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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinzhang Li ◽  
Ming Gong ◽  
Yashutosh Joshi ◽  
Lizhong Sun ◽  
Lianjun Huang ◽  
...  

BackgroundAcute renal failure (ARF) is the most common major complication following cardiac surgery for acute aortic syndrome (AAS) and worsens the postoperative prognosis. Our aim was to establish a machine learning prediction model for ARF occurrence in AAS patients.MethodsWe included AAS patient data from nine medical centers (n = 1,637) and analyzed the incidence of ARF and the risk factors for postoperative ARF. We used data from six medical centers to compare the performance of four machine learning models and performed internal validation to identify AAS patients who developed postoperative ARF. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to compare the performance of the predictive models. We compared the performance of the optimal machine learning prediction model with that of traditional prediction models. Data from three medical centers were used for external validation.ResultsThe eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm performed best in the internal validation process (AUC = 0.82), which was better than both the logistic regression (LR) prediction model (AUC = 0.77, p < 0.001) and the traditional scoring systems. Upon external validation, the XGBoost prediction model (AUC =0.81) also performed better than both the LR prediction model (AUC = 0.75, p = 0.03) and the traditional scoring systems. We created an online application based on the XGBoost prediction model.ConclusionsWe have developed a machine learning model that has better predictive performance than traditional LR prediction models as well as other existing risk scoring systems for postoperative ARF. This model can be utilized to provide early warnings when high-risk patients are found, enabling clinicians to take prompt measures.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi-Xiang Song ◽  
Jiayi Li ◽  
Yiyuan Gu ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  
Paul Abrams ◽  
...  

ObjectiveOur current knowledge on nocturnal enuresis (NE) in adults is scarce due to its uncommon nature. The present study was designed to investigate symptom characteristics and risk factors of NE in adult women to improve the current clinical understanding and management of this rare disease.MethodsOver a 3-year period, we enrolled 70 adult women who complained of bedwetting, with a frequency of at least once per week and a symptom duration of 3 months or longer. Patients were excluded if they had known pregnancy, current urinary tract infection, untreated malignancies, anatomical abnormalities, and irregular sleep cycle. The International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire—female lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder diary were employed to appraise lower urinary tract symptoms and voiding behavior. Urodynamics was performed to assess the bladder function. A linear regression analysis was applied to determine potential risk factors for NE frequency.ResultsAmong the recruited subjects, comorbidities and lower urinary tract symptoms were frequently reported. On bladder diary, patients commonly presented with nocturnal polyuria (NP), reduced nocturnal voided volumes (RNVVs), or both. Urodynamics revealed multiple dysfunctions, namely, detrusor overactivity (DO), urodynamic stress incontinence (USI), reduced compliance, bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity (DU), and simultaneous DO and DU. Patients with more frequent NE (≥4/week) demonstrated markedly increased body mass index, more comorbid conditions, worse incontinence symptoms, NP or NP plus RNVVs, reduced compliance, and poorer voiding possibly owing to DU. Whereas, RNVVs alone and worse overactive bladder-related parameters were associated with milder NE. Multivariate analysis indicated that frequency/urgency quality of life, incontinence symptom, NP + RNVVs, poor flow, increased bladder sensation, USI, and simultaneous detrusor overactivity plus DU were independent risk factors for NE severity.ConclusionNE in adult women may have both urological and non-urological pathophysiology. Imbalanced circadian urine production, jeopardized continence mechanisms, overactive bladder, and DU-induced poor voiding are major factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of NE in adult women. Focused treatments on restoring these functions should be individually considered.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fang Liu ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Tian Han ◽  
Yang Shen ◽  
Meng Li ◽  
...  

Purpose:To explore the feasibility and repeatability of a novel glasses-free display combined with random-dot stimulus and eye-tracking technology for screening stereopsis in adults.Methods:A total of 74 patients aged 18–44 years were recruited in this study (male: female, 32:42), including 33 patients with high myopia [≤ -6.0 diopters (D)] and 41 patients with moderate-to-low myopia (>-6.0 D). Stereopsis was measured using glasses-free, polarized, and Titmus stereotests. All patients completed a visual fatigue questionnaire after the polarized stereotest and glasses-free test. Kendall's W and Cohen's Kappa tests were used to evaluate repeatability and consistency of the glasses-free stereotest.Results:The stereotest results using the glasses-free monitor showed strong repeatability in the three consecutive tests (W = 0.968, P < 0.01) and good consistency with the polarized stereotest and Titmus test results (vs. polarization: Kappa = 0.910, P < 0.001; vs. Titmus: Kappa = 0.493, P < 0.001). Stereopsis levels of the high myopia group were significantly poorer than those of the moderate-to-low myopia group in three stereotest monitors (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in visual fatigue level between the polarized and the glasses-free display test (P = 0.72). Compared with the polarized test, 56.76% of patients preferred the glasses-free display and found it more comfortable, 20.27% reported both tests to be acceptable.Conclusions:In our adult patients, the new eye-tracking glasses-free display system feasibly screened stereopsis with good repeatability, consistency, and patient acceptance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huijin Chen ◽  
Jiarui Yang ◽  
Changguan Wang ◽  
Xuefeng Feng ◽  
Kang Feng ◽  
...  

PurposeTo explore the long-term efficacy of novel choroidal suturing methods including trans-scleral mattress suturing (TSS) and intraocular suturing (IOS) in the treatment of choroidal avulsion.DesignProspective cohort, hospital-based study.MethodsA total of 24 patients who were diagnosed with choroidal avulsion were enrolled in this study. The demographic characteristics, baseline information of trauma, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure (IOP) were collected before surgery, and the anatomic abnormities of the globe were recorded before or during surgery. All patients were diagnosed with choroidal avulsion and underwent choroid suturing treatment during vitrectomy, postoperative functional variables including BCVA and IOP, anatomic variables including retinal and choroidal reattachment rate, and silicone oil migration rate, which were recorded at the regular follow-ups at least 1 year after surgery.ResultsAll patients with open globe injury involved zone III, 70.8% of the patients presented with two quadrants of the avulsed choroid, and 29.2% with one quadrant involved; moreover, all patients had complications with retinal detachment (RD), of which 58.3% of patients had closed funnel retinal detachment. TSS was applied in nineteen patients and IOS in five patients. Postoperatively, a significant improvement on LogMAR BCVA was observed at each follow-up from 3.57 ± 0.69 before surgery to 2.82 ± 0.98 at the last follow-up (p < 0.05), and the proportion of no light perception (NLP) was also reduced from 69.6 to 37.5%. IOP was markedly elevated from 6.4 ± 4.1 mmHg preoperatively to 11.3 ± 4.3 mmHg at the last follow-up (p < 0.05). Choroidal reattachment was achieved in 91.7% of patients; two patients were observed with silicone oil migration at 3 months after surgery and underwent drainage of suprachoroidal silicone oil and sclera buckling. Meanwhile, retinal attachment was observed in 95.8% of patients, only one patient developed partial RD due to postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and secondary vitrectomy was performed; all patients were observed with complete retinal and choroidal attachment at the last follow-up. Eventually, four patients were silicone oil-free, and 20 patients were silicone oil-dependent.ConclusionsChoroidal suturing proved to be an effective method to fix the avulsed choroid, which greatly improved the BCVA and maintained the IOP, and efficiently increased the choroidal and retinal reattachment rate and preservation of the eyeball.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xia Lv ◽  
Yuyang Jin ◽  
Danting Zhang ◽  
Yixuan Li ◽  
Yakai Fu ◽  
...  

Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive dermatomyositis (DM)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) may progress rapidly and lead to high mortality within 6 or 12 months. Except for reported prognostic factors, simple but powerful prognostic biomarkers are still in need in practice. In this study, we focused on circulating monocyte and lymphocyte counts and their variation tendency in the early stage of ILD. A total of 351 patients from two inception anti-MDA5 antibody-positive cohorts were included in this study, with various treatment choices. Lymphocyte count remained lower in the first month after admission in the non-survivor patients. Although baseline monocyte count showed no significant differences, average monocyte count in the following 4 weeks was also lower in the non-survivor group. Based on the C-index and analysis by the “survminer” R package in the discovery cohort, we chose 0.24 × 109/L as the cutoff value for Mono W0-2, 0.61 × 109/L as the cutoff value for lymph W0-2, and 0.78 × 109/L as the cutoff value for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) W0-2, to predict the 6-month all-cause mortality. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves and adjusted hazard ratio with age, gender, and the number of immunosuppressants used all validated that patients with lower average monocyte count, lower average lymphocyte count, or lower average PBMC count in the first 2 weeks after admission had higher 6-month death risk, no matter in the validation cohort or in the pooled data. Furthermore, flow cytometry figured out that non-classical monocytes in patients with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM were significantly lower than healthy controls and patients with DM without anti-MDA5 antibodies. In conclusion, this study elucidated the predictive value of monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the early stage and may help rheumatologists to understand the possible pathogenesis of this challenging disease.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaomei Xue ◽  
Xuan Yuan ◽  
Lin Han ◽  
Xinde Li ◽  
Tony R. Merriman ◽  
...  

IntroductionAchieving a goal of serum urate levels in patients with gout is an important way to prevent gout and its complications while it remains difficult with a low targeting rate worldwidely. Currently, hyperuricemia classification has not been widely applied to the management of gout owing to insufficient clinical evidences. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of achieving target urate based on hyperuricemia classification in Chinese patients with gout.MethodsIn this prospective study, patients with gout receiving urate lowering therapy with benzbromarone were assigned to two groups, a renal underexcretion and an unclassified type. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving the serum urate target (<360 μmol/L) during the 12-week study. The frequency of acute gout attacks as well as physical and chemical indicators were secondary endpoints.ResultsTarget serum urate level was achieved in 60.5% of underexcretors compared with 39.0% of patients of the unclassified type at week 12 (P = 0.002). Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were lower in the underexcretor group compared with the unclassified type group at the end of the trial, without significant different frequencies in gout flare during the study. In subgroup analysis, stratified by body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate, the proportion of patients with serum urate <360 μmol/L was greater in the underexcretion compared with the unclassified type group.ConclusionsThe increased achievement of target serum urate in the underexcretion group supports the use of a clinical hyperuricemia typing treatment strategy for gout.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kunpeng Pang ◽  
Lijie Pan ◽  
Hui Guo ◽  
Xinyi Wu

The vaccine is still the best clinical measure for effective prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The vaccine-associated ocular adverse reactions should be noted in detail among the medical community. We reported twelve eyes of 9 patients presented at the Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from March to August 2021 with ocular complaints following COVID-19 vaccination. The main inclusion criterion was the development of ocular symptoms within 14 days after receiving a dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The mean (SD) age was 44.7 ± 16.5 years (range, 19–78 years), among which seven (77.8%) cases were women. The mean time of ocular adverse events was 7.1 days (range, 1–14 days) after receiving the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. One patient was diagnosed with choroiditis, 1 with uveitis, 4 with keratitis, 1 with scleritis, 1 with acute retinal necrosis, and 1 with iridocyclitis. Although the causal relationship between vaccines and ocular adverse events cannot be established from this case series report, physicians should pay attention to the ocular adverse reactions following the COVID-19 vaccine administration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marion Louvois ◽  
Loïc Simon ◽  
Christelle Pomares ◽  
Pierre-Yves Jeandel ◽  
Elisa Demonchy ◽  
...  

Malaria is still an endemic disease in Africa, with many imported cases in Europe. The standard treatment is intravenous artesunate for severe malaria and oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for uncomplicated malaria. Delayed hemolytic anemia (DHA) after intravenous artesunate has been extensively described, and guidelines recommend biological monitoring until 1 month after the end of the treatment. A link with an autoimmune process is still unsure. Nevertheless, cases with positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) have been reported. Conversely, DHA is not recognized as an adverse effect of oral ACT. Previously, only few cases of DHA occurring after oral ACT without intravenous artesunate administration have been reported. We report the case of a 42-year-old man returning from Togo. He was treated with dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine combination for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with low parasitemia. Nine days after the end of the treatment, the patient developed hemolytic anemia with positive DAT. Eventually, the patient recovered after corticotherapy. After excluding common causes of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, we considered that dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine treatment was involved in this side effect.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Momoko Matsuyama ◽  
Keiji Hirai ◽  
Hiroaki Nonaka ◽  
Moeka Ueda ◽  
Junki Morino ◽  
...  

Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elobixibat on constipation and lipid metabolism; and determine the factors associated with the effect of elobixibat on constipation in patients with moderate to end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods:Stool frequency and serum lipid parameters were retrospectively analyzed before and after 4 weeks of elobixibat administration in 42 patients (CKD stage G3, 6; stage G4, 9; stage G5, 9; stage G5D, 18). Relationships between the change in stool frequency after initiation of elobixibat and various clinical parameters were analyzed by using linear regression analysis.Results:Elobixibat increased stool frequency from 0.5 ± 0.4 per day to 1.1 ± 0.6 per day (p < 0.001) regardless of whether patients were undergoing dialysis, on concomitant laxatives, or were administered elobixibat before or after breakfast. Elobixibat reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (from 90.9 ± 37.2 mg/dL to 77.5 ± 34.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (from 44.9 ± 14.3 mg/dL to 57.0 ± 25.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05), but did not change triglyceride concentration. Adverse effects were observed in two patients (nausea and diarrhea). Only phosphate concentration was correlated with the change in stool frequency after initiation of elobixibat (standard coefficient = 0.321, p = 0.043).Conclusions:Elobixibat improved constipation and lipid metabolism in patients with moderate to end-stage CKD, without serious adverse events.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chien-Liang Liu ◽  
You-Lin Tain ◽  
Yun-Chun Lin ◽  
Chien-Ning Hsu

ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify phenotypic clinical features associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) to predict non-recovery from AKI at hospital discharge using electronic health record data.MethodsData for hospitalized patients in the AKI Recovery Evaluation Study were derived from a large healthcare delivery system in Taiwan between January 2011 and December 2017. Living patients with AKI non-recovery were used to derive and validate multiple predictive models. In total, 64 candidates variables, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare services utilization, laboratory values, and nephrotoxic medication use, were measured within 1 year before the index admission and during hospitalization for AKI.ResultsAmong the top 20 important features in the predictive model, 8 features had a positive effect on AKI non-recovery prediction: AKI during hospitalization, serum creatinine (SCr) level at admission, receipt of dialysis during hospitalization, baseline comorbidity of cancer, AKI at admission, baseline lymphocyte count, baseline potassium, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The predicted AKI non-recovery risk model using the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve statistic of 0.807, discrimination with a sensitivity of 0.724, and a specificity of 0.738 in the temporal validation cohort.ConclusionThe machine learning model approach can accurately predict AKI non-recovery using routinely collected health data in clinical practice. These results suggest that multifactorial risk factors are involved in AKI non-recovery, requiring patient-centered risk assessments and promotion of post-discharge AKI care to prevent AKI complications.


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