.21%), flavonoids (8.35%; 6.33%), saponins (26.02%; 25.08%), phenol (0.56%; 0.34%), and alkaloids (3.30 %; 3.74%), respectively for M. acuminata and M. paradisiaca respectively. Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts presented a wide range of inhibition against studied strains. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated considerable effect against most of the strains. The zones of inhibition ranged from 2 to 10 mm for the extracts. Methanolic extract of M. acuminata bract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 2.14±4.17 mg/ml) against DPPH radical. Meanwhile, methanolic extract of the bracts showed iron-chelating ability (2.03±1.48 mg/ml; 2.14±1.46 mg/ml), and FRAP assay (15.36±0.25 mg/ml; 23.09±0.17 mg/ml) for M.acuminata and M. paradisiaca respectively. The presence of polyphenols and essential nutrients present in the bracts showed potential to be exploited as a cradle for feed enhancement, antimicrobial agent, and protective agent against oxidative stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Jing Liu ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Zhigui Wu ◽  
Jianguo Pei ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing inflammatory disease with an unknown precise etiology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effects of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit extracts (GFE) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. GFE (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg) were administered orally for 7 days after induction. Meanwhile, the chemical components of GFE were performed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. GFE significantly decreased DAI scores and ameliorated macroscopic and histologic damage. It also reduced the levels of MPO, NO, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, while increasing the level of SOD. Moreover, 56 components were identified in GFE using a UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method, which can be categorized into six structural groups. Our results indicated that GFE has an ameliorative effect on TNBS-induced colitis in rats, which may further verify its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Therefore, GFE can be a promising protective agent of colitis that deserves further investigation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianxiao Zheng ◽  
Gong Li ◽  
Juanjuan Wang ◽  
Shujing Wang ◽  
Qing Tang ◽  

Background: Radiation-induced skin injury is a major side-effect observed in cancer patients who received radiotherapy. Thus identifying new radioprotective drugs for prevention or treatment of post-irradiation skin injury should be prompted. A large number of clinical studies have confirmed that Compound Kushen injection (CKI) can enhance efficacy and reduce toxicity of radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to confirm the effect of CKI in alleviating radiotherapy injury in the skin and explore the exact mechanism.Methods: 60 patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were allocated to treatment group (CKI before radiotherapy) or control group (normal saline before radiotherapy) randomly. MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western Blot, and transient transfection were performed to detect the cell viability, cell apoptosis and Bim expression after treatment with CKI or/and radiotherapy.Results: CKI had the effect of alleviating skin injury in cancer patients who received radiotherapy in clinic. CKI induced cancer cell apoptosis when combined with irradiation (IR), while it reversed the induction of cell apoptosis by IR in human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells. And Bim, as a tumor suppressor, was induced in cancer cells but had no change in HSF cells when treated with CKI. Moreover, the above effect could be attenuated when Bim was silenced by siRNA.Conclusion: We conclude that CKI represents a promising radio-protective agent with a potential differential beneficial effect on both cancer cells (inducing apoptosis) and HSF cells (providing radio-protection via inhibiting IR-induced apoptosis), via regulating Bim. Our study uncovers a novel mechanism by which CKI inhibits human cancer cell while protects skin from radiotherapy, indicating CKI might be a promising radio-protective drug.Clinical Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (, identifier ChiCTR2100049164.

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