management strategies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 219-230
Author(s):  
Erik Febriarta ◽  
Muh Aris Marfai ◽  
Dhandhun Wacano ◽  
Ajeng Larasati ◽  
Dyah Rahmawati Hizbaron

Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.


Author(s):  
Ana P. da Silva ◽  
Ricardo F. Marques ◽  
Antônio C. da Silva Junior ◽  
Sidnei R. de Marchi ◽  
Dagoberto Martins

ABSTRACT Information about the impact of herbicides in the soil based on the growth of bioindicator species is extremely useful in developing crop management strategies. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the leaching potential of the herbicide S-metolachlor under different natural precipitations in medium-textured Oxisol using bioindicator plants. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with four replicates and treatments arranged in a 3 × 8 factorial scheme [three indexes of precipitation occurred in the environment before the collection of the samples (50, 91, and 131 mm) and eight depths in the soil profile (0-0.03; 0.03-0.06; 0.06-0.09; 0.09-0.12; 0.12-0.15; 0.15-0.20; 0.20-0.25; 0.25-0.30 m)]. PVC columns were used, maintaining the original soil integrity during sampling after accumulating the stipulated natural precipitation. Longitudinal sections separated the columns to sow the bioindicator species (cucumber, lettuce, Alexander grass, and sorghum). The phytotoxicity symptoms of bioindicator plants were evaluated, adopting a phytotoxicity visual scale between 0 and 100%, at 5, 7, 9, and 11 days after seeding. The responses of the bioindicator species to the residual effect of the herbicide S-metolachlor were variable and depended on the rainfall level. Generally, in a medium-textured Oxisol, the higher values of concentration of S-metolachlor occurs in depths ranging between 0 and 0.06 m. The maximum leaching depth detected was 0.12-0.15 m with 131 mm of precipitation. Cucumber was the most sensitive species to the presence of S-metolachlor in an Oxisol of medium-texture since it presents symptoms of phytotoxicity at higher depths.


Author(s):  
Geovani S. de Lima ◽  
Francisco W. A. Pinheiro ◽  
Hans R. Gheyi ◽  
Lauriane A. dos A. Soares ◽  
Pedro F. do N. Sousa ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of saline water irrigation management strategies and potassium doses on the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, and fruit production of ‘BRS GA1’ yellow passion fruit. The experiment was carried out under field conditions using a randomized block design, with treatments based on a 6 × 2 factorial scheme, related to six management strategies for irrigation with saline water (irrigation with low-salinity water throughout the crop cycle-WS; irrigation with high-salinity water in the vegetative stage-VE; flowering stage-FL; fruiting stage-FR; and successively in vegetative/flowering stages-VE/FL and vegetative/fruiting stages-VE/FR) and two doses of potassium (60 and 100% of the recommendation), with four replicates. The dose of 100% recommendation corresponded to 345 g of K2O plant-1 year-1. High electrical conductivity irrigation water (4.0 dS m-1) was used in different phenological stages according to treatment, alternating with water of low electrical conductivity (1.3 dS m-1). The synthesis of chlorophyll a and b, stomatal conductance, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency and water use efficiency of ‘BRS GA1’ yellow passion fruit were reduced under irrigation with water of 4.0 dS m-1 in all strategies adopted. Fertilization with 60% of the K recommendation promoted greater number of fruits and yellow passion fruit yield. Irrigation with 4.0 dS m-1 water in the vegetative/flowering and flowering stages reduced the yield of yellow passion fruit.


2022 ◽  
Vol 196 ◽  
pp. 103331
Author(s):  
Gonzalo Rizzo ◽  
Sebastian R. Mazzilli ◽  
Oswaldo Ernst ◽  
Walter E. Baethgen ◽  
Andres G. Berger

Author(s):  
Hiba Khan

Abstract: India has done a very much towards to become a developed country but still India is a part of developing countries and for this reason most of the factors are responsible and from these one of the factor is poverty and their index. Poverty index, directly affect the standard of living in a population , that why various major and minor diseases are occur in the various age groups of people, and Hypermetropia is one of these that can occur due to unhealthy life style. Hyperopia, also termed hypermetropia or farsightedness, is a common refractive error in children and adults. Its effect on an individual and the symptoms produced varies greatly, depending on the magnitude of hyperopia, the age of the individual, the status of the accommodative and convergence system, and the demands placed on the visual system. Individuals with uncorrected hyperopia may experience symptoms such as blurred vision, asthenopia (e.g., headaches and eyestrain) while reading, accommodative/binocular dysfunction, amblyopia, and/or strabismus. This article outlines several discussion points as related to hyperopia: definition and classifications, prevention, clinical presentations, importance of early detection, examination techniques, risks of uncorrected hyperopia, and management strategies. Keywords: Amblyopia, Hyperopia, Refractive error, Strabismus, Visual development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Author(s):  
Seunghan Lee ◽  
Saurabh Jain ◽  
Young-Jun Son

One of the major challenges faced by the current society is developing disaster management strategies to minimize the effects of catastrophic events. Disaster planning and strategy development phases of this urgency require larger amounts of cooperation among communities or individuals in society. Social networks have also been playing a crucial role in the establishment of efficient disaster management planning. This article proposes a hierarchical decision-making framework that would assist in analyzing two imperative information flow processes (innovation diffusion and opinion formation) in social networks under the consideration of community detection. The proposed framework was proven to capture the heterogeneity of individuals using cognitive behavior models and evaluate its impact on diffusion speed and opinion convergence. Moreover, the framework demonstrated the evolution of communities based on their inter-and intracommunication. The simulation results with real social network data suggest that the model can aid in establishing an efficient disaster management policy using social sensing and delivery.


Author(s):  
Maria Batool ◽  
Ali Mahmoud El-Badri ◽  
Muhammad Umair Hassan ◽  
Yang Haiyun ◽  
Wang Chunyun ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria Briana

Purpose This paper explores an important yet overlooked concept in place branding literature, unplanned messages. Focusing on unplanned messages, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the concept of spontaneous order in place branding and how to manage the unplanned communication process so as to ensure a high reputational status for a place. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds on past research on place brand communication and proposes a conceptual framework for unplanned messages. Findings Classification schemes for places and place brands are proposed, contributing to place brand management in three aspects: reviewing of decisions and strategies undertaken, assessing current situation and planning way forward when it comes to priorities for place management and development. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that introduces the emergent image and presents a classification scheme for places that contributes to a strategic management program of unplanned messages in place branding.


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