Local Management
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2022 ◽  
Vol 149 ◽  
pp. 105696
Author(s):  
Gabriel da Silva Medina ◽  
Benno Pokorny ◽  
Bruce Campbell

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 29-47
Author(s):  
Irina V. Lidzieva ◽  
Ekaterina N. Badmaeva

The Russian state continued, in relation to the non-Slavic population of its southern periphery in the XIX century, to pursue its integrative policy, the intensity of which was largely due to the geopolitical arrangement of forces in the region, as well as to the degree of stability of the local management system and the stance of the local elite. One of the important indicators of the integration of the territory into the imperial space was possessing information about the size of its population by the imperial administration. The purpose of the study is to identify, on the basis of analyzing the documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Astrakhan Region, the State Archive of the Stavropol Territory and the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia, as well as the achievements of other researchers, the methods of accounting for the number of nomadic peoples, using the example of Kalmyks, Turkmens and Nogais. The study revealed that three main stages can be distinguished in the policy of accounting for the nomadic population of the southern outskirts of the Russian Empire, the main feature of each of which is the way of collecting information: that is, statistical, metric, and demographic. The first method is related to the formation of a reporting institute of foreign directorates. The second method which was the metrics, left to the clergy, was not considered the systematic and reliable data. Conducting censuses of the population (family lists, countermarks) testified to the establishment of demographic accounts in nomadic societies of the southern periphery of the Russian Empire.


Author(s):  
V. So ◽  
F. Khurshid

BACKGROUND: Hyperbilirubinemia (HB), defined as elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels, commonly affects neonates and requires prompt treatment to prevent neurological complications. Up to 10%of neonates experience rebound hyperbilirubinemia (RHB), requiring re-initiation of treatment. Unfortunately, treatment guidelines lack practical recommendations surrounding subthreshold phototherapy, treatment termination, and RHB investigations. We examined local management practices for HB and RHB treatment in a well newborn nursery. As a secondary aim, we investigated the association between treatment practices and RHB rates. METHODS: Retrospective chart review identified neonates treated for hyperbilirubinemia between January 2015 and December 2019 during their birth hospitalization at a tertiary care centre. Standardized data collection sheets were used to record treatment parameters. RESULTS: Over the 5-year period, there were 9683 births and 305 (3.15%) neonates received phototherapy. Of the treated cases, 20–25%were subthreshold to practice guideline values. Upon treatment termination 25–55%of cases had TSB levels within 3 mg/dL, which may increase the risk of RHB. In our cohort, 20.3%of treated cases experienced one episode of RHB and 3.9%experienced two episodes of RHB. Although clinicians evaluated neonates for RHB 0–12 hours following treatment termination prior to discharge, many cases were identified in outpatient settings and required re-admission for phototherapy. CONCLUSION: When managing HB and RHB, treatment practices such as when to terminate treatment in relation to threshold values, and timing of RHB investigations, are largely inconsistent amongst clinicians. Future studies are required to better understand the landscape of hyperbilirubinemia treatment beyond initiation of phototherapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ayako Shimada ◽  
Motomu Tanaka ◽  
Satoru Ishii ◽  
Yusuke Yamamoto ◽  
Masaumi Oosaki ◽  
...  

Abstract   Esophageal cancer patients have a high frequency to coincide with head and neck (H&N) cancer. We have corporated together with Otorhinolaryngology, H&N Surgery, and Plastic surgery department doctors for the treatment of synchronous esophageal and H&N cancer patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the treatment results and prognosis of synchronous esophageal and H&N cancer patients. Methods From January 2014 to December 2019, 5 patients underwent concurrent surgical resection of synchronous esophageal and H&N cancer in our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical outcomes and prognosis of these patients of synchronous esophageal and H&N cancer (HNEC group) and compared the results with 27 patients who had esophagectomy with 3 regional lymph node dissection during the same period (EC group). Results The location of H&N cancers were pharynx/tongue; 4/1, and clinical stage was all Stage IV. The clinical stage of esophageal cancers was Stage 0/I/II/III; 1/1/2/1. All patients underwent video-assisted thoracic esophagectomy. The surgical procedures concurrently performed for the H&N cancer were pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunum transfer for 3 patients, wide tongue and mandibular segment resection with mandibular reconstruction in 1 patient, and mandibular transection with radial forearm flap reconstruction in 1 patient. There was no significant difference in the frequency of postoperative complication between 2 groups. HNEC group tend to have shorter recurrence free survival compared to EC group (p = 0.051). Conclusion H&N surgery with thoracotomy is a highly invasive surgery, however, it can be safely performed with local management. The risk of recurrence is high in H&N cancer patients, therefore it is important to move onto adjuvant therapy without delay. Paraenteral nutrition may be useful in management of these patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marula Triumph Rasethe ◽  
MARTIN POTGIETER ◽  
MICHÈLE PFAB

Abstract. Rasethe MT, Potgieter M, Pfab M. 2021. Local management strategies and attitudes towards selected threatened or protected plant species in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biodiversitas 22: 3773-3784. Throughout South Africa, ordinary people are managing and using local natural resources in ways that enhance their lives, but there is a major concern about the sustainability of wild plant harvest. This study aims to investigate the current management strategies employed by local people in the Limpopo Province for selected threatened or protected plant species (TOPS). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to gather information from a total of 333 participants, i.e. 110 community members (CMs), 180 traditional health practitioners (THPs), and 28 traditional leaders (TLs), as well as from 15 conservation officers (COs). The study area included the districts of Capricorn, Sekhukhune, Mopani, Vhembe, and Waterberg. Results indicated that in all districts of the province most CMs and THPs reported that no one managed plant resources in their surrounding communal lands, though TLs indicated that the state was involved with management. Fifty-nine percent of THPs indicated that there are no traditional rules that are applied towards conservation of communal lands, yet 91% of other participants in the Mopani, Sekhukhune, and Capricorn districts indicated that traditional rules are followed. Most CMs in these three districts were allowed to participate in conservation initiatives, although most of them did not know that the plants they were using were threatened and protected in legislation. It is recommended that collaborative partnerships be initiated between government and TLs in relation to managing the threatened or protected plant species in communal lands.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 3287
Author(s):  
Nuno Mouta ◽  
Renato Silva ◽  
Silvana Pais ◽  
Joaquim M. Alonso ◽  
João F. Gonçalves ◽  
...  

The spread of invasive alien species promotes ecosystem structure and functioning changes, with detrimental effects on native biodiversity and ecosystem services, raising challenges for local management authorities. Predictions of invasion dynamics derived from modeling tools are often spatially coarse and therefore unsuitable for guiding local management. Accurate information on the occurrence of invasive plants and on the main factors that promote their spread is critical to define successful control strategies. For addressing this challenge, we developed a dual framework combining satellite image classification with predictive ecological modeling. By combining data from georeferenced invaded areas with multispectral imagery with 10-meter resolution from Sentinel-2 satellites, a map of areas invaded by the woody invasive Acacia longifolia in a municipality of northern Portugal was devised. Classifier fusion techniques were implemented through which eight statistical and machine-learning algorithms were ensembled to produce accurate maps of invaded areas. Through a Random Forest (RF) model, these maps were then used to explore the factors driving the landscape-level abundance of A. longifolia. RF models were based on explanatory variables describing hypothesized environmental drivers, including climate, topography/geomorphology, soil properties, fire disturbance, landscape composition, linear structures, and landscape spatial configuration. Satellite-based maps synoptically described the spatial patterns of invaded areas, with classifications attaining high accuracy values (True Skill Statistic, TSS: 0.895, Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve, ROC: 0.988, Kappa: 0.857). The predictive RF models highlighted the primary role of climate, followed by landscape composition and configuration, as the most important drivers explaining the species abundance at the landscape level. Our innovative dual framework—combining image classification and predictive ecological modeling—can guide decision-making processes regarding effective management of invasions by prioritizing the invaded areas and tackling the primary environmental and anthropogenic drivers of the species’ abundance and spread.


Author(s):  
Simon Lambert ◽  
Melanie Mark-Shadbolt

The United Nations Sendai Framework 2015-30 for disaster risk reduction (DRR) reaffirms the role of Indigenous Knowledges (IK) as complementing and contributing to more effective DRR. This hard won space for IK comes as Indigenous communities voluntarily contribute to the local management of disasters, including wildfire and threats to biodiversity in forest ecosystems. The effectiveness of Indigenous practices in addressing hazards is based on traditional knowledges and empirical observations that inform active roles in environmental management. However, it is still not clear how IK complements and contributes to DRR. This article analyses interviews with elders, researchers, and community members and identifies how mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) on forests and biodiversity is embodied to inform Indigenous watchfulness as a tactical approach in contributing to more effective DRR strategies.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Seyed Ahmad Bathaei ◽  
Hamid Reza Khankeh

Abstract Demand for relief increases after disasters. Some research suggests that the number of relief supplies required to satisfy the relief demanding after disasters is significantly higher than preliminary estimates, especially in low and lower-middle-income countries. So, this study was aimed to explore the reasons for relief overdemanding in the disaster response phase. In this qualitative content analysis study the managers of the National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO), the Iranian Medical Emergency and Accident Management Center, Tehran Disaster Mitigation and Management Organization (TDMMO) and the Iranian Red Crescent Society (IRCS) were purposively sampled and invited to interview. The unstructured face-to-face interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using "constant comparison" and "microanalysis" methods. 21 agreed to participate and were interviewed. The interviews uncovered affected people-level factors such as the react to fear and anxiety and the unsatisfied demand due to improper distribution of facilities and crisis managers-level issues (e.g. facing people's dissatisfaction, incorrect or insufficient information and considering disaster as the opportunity to raise resources) as well as officials-level determinants (e.g. advertising and excitement, the partisanship of officials and low confidence on accident managers). Several factors influencing the relief overdemanding exist in disaster management in Iran. Strengthening local management when responding to disasters and conducting efficient disaster need assessment can reduce relief overdemanding and vastly prevent wasting surplus resources in the affected area.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4-S) ◽  
pp. 141-153
Author(s):  
Gabriel A Agbor ◽  
Rosette Ndjib

Background: Respiratory disorders are known to affect the airways including the nasal passages, bronchi and lungs causing blockages. The advent of COVID-19 has further aggravated the complications of the respiratory systems where conventional medicine is not reachable or affordable by the majority poor in Africa. Hence, the over 80% of the African population who turn to traditional medicine for their primary health care. Objective: This review is aimed to identify plants directed against respiratory diseases which can be useful in the fight against COVID-19. Methodology: Scientific articles selected in this study span the last ten years (2011-2021). Keywords such as “ethnobotany in Africa”, “ethnobotany and respiratory diseases” “medicinal plants and respiratory diseases”, “traditional medicine and COVID-19” were searched in open access search engines such as: Science Direct, Research Gate, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus. The ethnobotanical indices were then calculated using Microsoft excel to determine the plants with the most therapeutic potential to be considered for the local management of COVID-19. Results: Data obtained were classified according to country of origin of the author of the publication, the botanical family and the respiratory pathology being treated. Thirteen (13) references were finally selected with the represented country being Benin Republic. One hundred and forty-three plant species belonging to 60 families were registered. The most recurrent families were the Fabaceae and Lamiaceae (18 citations each). The plants in these families were used for the management of fifteen diseases and / or symptoms relating to the respiratory system. The most cited plants were: Ocimum gratissimum L. (4 citations), Entandrophragma cylindrium (Sprague), Scyphocephalium ochocoa Warb., Rubia cordifolia and Allium sativum L. (3 citations each). Conclusion: Based on the data obtained in this review Ocimum gratissimum stands out as the most used plant for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Keywords: Respiratory diseases, Medicinal plants, COVID-19


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jonathan C. Marshall ◽  
Jaye S. Lobegeiger ◽  
Alisa Starkey

In dryland rivers, flow intermittency means fish populations are often subjected to drought disturbance. The viability of these fish populations depends on the availability of waterhole refuges for individuals to survive drought (resistance) and the ability of surviving fish to repopulate the rivers by recruitment and dispersal once flow returns (resilience). In this study we combined remote-sensed mapping of the locations of waterholes that lasted through an extreme drought in the northern Murray Darling Basin, Australia, with an assessment of the impacts of in-stream barriers on limiting the opportunities for fish to move and repopulate after drought. We found that at the peak of this 2018–2020 drought, the worst on record for some rivers and the most spatially synchronous recorded across the region, waterholes were few and generally small – representing only 11% of the total river channel network. All the fish in the region that survived the drought were concentrated into this limited waterhole refuge habitat. Even small instream structures, such as minor weirs, caused large reductions in the opportunities for fish to move between river segments when there is flow. Almost all the 104 instream structures assessed reduced long-term fish movement opportunities, measured as days with discharge greater than calculated barrier drown out thresholds, by more than 70% and up to 100%, when compared to opportunities for movement if the barrier was not present. This large impact from small instream barriers is a consequence of flow intermittency and is likely to reduce fish population resilience and impact the capacity of fish populations to recover after drought. Combining information on the risks posed by limited refuge habitat availability during drought and from reduced movement opportunity following drought allowed us to identify river segments where these combined threats are the greatest risk to viability of local fish populations. Considering the spatial arrangements of these risks provides a means to systematically prioritize mitigation measures such as weir removal to improve fish movement opportunities and local management of key waterholes to increase drought resistance. The approach used here provides a guide for assessing and prioritizing the management of fish population viability risks from drought and fragmentation by barriers in any non-perennial river setting.


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