inflammatory response
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Cytokine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 151 ◽  
pp. 155793
Merve Zeytinli Aksit ◽  
Fatma Demet Arslan ◽  
Inanc Karakoyun ◽  
Cengiz Aydin ◽  
Emre Turgut ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 939-946
Liangbang Wu ◽  
Zui Wang ◽  
Zhenhai Hou ◽  
Longbao Zheng ◽  
Zenghui Gu

We aimed to explore the mechanism underlying microRNA-23-5p from exosomes (exo-miR-23-5p) of BMSCs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The candidate related genes of miR-23-5p were screened in RA by bioinformatics analysis through gain- and loss-function method along with analysis of histopathological changes in mice and RAC2 expression as well as the level of pro-inflammatory factors. In vivo RA model was established to detect miR-23-5p’s effect on RA. miR-23-5p level was significantly reduced in RA cells and RAC2 was highly expressed. Expression of RAC2 was inhibited and targeted by miR-23-5p in RA. Exo-miR-23-5p treatment effectively alleviated joint destruction, reduced inflammatory factor secretion in tissues and serum, as well as decreased RAC2 expression in RA model. In conclusion, the miR-23-5p in the BMSC-exo delays the inflammatory response in RA, indicating that it might be a new target for treating RA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 647-652
Yang Zhang ◽  
Peng Sun ◽  
Shuying Han ◽  
Duojiao Fan

Mitochondrial autophagy and inflammatory response involves in diabetes. This study mainly explores the role of Silent Information Regulator (SIRT1) in pancreatic β-cells under high glucose conditions and related mechanism. Pancreatic β cells was cultured in a high-glucose environment with SRT1720 and EX527 respectively to define activation group and inhibition group followed by analysis of SIRT1, P-FOXO1, FOXO1, LC3, ATG5, PINK, Parkin, Mfn1, Mfn2, Fis1, IL-6, TNF-α, NLRP3 protein and mRNA expression by qRT-PCR, Western blot and fluorescent probe technology. Compared with control group, SIRT1 protein and mRNA expression in the high glucose group was significantly reduced. Activation group had highest protein and mRNA expression of SIRT1 P-FOXO1, FOXO1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Fis1, PINK, Parkin and mitochondrial membrane potential followed by blank group and inhibition group.SIRT1 secretion by pancreatic β-cells under high glucose environment is reduced. After activating SIRT1, mitochondrial autophagy decreased significantly and inflammatory response is significantly alleviated, indicating that SIRT1 might be used as a therapeutic target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-247
Kun Liu ◽  
Wanjing Yu ◽  
Yaoyao Tang ◽  
Chao Chen

Background: Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, whose pathogenesis involves a variety of factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhizin (Gly) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells and its action mechanism. Methods: Gly (20 µM) was used to treat bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS. The expression of SRC and miR-146b-5p in BEAS-2B cells was modified by the respective transfections with pcDNA-SRC, miR-146b-5p mimic and miR-146b-5p inhibitor. STRING and Starbase online databases were used to predict the relationship between Gly, miR-146b-5p and SRC. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the binding of miR-146b-5p to SRC. The viability, inflammatory response and apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells were examined by CCK-8, ELISA and Tunel assays respectively. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase3 and Cleaved-caspase3), SRC and miR-146b-5p were detected by qRT-PCR or western blotting. Results: Gly inhibited LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. The interaction between Gly and SRC was predicted by STRING. SRC expression was high in BEAS-2B cells stimulated with LPS and could be negatively regulated by Gly. Overexpression of SRC effectively alleviated the inhibitory effect of Gly on LPS-induced damages in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, results of luciferase reporter assays verified SRC as a direct target gene of miR-146b-5p. The expression level of miR-146b-5p was downregulated by LPS stimulation in BEAS-2B cells. Gly decreased the expression of SRC in LPS-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. These results could all be reversed by miR-146b-5p knockdown. Conclusion: Gly decreases the expression of SRC by upregulating the level of miR-146b-5p, thus alleviating the inflammation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells treated with LPS. Our results provide a new theoretical basis for applying Gly to the clinical management of asthma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 346-351
Dong-Yang Guo ◽  
Zhou-Xin Yang ◽  
Guo-Long Cai ◽  
Ling-Zhi Shen ◽  
Ying-Xing Yue ◽  

Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) desensitization, which is characterized by hyporesponsiveness and a form of immunosuppression, is important in the negative regulation of responses to LPS and inflammatory disease such as sepsis. However, effect of IL-33 in the desensitization to LPS remains unclear. Methods: We used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze changes in mRNA in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with LPS. Changes in expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines were detected by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Mechanisms were further studied through p65 phosphorylation detection. Results: IL-33 expression was significantly increased in LPS-treated macrophages, indicating its involvement in LPS-induced inflammation. Exogenous IL-33 increased the inflammatory response and ameliorated LPS desensitization by increasing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. It also activated p65 phosphorylation in resistant cells. Conclusion: IL-33 can enhance the inflammatory response induced by LPS and ameliorate LPS desensitization possibly by activating the NF-κB pathway in mouse macrophages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Margot P. J. Visser ◽  
Anton S. M. Dofferhoff ◽  
Jody M. W. van den Ouweland ◽  
Henny van Daal ◽  
Cornelis Kramers ◽  

BackgroundPathology during COVID-19 infection arises partly from an excessive inflammatory response with a key role for interleukin (IL)-6. Both vitamin D and K have been proposed as potential modulators of this process.MethodsWe assessed vitamin D and K status by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively in 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to inflammatory response, elastic fiber degradation and clinical outcomes.ResultsComparing good and poor disease outcomes of COVID-19 patients, vitamin 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different. IL-6 levels, however, were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, compared to patients with good outcome (30.3 vs. 153.0 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). Dp-ucMGP levels as biomarker of extrahepatic vitamin K status was associated with IL-6 levels (r = 0.35; p < 0.0001). In contrast, 25(OH)D levels were only borderline statistically significant correlated with IL-6 (r = −0.14; p <0.050). A significant association was also found between IL-6 and elastic fiber degradation. Contrary to vitamin K status, 25(OH)D did not correlate with elastic fiber degradation.ConclusionsDp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. An intervention trial may provide insight whether vitamin K administration, either or not in combination with vitamin D, improves clinical outcome of COVID-19.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Fábio Alves Olímpio ◽  
Luiz Fábio Magno Falcão ◽  
Marcos Luiz Gaia Carvalho ◽  
Jeferson da Costa Lopes ◽  
Caio Cesar Henriques Mendes ◽  

Yellow fever (YF) is a pansystemic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototype species of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus, and has a highly complex host-pathogen relationship, in which endothelial dysfunction reflects viral disease tropism. In this study, the in situ endothelial response was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died due to the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and very late antigen-4 in YFV-positive cases than in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that endothelium activation aggravates the inflammatory response by inducing the expression of adhesion molecules that contribute to the rolling, recruitment, migration, and construction of the inflammatory process in the hepatic parenchyma in fatal YF cases.

Caio V. M. Sarmento ◽  
Sanghee Moon ◽  
Taylor Pfeifer ◽  
Michael Steinbacher ◽  
Irina V. Smirnova ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Maria Francilene S. Souza ◽  
Juliano G. Penha ◽  
Nair Y. Maeda ◽  
Filomena R. B. G. Galas ◽  
Kelly C. O. Abud ◽  

There is scarce information about the relationships between postoperative pulmonary hemodynamics, inflammation, and outcomes in pediatric patients with congenital cardiac communications undergoing surgery. We prospectively studied 40 patients aged 11 (8–17) months (median with interquartile range) with a preoperative mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 48 (34–54) mmHg who were considered to be at risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension. The immediate postoperative pulmonary/systemic mean arterial pressure ratio (PAP/SAPIPO, mean of first 4 values obtained in the intensive care unit, readings at 2-hour intervals) was correlated directly with PAP/SAP registered in the surgical room just after cardiopulmonary bypass ( r = 0.68 , p < 0.001 ). For the entire cohort, circulating levels of 15 inflammatory markers changed after surgery. Compared with patients with PAP / SA P IPO ≤ 0.40 ( n = 22 ), those above this level ( n = 18 ) had increased pre- and postoperative serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ( p = 0.040 ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ( p = 0.020 ), interleukin-6 ( p = 0.003 ), and interleukin-21 ( p = 0.047 ) (panel for 36 human cytokines) and increased mean platelet volume ( p = 0.018 ). Using logistic regression analysis, a PAP / SA P IPO > 0.40 and a heightened immediate postoperative serum level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (quartile analysis) were shown to be predictive of significant postoperative cardiopulmonary events (respective hazard ratios with 95% CIs, 5.07 (1.10–23.45), and 3.29 (1.38–7.88)). Thus, the early postoperative behavior of the pulmonary circulation and systemic inflammatory response are closely related and can be used to predict outcomes in this population.

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