Clinical Signs
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 102-106
Author(s):  
Daniel Lúcio do Nascimento ◽  
◽  
Gabriel Domingos Carvalho ◽  
Idelvânia dos Anjos Nonato ◽  
Breno Souza Salgado ◽  
...  

This case reports an eight-years-old horse that presented a unilateral tumor in the left ocular orbital region diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, gross anatomopathological and histopathological investigations. The affected area was exenteration and submitted to histopathological evaluation and was diagnosed as a non-teratoid medulloepithelioma. This is a rare ocular neoplasm that usually affects young individuals – and was composed by neuroepithelium arranged in tubules and Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes without presence of heteroplastic components. The animals died and was submitted to post-mortem evaluation, revealing presence of medulloepithelioma metastases at the internal region of the head, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. This neoplasm usually presents a benign frame; however, the case herein described shows that it can be highly malignant and aggressive since it can cause extensive lesions and spread metastases to visceral organs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 129-132
Author(s):  
Amanda Guedes ◽  
◽  
Eldo Gonçalves ◽  
Ruan Paulino ◽  
Adony Andrade Neto ◽  
...  

Biliary calculi are rare in cattle and occur usually in the gallbladder, without clinical signs. In humans, cholelithiasis is a common cause of hepatic abscess due calculi microbiota. Here is described a case of cholelithiasis, choledocholithiasis and hepatolithiasis in a 10-year-old female mixed breed dairy cow. The animal died during physical examination with signs as cachexia, icterus, and fever. At necropsy, a large number of green calculi were observed in the gallbladder, common duct lumen and in markedly distended biliary ducts. The liver was firm and decreased in volume with multiple abscess and multiple red foci measuring 0.5 cm in diameter in the hepatic parenchyma. Microscopically in the liver, marked ductal proliferation and abscedative cholangiohepatitis with abundant fibrosis and multiple foci of hepatocytes necrosis. In conclusion, choledocholithiasis and hepatolithiasis may occur in cattle and cause significant clinical signs and pathological alterations.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2225
Author(s):  
Jacquelyn Horsington ◽  
Maarten Witvliet ◽  
Antonius A. C. Jacobs ◽  
Ruud P. A. M. Segers

The combined application of vaccines in swine offers many benefits, including reduced time and labour costs, and improved animal welfare, due to fewer injections and manipulations. This study investigated if simultaneous intradermal vaccinations against porcine circovirus 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Lawsonia intracellularis, using a specialised needle-free applicator would confer comparable protection against experimental infection compared to the single vaccines. In all cases, the administration of the vaccines together was as efficacious as the administration of the vaccines alone, significantly reducing clinical signs associated with each of the four pathogens.


Author(s):  
K. P. Artykov ◽  
B. Sadulloev ◽  
O. F. Soliev ◽  
N. M. Mirzoev

Aim. To evaluate the results of treatment of renal hypertension in varicocele after the formation of the proximal intervenous anastomosis.Material and methods. A survey was conducted among 167 patients with varicocele aged 16 to 39 years. The evaluation of the Varicocele degree was made by the classification of the Amerla Cubin, which is used in the WHO Classification (1997). All patients had clinical signs of varicocele. Ipsilateral testicle hypotrophy was detected in 21 (12.6%) and hydrocele 6 (3.6%) patients. All patients before and after the operation went through the analysis of ejaculate.Results and discussion. The renotesticular hemodynamic type of varicocele was found in 115 (68.9%) of 167 surveyed patients. Varicocele of 1 degree was detected in 17 (14.8%) cases, 2 degrees in 31 (26.9%) and 3 degrees in 67 (58.3%) patients. With doppler ultrasonography of the veins of the spermatic cord, the inner diameter varied from 3 to 6 mm. On average, this value was 4.3±1.1 mm. All these patients received subinguinal varicocelectomy by Marmar. Therefore, the vein drainage operations to reduce renal hypertension was carried out for 65 (56.5%) patients.Conclusion. The formation of intervenous anastomoses is a pathogenetically justified method of treating regional venous renal hypertension in varicocele.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1473
Author(s):  
Anusyah Rathakrishnan ◽  
Ana L. Reis ◽  
Lynnette C. Goatley ◽  
Katy Moffat ◽  
Linda K. Dixon

African swine fever virus causes a frequently fatal disease of domestic pigs and wild boar that has a high economic impact across 3 continents. The large double-stranded DNA genome codes for approximately 160 proteins. Many of these have unknown functions and this hinders our understanding of the virus and host interactions. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of two virus proteins, K145R and DP148R, in virus replication in macrophages and virulence in pigs. To do this, the DP148R gene, alone or in combination with the K145R gene, was deleted from the virulent genotype II Georgia 2007/1 isolate. Neither of these deletions reduced the ability of the viruses to replicate in porcine macrophages compared to the parental wild-type virus. Pigs infected with GeorgiaΔDP148R developed clinical and post-mortem signs and high viremia, typical of acute African swine fever, and were culled on day 6 post-infection. The additional deletion of the K145R gene delayed the onset of clinical signs and viremia in pigs by 3 days, but pigs showed signs of acute African swine fever and were culled on days 10 or 13 post-infection. The results show that the deletion of DP148R did not attenuate the genotype II Georgia 2007/1 isolate, contrary to the results obtained with the genotype I Benin97/1 isolate. Additional deletion of the K145R gene delayed clinical signs, but infected pigs reached the humane endpoint. The deletion of additional genes would be required to attenuate the virus.


Author(s):  
Manouchehr Iranparvar ◽  
Firouz Amani ◽  
Md. Javad Naghizadeh

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that its association with low level of testosterone has already been shown in many studies. Considering the role of testosterone hormone in impotency, fatigue, and bone mass deficiency this study aimed to evaluate the total and free testosterone levels and clinical signs of hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, sixty-five diabetic male patients aged 35-70 years were randomly selected and enrolled to the study. The necessary information such as patient demographics, BMI, past medical history, drug history, and history of smoking, education level and employment were completed by a checklist. Then, the patients were evaluated for total and free testosterone levels and symptoms related to decreased testosterone, hypogonadism symptoms by ADAM questionnaire. Finally, the data were statistical analyzed by spss version 21.Results: The mean age of patients was 57.12±4.7 years with age range of 38-69 years. According to the ADAM questionnaire, 51 (78.4%) of the patients were positive and 14 (21.6%) were negative. 16 (24.6%) of all patients had hypogonadism. Among ADAM positive patients, 46 (90.1%) had erectile dysfunction and 33 (64.7%) had decreased libido. Most people (75%) with hypogonadism had BMI more than 30.Conclusions: Testosterone levels are commonly found low in diabetic men, most of whom have symptoms of hypogonadism. Body mass index is known as an independent risk factor for hypogonadism in T2D men. There was also a significant correlation between free testosterone levels and hypogonadism. 


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sasidhar Malladi ◽  
Amos Ssematimba ◽  
Peter J. Bonney ◽  
Kaitlyn M. St. Charles ◽  
Timothy Boyer ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and devastating pig disease that has caused extensive global economic losses. Understanding ASF virus (ASFV) transmission dynamics within a herd is necessary in order to prepare for and respond to an outbreak in the United States. Although the transmission parameters for the highly virulent ASF strains have been estimated in several articles, there are relatively few studies focused on moderately virulent strains. Using an approximate Bayesian computation algorithm in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulation, we have estimated the adequate contact rate for moderately virulent ASFV strains and determined the statistical distributions for the durations of mild and severe clinical signs using individual, pig-level data. A discrete individual based disease transmission model was then used to estimate the time to detect ASF infection based on increased mild clinical signs, severe clinical signs, or daily mortality. Results: Our results indicate that it may take two weeks or longer to detect ASF in a finisher swine herd via mild clinical signs or increased mortality beyond levels expected in routine production. A key factor contributing to the extended time to detect ASF in a herd is the fairly long latently infected period for an individual pig (mean 4.5, 95% P.I., 2.4 - 7.2 days). Conclusion: These transmission model parameter estimates and estimated time to detection via clinical signs provide valuable information that can be used not only to support emergency preparedness but also to inform other simulation models of evaluating regional disease spread.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2188
Author(s):  
Arash Osmani ◽  
Ihab Habib ◽  
Ian Duncan Robertson

This study was performed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of farmers, animal traders, and veterinary professionals on FMD in Baghlan province, Afghanistan. Four structured questionnaires were administered to the respondents. Almost half (48.5%) of the farmers had heard of the occurrence of FMD in their neighbourhood or knew the name of the disease. The majority of farmers could recognise the clinical signs of FMD in their animals (salivation, 85.9%; tongue ulcers, 78.8%; gum lesions, 78.2%; hoof lesions, 76.8%). Most farmers stated that the “introduction of new animals” was the primary cause of FMD appearing on their farms and to control the spread of the disease, over half of the farmers (56%) preferred not to buy cattle from unknown or potentially infected sources. Animal traders’ knowledge was limited to recognising some clinical signs of the disease such as: salivation, and lesions in the mouth and on the feet. No animals were directly imported by the traders from outside Afghanistan. Over half of the local veterinary professionals (65%) kept record books of the animal diseases seen and/or treatment plans undertaken, and 80% of them reported the occurrence of FMD to the provincial, regional, and central veterinary authorities. No regular vaccination programme against FMD was implemented in the province. Poor import controls and quarantine were considered to be the main barriers to the control of FMD in the study area and the surrounding provinces. It can be concluded that, despite relatively good knowledge about FMD in the study area, there are gaps in farmers’ and traders’ knowledge that need to be addressed to overcome the burden of the disease in the province. These should focus on strengthening interprovincial quarantine measures and implementation of regular vaccination campaigns against the circulating FMDV within the area.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 111-121
Author(s):  
Marco Giuseppe Migliaccio ◽  
Franco Iodice ◽  
Marco Di Mauro ◽  
Angela Iannuzzi ◽  
Roberta Pacileo ◽  
...  

Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which amyloid fibrils build up in tissues, leading to organ dysfunction. Cardiac involvement is observed in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) and transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) and, when it occurs, the prognosis worsens. Cardiac tissue infiltration can lead to restrictive cardiomyopathy with clinical signs of diastolic heart failure, without reduction of ejection fraction (HFpEF). The aim of multiple and less invasive diagnostic tests is to discern peculiar characteristics and reach the diagnosis without performing an invasive endomyocardial biopsy. These diagnostic tools allow early diagnosis, and they are crucial to best benefit from target therapy. In this review article, we describe the mechanism behind amyloid fibril formation, infiltration of tissues, and consequent clinical signs, focusing on the diagnostic tools and the red flags to obtain a diagnosis.


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