The Brain
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Amandine Robac ◽  
Pauline Neveu ◽  
Alizée Hugede ◽  
Elisabeth Garrido ◽  
Lionel Nicol ◽  
...  

Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an incurable condition in which the brain is disconnected partially or completely from the periphery. Mainly SCI are traumatic and are due to traffic, domestic or sport accidents. To date SCI are incurable and let, most of the time, the patients with a permanent loss of sensitive and motor functions. Therefore, since several decades researchers tried to develop treatments to cure SCI. Among them, recently, our lab have demonstrated that in mice, repetitive trans-spinal magnetic stimulation (rTSMS) can, after SCI, modulate the lesion scar and can induce functional locomotor recovery non-invasively. These results are promising, however before to translate them to Humans it is important to reproduce them in a more clinically relevant model. Indeed, SCI do not lead to the same cellular events in mice and Humans. In particular, SCI in Humans induce the formation of cystic cavities. That is why we propose here to validate the effects of rTSMS in rat, animal model in which SCI lead to the formation of cystic cavities, after penetrating and contusive SCI. To do so, several techniques including immunohistochemical, behavioral and MRI have been performed. Our results demonstrate that rTSMS, in both SCI models, modulates the lesion scar by decreasing the formation of cystic cavities and by improving axonal survival. Moreover, rTSMS, in both models, enhances functional locomotor recovery. Altogether, our study describes that rTSMS exerts positive effects after SCI in rats. This study is a further step towards the use of this treatment in Humans.


Nature ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Raunak Basu ◽  
Robert Gebauer ◽  
Tim Herfurth ◽  
Simon Kolb ◽  
Zahra Golipour ◽  
...  

AbstractAccurate navigation to a desired goal requires consecutive estimates of spatial relationships between the current position and future destination throughout the journey. Although neurons in the hippocampal formation can represent the position of an animal as well as its nearby trajectories1–7, their role in determining the destination of the animal has been questioned8,9. It is, thus, unclear whether the brain can possess a precise estimate of target location during active environmental exploration. Here we describe neurons in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that form spatial representations persistently pointing to the subsequent goal destination of an animal throughout navigation. This destination coding emerges before the onset of navigation, without direct sensory access to a distal goal, and even predicts the incorrect destination of an animal at the beginning of an error trial. Goal representations in the OFC are maintained by destination-specific neural ensemble dynamics, and their brief perturbation at the onset of a journey led to a navigational error. These findings suggest that the OFC is part of the internal goal map of the brain, enabling animals to navigate precisely to a chosen destination that is beyond the range of sensory perception.


Author(s):  
Fabrízio dos Santos Cardoso ◽  
Fernanda Cristina Borini Mansur ◽  
Bruno Henrique Silva Araújo ◽  
F. Gonzalez-Lima ◽  
Sérgio Gomes da Silva

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shani Folschweiller ◽  
Jonas-Frederic Sauer

Respiration paces brain oscillations and the firing of individual neurons, revealing a profound impact of rhythmic breathing on brain activity. Intriguingly, respiration-driven entrainment of neural activity occurs in a variety of cortical areas, including those involved in higher cognitive functions such as associative neocortical regions and the hippocampus. Here we review recent findings of respiration-entrained brain activity with a particular focus on emotional cognition. We summarize studies from different brain areas involved in emotional behavior such as fear, despair, and motivation, and compile findings of respiration-driven activities across species. Furthermore, we discuss the proposed cellular and network mechanisms by which cortical circuits are entrained by respiration. The emerging synthesis from a large body of literature suggests that the impact of respiration on brain function is widespread across the brain and highly relevant for distinct cognitive functions. These intricate links between respiration and cognitive processes call for mechanistic studies of the role of rhythmic breathing as a timing signal for brain activity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Connor Cross ◽  
Roman H. Khonsari ◽  
Dawid Larysz ◽  
David Johnson ◽  
Lars Kölby ◽  
...  

AbstractSagittal synostosis is the most occurring form of craniosynostosis, resulting in calvarial deformation and possible long-term neurocognitive deficits. Several surgical techniques have been developed to correct these issues. Debates as to the most optimal approach are still ongoing. Finite element method is a computational tool that’s shown to assist with the management of craniosynostosis. The aim of this study was to compare and predict the outcomes of three reconstruction methods for sagittal craniosynostosis. Here, a generic finite element model was developed based on a patient at 4 months of age and was virtually reconstructed under all three different techniques. Calvarial growth was simulated to predict the skull morphology and the impact of different reconstruction techniques on the brain growth up to 60 months of age. Predicted morphology was then compared with in vivo and literature data. Our results show a promising resemblance to morphological outcomes at follow up. Morphological characteristics between considered techniques were also captured in our predictions. Pressure outcomes across the brain highlight the potential impact that different techniques have on growth. This study lays the foundation for further investigation into additional reconstructive techniques for sagittal synostosis with the long-term vision of optimizing the management of craniosynostosis.


Author(s):  
Sandeep Kumar ◽  
S.P. Dahiya ◽  
Ankit Magotra ◽  
Yogesh C. Bangar ◽  
Asha Rani Garg

Background: Leptin is a varied hormone which plays vital role in body development by regulating the balance between food intake and energy expenditure by signaling to the brain. Leptin has diverse effect on controlling appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. The present study was aimed to screen candidate point mutation (g.332G greater than A) in the targeted genomic region of leptin gene in Munjal sheep. Methods: A total of 50 Munjal sheep were selected and genomic DNA was isolated in Automated Maxell RSC DNA/ RNA purification system by using Maxwell RSC whole blood DNA kit. Reported set of primers was used to amplify 463bp fragment encompassing targeted region (exon 3) of leptin gene. PCR-RFLP was performed to genotype targeted point mutation in our resource population. PCR products were digested by Cail 1 restriction enzyme to genotype g.332G greater than A (at 332th nucleotide of exon 3 leptin gene) non-synonymous mutation (Arg to Gln). Result: All studied samples resolved into monomorphic banding pattern, revealed only AA (463bp single band bp) genotype. The absence of candidate mutation in our resource population might be due to small sample size.


Aging ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martina Kristofova ◽  
Zhao-Qi Wang
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
pp. 095679762110159
Author(s):  
Jörg Gross ◽  
Nadira S. Faber ◽  
Andreas Kappes ◽  
Anne-Marie Nussberger ◽  
Philip J. Cowen ◽  
...  

Helping other people can entail risks for the helper. For example, when treating infectious patients, medical volunteers risk their own health. In such situations, decisions to help should depend on the individual’s valuation of others’ well-being (social preferences) and the degree of personal risk the individual finds acceptable (risk preferences). We investigated how these distinct preferences are psychologically and neurobiologically integrated when helping is risky. We used incentivized decision-making tasks (Study 1; N = 292 adults) and manipulated dopamine and norepinephrine levels in the brain by administering methylphenidate, atomoxetine, or a placebo (Study 2; N = 154 adults). We found that social and risk preferences are independent drivers of risky helping. Methylphenidate increased risky helping by selectively altering risk preferences rather than social preferences. Atomoxetine influenced neither risk preferences nor social preferences and did not affect risky helping. This suggests that methylphenidate-altered dopamine concentrations affect helping decisions that entail a risk to the helper.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kazuto Masamoto ◽  
Ruka Sakuraba ◽  
Tomoya Niizawa

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