Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. are protozoa that have a significant impact on animal health due to the diseases they cause in domestic and wild animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. in cats from northern Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 180 cats in the municipality of Araguaína, Tocantins and used to evaluate the presence of anti-T. gondii and anti-Neospora spp. antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test, with a cutoff of 1:64 and 1:25, respectively. The association between infection and individual animal characteristics (age, sex, origin, breed, and clinical signs) was tested using univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that 48.3% (87/180) of the animals had anti-T. gondii (95% CI: 40.8%–55.90%) and 3.9% (7/180) had anti-Neospora spp. (95% CI: 1.6%–7.8%) antibodies. There was no association between age, sex, breed origin, clinical signs, and seropositivity for T. gondii. Cats of defined breeds were more likely to be infected by Neospora spp. (OR = 10.7). Therefore, we found a high rate of seropositivity for T. gondii and a high rate of occurrence of Neospora infections in cats from the Araguaína region. The exposure of the feline population to the studied coccidia indicates the need to monitor the feline population for these infections and underscores the importance of effective sanitary measures against such pathogens.
Psychosis is a group of psychotic disorders. Its manifestation depends on the specific type of functional violation. However, this is characterized by a gradual increase in clinical signs and a change in behavior. Symptoms of psychosis can be recognized by the following manifestations: hallucinations, delusional ideas, movement disorders, mood disorders including manic and depressive disorders and changes in emotional sphere. Psychosis occurs due to problems in the functioning of neurons. Due to the violation of bonds in the molecules, they do not receive nutrition and they are deficient in oxygen. This leads to the fact that neurons cannot transmit nerve impulses; multiple dysfunctions occur in the central nervous system. The type of psychosis depends on a part of the brain suffered from the hunger strike. The causes of this disorder are of 3 types: endogenous, associated with internal processes, exogenous or external and organic, when the causes of psychosis are changes in the brain such as tumors, trauma or hemorrhage. Psychosis is usually treated in a hospital setting. Such patients require urgent admission as they cannot control their actions, they can harm themselves and others. Psychosis is a relapse-prone disease. With timely and comprehensive treatment, the prognosis will be favorable. This review article is a good educational material for medical and psychological practitioners whose goal is to improve knowledge of treatment and rehabilitation processes of psychosis and its related disorders.
Aim: To determine the etiology of a Chinese family with thrombocytopenia by analyzing the clinical features and genetic variation.Methods: Clinical profiles and genomic DNA extracts of the family members were collected for the study. Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing was used to detect the associated genetic variation and verify the family co-segregation respectively. Bioinformatics analysis assessed the pathogenicity of missense mutations.Results: The study reported a 3-generation pedigree including eight family members with thrombocytopenia. The platelet counts of the patients were varied, ranging from 38 to 110 × 109/L (reference range: 150–450 x 109/L). The mean volumes and morphology of the sampled platelet were both normal. The bleeding abnormality and mitochondriopathy were not observed in all the patients. Clinical signs of thrombocytopenia were mild. A novel heterozygous missense variant c.79C > T (p.His27Tyr) was identified in CYCS gene associated with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia.Conclusion: We report the first large family with autosomal dominant non-syndromic thrombocytopenia 4 in a Chinese family, a novel heterozygous missense variant c.79C > T (p.His27Tyr) was identified. The whole exome sequencing is an efficient tool for screening the variants specifically associated with the disease. The finding enriches the mutation spectrum of CYCS gene and laid a foundation for future studies on the correlation between genotype and phenotype.
Neoplasic transformation is a continuous process that occurs in the body. Even before clinical signs, the immune system is capable of recognizing these aberrant cells and reacting to suppress them. However, transformed cells acquire the ability to evade innate and adaptive immune defenses through the secretion of molecules that inhibit immune effector functions, resulting in tumor progression. Hormones have the ability to modulate the immune system and are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Hormones can control both the innate and adaptive immune systems in men and women. For example androgens reduce immunity through modulating the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Women are more prone than men to suffer from autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and others. This is linked to female hormones modulating the immune system. Patients with autoimmune diseases consistently have an increased risk of cancer, either as a result of underlying immune system dysregulation or as a side effect of pharmaceutical treatments. Epidemiological data on cancer incidence emphasize the link between the immune system and cancer. We outline and illustrate the occurrence of hormone-related cancer and its relationship to the immune system or autoimmune diseases in this review. It is obvious that some observations are contentious and require explanation of molecular mechanisms and validation. As a result, future research should clarify the molecular pathways involved, including any causal relationships, in order to eventually allocate information that will aid in the treatment of hormone-sensitive cancer and autoimmune illness.
Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by triad optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, and area postrema syndrome. Antibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), a water channel expressed on the astrocytic membrane, are supposed to play a pathogenic role and are detected in ~80% of cases. Clinical signs of Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in elderly patients should arouse the suspicion of paraneoplastic etiology. In this article, we discussed a case of a 76-year-old woman with a 2-month history of confusion, dysarthria, and progressive bilateral leg weakness. A whole-body CT scan showed a neoformation of 5 cm in diameter in the median lobe infiltrating the mediastinal pleura. The tumor had already spread to both the upper and lower right lobes, parietal pleura, and multiple lymph nodes. Pleural cytology revealed adenocarcinoma cells. The brain MRI documented hyperintense alteration in fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, involving the anterior portion of the corpus callosum and the periependymal white matter surrounding the lateral ventricles, with mild contrast enhancement on the same areas and meningeal tissue. T2-weighted spinal cord MRI sequences showed extended signal hyperintensity from bulbo-cervical junction to D7 metamer, mainly interesting the central component and the gray matter. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no neoplastic cells. Serum AQP-4 immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies were found. Meanwhile, the patient rapidly developed progressive paraparesis and decreased level of consciousness. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy was started but her conditions rapidly deteriorated. No other treatment was possible.
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. Traditionally, BRSV infection is detected based on non-specific clinical signs, followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the results of which can take days to obtain. Near-infrared aquaphotomics evaluation based on biochemical information from biofluids has the potential to support the rapid identification of BRSV infection in the field. This study evaluated NIR spectra (n = 240) of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from dairy calves (n = 5) undergoing a controlled infection with BRSV. Changes in the organization of the aqueous phase of EBC during the baseline (pre-infection) and infected (post-infection and clinically abnormal) stages were found in the WAMACS (water matrix coordinates) C1, C5, C9, and C11, likely associated with volatile and non-volatile compounds in EBC. The discrimination of these chemical profiles by PCA-LDA models differentiated samples collected during the baseline and infected stages with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity >93% in both the calibration and validation. Thus, biochemical changes occurring during BRSV infection can be detected and evaluated with NIR-aquaphotomics in EBC. These findings form the foundation for developing an innovative, non-invasive, and in-field diagnostic tool to identify BRSV infection in cattle.
Even though the epidemiology of tick-borne agents (TBA) in dogs has been extensively investigated around the world, the occurrence, vectors involved, and molecular identity of these agents in cats remains elusive in many regions. Among TBA, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia, Cytauxzoon, and Hepatozoon are responsible for diseases with non-specific clinical signs in cats, making essential the use of molecular techniques for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence and molecular identity of tick-borne agents (Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia/Theileria, Cytauxzoon, and Hepatozoon) in cats from southeastern (states of São Paulo (SP) and Minas Gerais (MG)) and northern (state of Rondônia (RO)) Brazil. For this purpose, 390 blood samples were collected from domiciled cats in MG (n = 155), SP (n = 151), and RO(n = 84) states, submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays for Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene), Anaplasma spp. (rrs gene), piroplasmids (18S rRNA gene), and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), sequencing, and phylogenetic inferences. The overall positivity for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Cytauxzoon spp., and Hepatozoon spp. were 7.4% (12.3% (MG) and 6.6% (SP)), 2% (4.5% (MG) and 0.6% (SP)), 0.7% (0.6% (MG), 0.6% (SP) and 1.2% (RO)), 27.2% (41.9% (MG), 24.5% (SP) and 4.8% (RO), and 0%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis grouped the obtained sequences with ‘Candidatus Anaplasma amazonensis’, A. platys, B. vogeli, and Cytauxzoon sp. previously detected in wild felids from Brazil. qPCR specific for E. canis based on the dsb gene confirmed the molecular identity of the detected ehrlichial agent. The present study expanded the list and geographical distribution of hemoparasites in cats. ‘Candidatus Anaplasma amazonensis’, recently detected in sloths from northern Brazil, was described for the first time in cats. This is the first report of piroplasmids infecting cats in northern Brazil. Coinfection by Cytauxzoon and other TBA (Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and B. vogeli) reported in the present study raises the need for veterinary practitioners’ awareness of cats parasitized by multiple TBA.
Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are globally occurring zoonotic roundworms of dogs and cats. Migration and persistence of Toxocara larvae in the central nervous system of paratenic hosts including humans may cause clinical signs of neurotoxocarosis (NT). As pathomechanisms of NT and host responses against Toxocara larvae are mostly unknown, whole-genome microarray transcription analysis was performed in cerebra and cerebella of experimentally infected C57Bl/6J mice as paratenic host model at days 14, 28, 70, 98, and 120 post-infection. Neuroinvasion of T. cati evoked 220 cerebral and 215 cerebellar differentially transcribed genes (DTGs), but no particular PANTHER (Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships) pathway was affected. In T. canis-infected mice, 1039 cerebral and 2073 cerebellar DTGs were identified. Statistically significant dysregulations occurred in various pathways, including cholesterol biosynthesis, apoptosis signaling, and the Slit/Robo mediated axon guidance as well as different pathways associated with the immune and defense response. Observed dysregulations of the cholesterol biosynthesis, as well as the Alzheimer disease-amyloid secretase pathway in conjunction with previous histopathological neurodegenerative findings, may promote the discussion of T. canis as a causative agent for dementia and/or Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, results contribute to a deeper understanding of the largely unknown pathogenesis and host-parasite interactions during NT, and may provide the basis for prospective investigations evaluating pathogenic mechanisms or designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Porcine respirovirus 1 (PRV1) is also known as porcine parainfluenza virus 1 (PPIV1). The prevalence and the role of PRV1 infections for pig health is largely unknown. In order to assess the PRV1 prevalence in Poland, nasal swabs and oral fluids collected from pigs from 30 farms were examined with RT real-time PCR. Additionally, IAV and PRRSV infection statuses of PRV1-positive samples were examined. The results showed that the virus is highly prevalent (76.7% farms positive) and different patterns of PRV1 circulation in herds with mild–moderate respiratory disease were observed. Co-infections with IAV and PRRSV were infrequent and detected in 8 (23.5%) and 4 (11.8%) out of 34 PRV1-positive nasal swab pools from diseased pens, respectively. In one pen PRV1, IAV, and PRRSV were detected at the same time. Interestingly, PRV1 mean Ct value in samples with co-infections was significantly lower (29.8 ± 3.1) than in samples with a single PRV1 infection (32.5 ± 3.6) (p < 0.05), which suggested higher virus replication in these populations. On the other hand, the virus detection in pig populations exhibiting respiratory clinical signs, negative for PRRSV and IAV, suggests that PRV1 should be involved in differential diagnosis of respiratory problems.
A 14-year-old neutered male British shorthair cat presented with a 21-day history of persistent erection and dysuria, along with overgrooming of the perineal region. Mild palpation induced pain and rigid corpora cavernosa with flaccid glans were observed during physical examination. Ultrasonography of the penis did not detect significant blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery. The drawing of aspirate blood from cavernosal bodies for gas analysis was impossible because of the anatomically small penis size of cats. Conservative management, including topical steroid ointment, lidocaine gel, gabapentin, and diazepam, was prescribed for supportive management. The clinical signs resolved, and ultrasonographic examination of the penis revealed no abnormalities. The cat remains clinically well without recurrence during the 6 months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-ischemic priapism in a cat.