Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences
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Published By Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences

1681-715x, 1682-024x

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liping Lu ◽  
Xuming Pan

Non-contrast MRI is used for identifying patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially among high-risk patients with cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. The accuracy of non-contrast MRI has been investigated with varying results. We performed this meta-analysis to consolidate the evidence on the accuracy of non-contrast MRI for the detection of HCC. We conducted a systematic search in the databases of PubMed Central, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception till November 2020. We used the STATA software “Midas” package for meta-analysis. We included 15 studies with 3,756 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast MRI for HCC detection were 84% (95%CI, 78%-88%) and 94% (95%CI, 91%-97%). The positive likelihood ratio was 14.9 (95% CI, 9.0-24.7) and the negative one 0.17 (0.12-0.23). The overall quality of the studies was high. We found significant heterogeneity based on chi-square test results and I2 statistic > 75%. Deek’s test showed the absence of publication bias. We found that non-contrast MRI has high sensitivity and specificity as a tool for detecting HCC. Studies exploring its accuracy in different ethnic populations are required to strengthen the evidence. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5142 How to cite this:Lu L, Pan X. Accuracy of Non-Contrast MRI for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5142 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yaxuan Wang ◽  
Guoyan Qi ◽  
Ying Yang

Objectives: To investigate the clinical features of patients with myasthenia gravis complicated with and without hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 2083 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) admitted in Center of Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis Hebei Province between January 2013 and July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into two groups: Group-A and Group-B, with 108 MG patients complicated with hyperthyroidism in Group-A and 1975 MG patients without thyroid disease in Group-B. The age of onset, gender, Osserman classification, acetylcholine receptor antibody and thymus status of the two groups were analyzed in the two groups. Independent-sample t test was used for intra-group comparison, and χ2 test was utilized for comparison of enumeration data. P<0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference. Results: The age of onset in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000), the number of female patients was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.037), and the level of Achrabs titer was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000). The incidence of thymoma in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.012), while the incidence of thymic hyperplasia was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.000). Conclusion: Patients with MG complicated with hyperthyroidism are mainly female, with a lower age of onset, a lower level of acetylcholine receptor antibody, a lower incidence of thymoma, and a higher incidence of thymic hyperplasia. The clinical features of such patients are remarkably different from those of MG without thyroid disease. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4656 How to cite this:Wang Y, Qi G, Yang Y. Analysis of clinical features of myasthenia gravis complicated with hyperthyroidism. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4656 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp ◽  
Esra Disci ◽  
Rifat Peksoz ◽  
Refik Selim Atamanalp ◽  
Cansu Tatar Atamanalp

Objectives: Ileosigmoid knotting (ISK) is a rare intestinal obstruction form worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate changing trends in ISK. Methods: The Web of Science and PubMed databases were electronically searched to find all publications to evaluate all epidemiological, etiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, therapeutic, and prognostic factors in ISK. Results: Most of the cases were reported from Asian and African countries. Mean age was 43.9 years with a 79.9%/20.1% of male/female ratio. Main symptom period was 48.1 hours, while the most common clinical features were abdominal pain/tenderness (99.1%), distention (88.3%), and obstipation/constipation (58.8%). Abdominal X-ray radiography, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were diagnostic in 8.2%, 96.2%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the total diagnostic accuracy rate was 20.8%. Bowels were gangrenous in 85.6% of the patients. Ileum resection was applied in 14.0% of the cases, while sigmoid colon resection in 7.6%, and both segment resection in 67.1%. The mortality rate was 22.7%, while the morbidity rate was also 22.7%. Conclusion: ISK is a rare disease, but it is still catastrophic despite its two-century recognised past. As an exception, diagnostic convenience arising from CT or MRI looks like the most important change over the last half-century. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5320 How to cite this:Atamanalp SS, Disci E, Peksoz R, Atamanalp RS, Tatar Atamanalp C. Ileosigmoid knotting: A review of 923 cases. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5320 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaolu Zhang ◽  
Zhiwei Wang ◽  
Yiyuan Xian

Objective: The objective was to provide synthesized evidence on the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for prevention and management of PHN, compared to the standard treatment using anti-viral and analgesic medications. The primary outcomes of interest were incidence of PHN and duration of neuralgic pain. Methods: Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Google scholar databases. Randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for preventing and managing PHN were included for this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was done for papers published until 15th July 2021. Results: A total of 10 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall pooled analyses, compared to standard care/placebo, those receiving a combination of local anaesthetic and steroid injection had 55% lower risk of PHN at 3 months from onset of rash (RR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29; 0.70). Out of the different modes of intervention delivery i.e., intravenous, subcutaneous and nerve block, maximum beneficial effect in reducing the incidence of PHN was noted in nerve block (RR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.89). Conclusions: The meta-analysis provides some evidence to support the use of combined local anaesthetic and steroids in reducing risk of post-herpetic neuralgia and duration of neuralgic pain in patients with herpes zoster rash. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5140 How to cite this:Zhang X, Wang Z, Xian Y. Efficacy of local anaesthetic and steroid combination in prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia: A meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5140 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaoying Li ◽  
Zinan Jiang

Objectives: To assess the association of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) α-SMA and ß-catenin levels and the severity of pneumonia. Methods: The records of patients with severe pneumonia treated in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020 were selected. The clinical outcome was observed within 10 days. For the purpose of analysis, patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome, 47 cases in the improvement group and 39 cases in the deterioration group. The intubation time, mechanical ventilation time and APACHE II score 10 days after admission were compared between the two groups; We assessed pulmonary infections using the clinical pulmonary infection score(CPIS). The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at different time points were compared and analyzed, to analyze the association between the levels and the CPIS. Results: The APACHE II score in the improvement group were lower than those in the deterioration group (P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group were significantly lower than those of patients in the deterioration group on day 1, 3, and 7 (P<0.05); and the expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in the BALF of patients in the improvement group decreased with time, while those of patients in the deterioration group increased gradually with time(P<0.05). The expressions of α-SMA and ß-catenin in patients with CPIS>6 was significantly higher than those in patients with CPI≤6(P<0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF were positively correlated with the CPIS. Conclusion: The levels of α-SMA and ß-catenin in BALF are closely associated with the clinical condition of patients with severe pneumonia; the levels are positively associated with the severity of the disease and they increase with symptomatic worsening. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5329 How to cite this:Li X, Jiang Z. Correlation between α-SMA and ß-catenin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and severity of pneumonia. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5329 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Liqin Jing ◽  
Yanchun Song

Objective: To investigate the comparative diagnostic accuracy of cardiac computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for detecting infective endocarditis. Methods: Original publications published in English language before July, 2021 were thoroughly search in PubMed, CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and Google Scholar literature databases. Studies were included if they used CT and/or TEE as an index test, presented data on valvular complications related to infective endocarditis, and used surgical findings as to the reference standard. Results:­­­ Literature screening identified fifteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that CT sensitivity for detecting valvular abscesses was higher than that of TEE [0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82 to 0.94; 11 studies involving 842 subjects) versus 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.84) P = 0.015; 12 studies involving 917 subjects]. TEE showed statistically significantly greater sensitivity than CT for detecting valvular vegetation [0.91 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.97, 11 studies involving 971 subjects) versus 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69 to 0.82), 12 studies involving 915 subjects, P =0.019. In case of leaflet detection, TEE showed statistically significantly higher sensitivity than CT (0.76 vs 0.46, P =0.010). Conclusion: CT performs statistically significantly better than TEE for detecting abscesses while TEE provides statistically significant superior results for detecting vegetation. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies to further corroborate these findings. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5139 How to cite this:Jing L, Song Y. Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography vs transoesophageal echocardiography for infective endocarditis − A meta-analysis . Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5139 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ibrahim Bashan ◽  
Gulsah Yasa Ozturk

Objectives: To investigate the effect of 1% procaine injection, which is used in neural therapy, on shoulder pain and dysfunction in patients diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy. Methods: The Range of Motion values, Visual Analog Scale and the QuickDASH Scale scores of 70 patients, who were diagnosed with musculus supraspinatus tendinitis based on magnetic resonance imaging findings, were analyzed. The data of the scales obtained before neural therapy and at the follow-up visit at four weeks after the end of therapy were compared, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: After neural therapy, a statistically significant increase was observed in Range of Motion values and there was a statistically significant decrease in both the Visual Analog Scale and QuickDASH score averages. Conclusion: This is one of the rare studies showing the effects of neural therapy application on shoulder pain severity and dysfunction in patients with supraspinatus tendinitis who are resistant to medical therapy. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4823 How to cite this:Bashan I, Ozturk GY. Effect of Neural Therapy on shoulder dysfunction and pain in supraspinatus tendinopathy. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4823 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ayman S Alhasan ◽  
Shahad M Alahmadi ◽  
Yara A Altayeb ◽  
Tareef S Daqqaq

Objectives: The primary purpose of this study was to assess and report the perceived negative impact of long duty hours on education and personal well-being among medical trainees in the diagnostic radiology residency training program in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire (sent by email) with eight indicators related to the education and well-being of radiology residents in Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2019–2020. Participants were given a five-point Likert response format for each indicator. The relative importance index (RII) was calculated to rank the different indicators. Results: Our of 337 residents, 116 diagnostic radiology trainees completed the survey, with a response rate of 34.4%. A total of 102 (87.9%) indicated their preference for 16-hour shifts instead of the currently implemented 24-hour duty system. Using the RII, three items related to the post-duty day ranked at the top of the list. The negative impact on sleep rhythm during the post-call day ranked first (mean 4.23 ± 1.02, RII 0.84), followed by the impact on social life, family activities, and exercise during the post-call day (mean 4.09 ± 1.06, RII 0.81). The third highest ranking factor was missing academic activities on the post-call day (mean 3.91 ± 1.15, RII 0.78). There was no relationship between negative perception and gender (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The 24-hour duty system had a negative impact on radiology residents’ education and personal well-being, especially for items related to the post-call day. Reforming duty hours should be considered to promote residents’ well-being. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4440 How to cite this:Alhasan AS, Alahmadi SM, Altayeb YA, Daqqaq TS. Impact of long duty hours on education and well-being of diagnostic radiology residents: A national survey in Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4440 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Madeeha Rehan ◽  
Attika Khalid ◽  
Fariha Nasreen

Background & Objective: Undiagnosed malarial infectionis associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Laboratory investigations leading to rapid, accurate and timely diagnosis of malaria is still a challenge. This study was done to assess the utility of abnormal White blood cell differential fluorescence (WDF) scattergram for diagnosis of malaria. Our aim was to study the utility of WDF scattergram for early detection of malarial parasite. Methods: All EDTA anti-coagulated blood samples received in laboratory during a period from Dec 2019 to May 2020 were analyzed on anautomated hematology analyzer, Sysmex XN 1000. All abnormal WDF scattergrams pertaining to plasmodium specie were critically evaluated and recorded. Review of Leishman-stained peripheral smears as well as immune-chromatographic assay by rapid test devices (RTD) was done. Accordingly, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of malaria by abnormal scattergram were calculated. Results: Out of total 1, 26,000of samples analyzed, abnormal WDF scattergrams were detected in 96 cases. Amongst these, 95.8% (92) were positive for MP on Leishman-stained peripheral smear as well as on ICT with a p-value of 0.05. WDF scattergram abnormalities typical of malaria showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 93.26%. Positive predictive value of 95.8% whereas negative predictive value of 99.9% was detected. Significant findings of hemolysis, platelet clumps, nucleated RBCS (NRBCs) and RBC agglutination were noted in cases (n=4) with abnormal WDF scattergram negative for malaria on peripheral smear. Conclusion: Interpretation of abnormal WDF scattergram not only increases the early detection rate for malarial parasite but isa strong indicator for presence of hemolysis, RBC agglutination, platelet clumps and leucoerythroblastic blood picture as well. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4702 How to cite this:Rehan M, Khalid A, Nasreen F. White blood cell differential fluorescence abnormal scattergram: A useful indicator for early detection of malarial parasite. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4702 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kavous Shahsavarinia ◽  
Golnarz Rahvar ◽  
Hassan Soleimanpour ◽  
Mohammad Saadati ◽  
Leila Vahedi ◽  
...  

Objectives: COVID-19 patients develop Life-threatening complications like pneumomediastinum/pneumothorax and emphysema which might experience prolonged hospital stays and additional costs might be imposed on the patient and the health system. The clinical features and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection who develop a pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema has not been rigorously described or compared to those who do not develop these complications. So a systematic review of studies conducted on this subject was carried out to better manage these complications by investigating the underlying factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The search was conducted between early January and late December 2020 in databases including PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, using the following keywords and their combinations: COVID-19 Complication, Pneumothorax, Pneumomediastinum, Pneumopericardium, and Subcutaneous Emphysema. The extracted studies were screened separately by two researchers based on the PRISMA statement. After eliminating the duplicate studies, the title, abstract, and full text of the remaining studies were reviewed. Disagreements in the screening and selection of the studies were resolved by consensus or through a third-party opinion.  Results: A total of 793 articles were retrieved through the literature search, and 99 studies conducted on a total of 139 patients were finally included The patient mortality was found to have a significant relationship with positive pressure ventilation (P=0.0001). There was no significant relationship between the patients’ death and chest tube insertion (P=0.2) or between the interval of time from the onset of symptoms to the diagnosis of pneumothorax (P=0.7). The mean age was higher in the deceased cases, and the mean difference observed was statistically significant (P=0.001).  Conclusion: With the expansion of our clinical understanding of COVID-19, recognition of the uncommon complications of COVID-19 especially pneumothorax is crucial. Although in our review we couldn’t find a causal relationship between COVID-19 and pneumothorax or association between pneumothorax and death, as it is limited by many variables such as included studies’ design, or incomplete outcome data especially more information about the associated risk factors, we recommend performing more well-designed studies to describe the pneumothoraxes› incidence, risk factors, and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5529 How to cite this:Shahsavarinia K, Rahvar G, Soleimanpour H, Saadati M, Vahedi L, Mahmoodpoor A. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema in critically ill COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5529 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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