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Updated Wednesday, 27 October 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiao Fu ◽  
Xiaojie Liu ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Jingjing Jiang ◽  
...  

Objective: The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive analysis of the clinical outcomes achieved in oocyte vitrification in cases where sperm was unavailable on oocyte retrieval day, and to identify predictors of oocyte survival.Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from a university-affiliated reproductive medical center. There were 321 cycles in which some of, or all oocytes were vitrified owing to the unavailability of sperm between March 2009 and October 2017. A descriptive analysis of the clinical outcomes including both fresh embryo transfers and cryopreserved embryo transfers was provided. The ability of an individual parameter to forecast oocyte survival per thawing cycle was assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. The cumulative probability of live birth (CPLB) was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method according to the total number of oocytes thawed in consecutive procedures.Results: The average survival rate was 83.13%. High-quality embryo rate and blastocyst rate decreased significantly decreased significantly in vitrification oocyte group compared to fresh control oocytes. The comparison of sibling oocytes in part-oocyte-vitrified cycles shows fewer high-quality embryos developed in the vitrified group. The live birth rate per warmed-oocyte was 4.3%. Reasons for lack of sperm availability on oocyte retrieval day and serum cholesterol levels were found to be associated with oocyte survival rate in the present study. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in CPLB between patients ≤35 vs. >35 years.Conclusions: Oocyte vitrification is an indispensable and effective alternative when sperm are not available on oocyte retrieval day. The present study provided evidence that oocytes from infertile couples were more likely to suffer oocyte/embryo vitrification injury. Clinicians need to take this into account when advising patients in similar situations. Further studies will be necessary to clarify the correlation between serum metabolism parameters and human oocyte survival after vitrification.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yossy Machluf ◽  
Sherman Rosenfeld ◽  
Izhar Ben Shlomo ◽  
Yoram Chaiter ◽  
Yaron Dekel

Abundant evidence strongly suggests that the condition of pregnancy makes women and their fetuses highly vulnerable to severe Corona-virus 2019 (COVID-19) complications. Here, two novel hypoxia-related conditions are proposed to play a pivotal role in better understanding the relationship between COVID-19, pregnancy and poor health outcomes. The first condition, “misattributed dyspnea (shortness of breath)” refers to respiratory symptoms common to both advanced pregnancy and COVID-19, which are mistakenly perceived as related to the former rather than to the latter; as a result, pregnant women with this condition receive no medical attention until the disease is in an advanced stage. The second condition, “silent hypoxia”, refers to abnormally low blood oxygen saturation levels in COVID-19 patients, which occur in the absence of typical respiratory distress symptoms, such as dyspnea, thereby also leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. The delay in diagnosis and referral to treatment, due to either “misattributed dypsnea” or “silent hypoxia”, may lead to rapid deterioration and poor health outcome to both the mothers and their fetuses. This is particularly valid among women during advanced stages of pregnancy as the altered respiratory features make the consequences of the disease more challenging to cope with. Studies have demonstrated the importance of monitoring blood oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry as a reliable predictor of disease severity and outcome among COVID-19 patients. We propose the use of home pulse oximetry during pregnancy as a diagnostic measure that, together with proper medical guidance, may allow early diagnosis of hypoxia and better health outcomes.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenyi Pang ◽  
Zhu Zhang ◽  
Zenghui Wang ◽  
Kaiyuan Zhen ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
...  

Aim: To summarize the incidence of right heart catheter diagnosed chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in a meta-analysis.Methods: Cohort studies reporting the incidence of CTEPH after acute PE were identified via search of Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang databases.Results: Twenty-two cohort studies with 5,834 acute PE patients were included. Pooled results showed that the overall incidence of CTEPH was 2.82% (95% CI: 2.11–3.53%). Subgroup analyses showed higher incidence of CTEPH in Asians than Europeans (5.08 vs. 1.96%, p = 0.01), in retrospective cohorts than prospective cohorts (4.75 vs. 2.47%, p = 0.02), and in studies with smaller sample size than those with larger sample size (4.57 vs. 1.71%, p < 0.001). Stratified analyses showed previous venous thromboembolic events and unprovoked PE were both significantly associated with increased risk of CTEPH (OR = 2.57 and 2.71, respectively; both p < 0.01).Conclusions: The incidence of CTEPH after acute PE is ~3% and the incidence is higher in Asians than Europeans. Efforts should be made for the early diagnosis and treatment of CTEPH in PE patients, particularly for high-risk population.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liu Liang ◽  
Jiali Chen ◽  
Chun Di ◽  
Minghua Zhan ◽  
Huizhang Bao ◽  
...  

Objective: Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) have been implicated in the pulmonary involvements. We aimed to investigate the clinical utility of HE4 in clinical stratification in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Methods: This study included a discovery cohort comprising 70 RA patients and 64 healthy controls (HCs), and a validation cohort comprising 98 RA patients and 75 HCs. Human epididymis protein 4 were determined by electrochemical luminescence analyzer.Results: The levels of HE4 were significantly elevated in patients with RA compared to HCs. The positive rates of HE4 in patients with RA and HCs were 50.0% and 0, respectively, in the discovery cohort and 53.1 and 1.3%, respectively, in the validation cohort. When RA patients were subgrouped according to HE4 status, HE4-positive group displayed higher prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) compared to HE4-negative group (28.6 vs. 11.4% in discovery cohort and 57.7 vs. 8.7% in the validation cohort). A positive correlation between the levels of HE4 with the degree of lung impairment was identified. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis revealed an optimal cut-off value of 104.3 pmol/L in HE4 for distinguishing RA-ILD from RA-non ILD with the areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.790. Multivariate logistic regression analysis illustrated that high levels of HE4 independently identified patients with RA-ILD (OR, 9.080, p < 0.001).Conclusion: Our findings showed a novel role of HE4 in RA risk stratification, suggest that introducing HE4 to the current RA test panel may serve as an indicator in identifying RA patients for further RA-ILD workups, such as high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT).


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huaqin Wang ◽  
Siqi Deng ◽  
Xiaoyu Fan ◽  
Jinxiu Li ◽  
Li Tang ◽  
...  

Objective: To determine the research hotspots and trends in the field of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and to provide a reference for further and wider research in the future.Methods: The literatures on ECMO from January 2011 to July 2021 in the Web of Science Core Collection (WOSCC) database were searched, and Citespace5.8.R1 software was used to conduct bibliographic and visual analysis on the literature by country, institution, author and keywords.Results: A total of 5,986 articles were enrolled. According to an observation, the number of articles published in the past decade has increased, especially from 2019 to 2020. The USA had the largest number of publications, while less ECMO related studies were conducted among non-developed countries. The University of Michigan (Univ Michigan) was the institution that had the largest number of publications and the highest centrality, and Daniel B was the author who had the largest number of publications. However, more inter-institutional cooperation among author teams was needed. The focus of existing ECMO research has primarily been on the treatment of patients suffering from severe cardiopulmonary failure, and the prevention and management of complications during the application ECMO.Conclusion: Inter-regional and inter-institutional cooperation and exchanges should be carried out among ECMO research teams and institutions. The suggested research direction is to further broaden the application scope of ECMO, while determining the ways to reduce the incidence of complications and the cost, cultivate specialized team talents, and promote the application thereof.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi-da Chen ◽  
Peng-fei Zhang ◽  
Hong-qing Xi ◽  
Bo Wei ◽  
Lin Chen ◽  
...  

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide which results in malignant tumors in the digestive tract. The only radical treatment option available is surgical resection. Recently, the implementation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy resulted in 5-year survival rates of 95% for early gastric cancer. The main reason of treatment failure is that early diagnosis is minimal, with many patients presenting advanced stages. Hence, the greatest benefit of radical resection is missed. Consequently, the main therapeutic approach for advanced gastric cancer is combined surgery with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the various treatment options for advanced gastric cancer. Clinical practice and clinical research is the most practical way of reaching new advents in terms of patients' characteristics, optimum drug choice, and better prognosis. With the recent advances in gastric cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis, we are evident that the improvement of survival in this patient population is just a matter of time.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shasha Yang ◽  
Zongyin Gao ◽  
Haijiang Qiu ◽  
Chengguo Zuo ◽  
Lan Mi ◽  
...  

Purpose: To observe the relationship between the characteristic changes in the drusen morphology revealed by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Methods: A total of 380 drusen in 45 eyes in 35 patients with the intermediate drusen were longitudinally followed up every 6 months by SD-OCT for a period of 24 months. The drusen were divided into the dynamic group and stable group according to the following parameters: number, volume, concurrent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/ellipsoid zone (EZ) damage, and the development of advanced AMD. The morphological characteristics of the progressive or stable drusen were further analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and the risk for the drusen progression were calculated.Results: The level of interobserver and intraobserver agreement for each drusen tomographic morphological parameters ranged from 82.7 to 90%. At the end of an average follow-up of 15.92 ± 6.99 months, six patients developed choroidal neovascularization and no patients developed geographic atrophy. Finally, 139 drusen changed and 241 drusen remained stable. The drusen with low reflectivity (p < 0.001; OR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.24–12.36), non-homogeneity without a core (p < 0.001; OR: 4.31; 95% CI: 2.08–8.92), RPE damage (p < 0.001; OR: 28.12; 95% CI: 9.43–83.85), and the EZ damage (p < 0.001; OR: 14.01; 95% CI: 5.28–37.18) were significantly associated with active change; the drusen with low reflectivity (p = 0.01; OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.29–6.75) and decreased overlying RPE reflectivity (p < 0.001; OR: 21.67; 95% CI: 9.20–51.02) were the independent predictors for progression. The drusen with high reflectivity were significantly associated with stabilization (p = 0.03; OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04–0.84).Conclusion: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography is an optimized, accurate, and efficient method to follow-up the drusen. The intermediate non-exudative AMD prognosis of the patient was most strongly correlated with the drusen reflectivity and disruption of the overlying RPE layer. The drusen with low reflectivity and overlying RPE damage were more likely to progress and required frequent follow-up.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miguel Delicado-Miralles ◽  
Enrique Velasco ◽  
Ariadna Díaz-Tahoces ◽  
Juana Gallar ◽  
M. Carmen Acosta ◽  
...  

Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8) eyedrops have been recently introduced in Europe as a product to treat dry eye disease, based on its ability to reduce tear film instability in Meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye disease, although its mechanism of action is still unknown. In the present pilot study, we evaluated the effects of the ocular instillation of a single drop of commercial F6H8 eyedrops in 20 healthy humans (9 women/11 men), measuring: (a) Corneal surface temperature (CST) from infrared video images; (b) tear volume using phenol red threads; (c) blinking frequency; and (d) ocular surface sensations (cold, dryness, pricking, foreign body, burning, itching, gritty, eye fatigue, watering eyes, and light-evoked discomfort sensations; scored using 10 cm Visual Analog Scales), before and 5–60 min after F6H8 or saline treatment. CST decreased and tearing and blinking frequency increased significantly after F6H8 but not after saline solution. When applied unilaterally, CST decreased only in the F6H8-treated eye. No sensations were evoked after F6H8 or saline. The corneal surface temperature reduction produced by topical F6H8 does not evoke conscious ocular sensations but is sufficient to increase the activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors, leading to an increased reflex lacrimation and blinking that may relieve dry eye condition thus reducing ocular discomfort and pain.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ru-chen Zhou ◽  
Pei-zhu Wang ◽  
Yue-yue Li ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Ming-jun Ma ◽  
...  

Objective: The diagnostic efficiency of the quantitative fecal immunochemical test (qFIT) has large variations in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We aimed to explore whether the practical sample collection operant training could improve the diagnostic accuracy of the qFIT in CRC screening.Methods: Moderate-/high-risk individuals aged 50–75 years old were invited to participate in a prospective observational study between July 2020 and March 2021. Participants took a qFIT sample without fecal sample collection operant training in advance and then completed another qFIT sample after the operant training. The primary outcome was the sensitivity and specificity of the qFITs for CRC and advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN). The secondary outcome was the difference in the area under the curves (AUCs) and the concentrations of the fecal hemoglobin (Hb) between the qFIT without and after the operant training.Results: Out of 913 patients, 81 (8.9%) patients had ACRN, including 25 (2.7%) patients with CRC. For CRC, the sensitivities of the qFIT without and after the operant training at 10 μg/g were 80.4 and 100.0%, respectively, and the specificities were 90.1 and 88.4%, respectively. For ACRN, the sensitivities were 49.4 and 69.1% and the specificities were 91.7 and 91.3%, respectively. The AUC of the qFIT after the operant training was significantly higher than that without the operant training for CRC (p = 0.027) and ACRN (p = 0.001). After the operant training, the concentration of the fecal Hb was significantly higher than that without the operant training (p = 0.009) for ACRN, but there was no significant difference for CRC (p = 0.367).Conclusion: Practical sample collection operant training improves the diagnostic accuracy of the qFIT, which increases the detection of the low concentrations of fecal Hb. Improving the quality of the sample collection could contribute to the diagnostic efficiency of the qFIT in CRC screening.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rahel Meier ◽  
Corinne Chmiel ◽  
Fabio Valeri ◽  
Leander Muheim ◽  
Oliver Senn ◽  
...  

Background: The effect of financial incentives on the quality of primary care is of high interest, and so is its sustainability after financial incentives are withdrawn.Objective: To assess both long-term effects and sustainability of financial incentives for general practitioners (GPs) in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus based on quality indicators (QIs) calculated from routine data from electronic medical records.Design/Participants: Randomized controlled trial using routine data from electronic medical records of patients with diabetes mellitus of Swiss GPs.Intervention: During the study period of 24 months, all GPs received bimonthly feedback reports with information on their actual treatment as reflected in QIs. In the intervention group, the reports were combined with financial incentives for quality improvement. The incentive was stopped after 12 months.Measurements: Proportion of patients meeting the process QI of annual HbA1c measurements and the clinical QI of blood pressure levels below 140/85 mmHg.Results: A total of 71 GPs from 43 different practices were included along with 3,854 of their patients with diabetes mellitus. Throughout the study, the proportion of patients with annual HbA1c measurements was stable in the intervention group (78.8–78.9%) and decreased slightly in the control group (81.5–80.2%) [odds ratio (OR): 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04–1.42, p < 0.05]. The proportion of patients achieving blood pressure levels below 140/85 mmHg decreased in the control group (51.2–47.2%) and increased in the intervention group (49.7–51.9%) (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04–1.35, p < 0.05) where it peaked at 54.9% after 18 months and decreased steadily over the last 6 months.Conclusion: After the withdrawal of financial incentives for the GPs after 12 months, some QIs still improved, indicating that 1 year might be too short to observe the full effect of such interventions. The decrease in QI achievement rates after 18 months suggests that the positive effects of time-limited financial incentives eventually wane.


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