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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. M. Santos ◽  
A. C. Petry ◽  
V. L. Sousa ◽  
H. O. Souza ◽  
A. Azevedo ◽  
...  

Abstract Petroleum water soluble fraction (WSF) impairs organisms, but damages may vary among cell and tissue levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and subchronic effects (36 days) of WSF (0%, 25% and 100%) in juveniles of the Neotropical top predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The effects of WSF were evaluated at a molecular level using the comet assay and micronucleus test for genome damage; and at a morphological level through histological identification of liver pathologic lesions. In both acute and subchronic exposure we found low levels of DNA damage (< 10% of comet tail) and non-significant frequency of micronucleus in WSF exposed fish. The most significant liver lesions in WSF exposed fish were fatty vacuolization, hypertrophy and focal necrosis. Since these tissue injuries were progressive and persistent, their irreversibility may negatively affect fish recruitment, even in a such resistant top predator.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
P. T. C. Chaves ◽  
P. O. Birnfeld

Abstract In fisheries, the phenomenon known as fishing down food webs is supposed to be a consequence of overfishing, which would be reflected in a reduction in the trophic level of landings. In such scenarios, the resilience of carnivorous, top predator species is particularly affected, making these resources the first to be depleted. The Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, exemplifies a predator resource historically targeted by artisanal fisheries on the Brazilian coast. The present work analyzes landings in three periods within a 50-year timescale on the Parana coast, Southern Brazil, aiming to evaluate whether historical production has supposedly declined. Simultaneously, the diet was analyzed to confirm carnivorous habits and evaluate the trophic level in this region. Surprisingly, the results show that from the 1970’s to 2019 Serra Spanish mackerel production grew relatively to other resources, as well as in individual values. The trophic level was calculated as 4.238, similar to other Scomberomorus species, consisting of a case where landings increase over time, despite the high trophic level and large body size of the resource. The results agree with a recent global assessment that has demystified a necessary correlation between high trophic level and overexploitation, but possible factors acting on the present findings are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrés J. Jaureguizar ◽  
Federico Cortés ◽  
J. Matias Braccini ◽  
Rodrigo Wiff ◽  
Andrés C. Milessi

Author(s):  
Andreas Otterbeck ◽  
Andreas Lindén ◽  
Ruslan Gunko ◽  
Eeva Ylinen ◽  
Patrik Byholm

AbstractPhilopatry and monogamy are conventionally viewed as strategies for improving fitness. Many philopatric and monogamous species have, however, been shown to perform breeding dispersal—an exchange of territory (and often also partner) between two breeding seasons. The adaptiveness of breeding dispersal remains controversial, as data remain scarce and sporadic. For the Northern Goshawk, a typically highly philopatric and monogamous forest raptor, pairs breeding in barren forest landscapes produce fewer fledglings than pairs breeding in more productive landscapes. Using data on Finnish breeding female Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during 1999–2016, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) breeding dispersal is more likely at barren territories, (2) dispersing females move to less barren territories, and (3) breeding dispersal improves the survival of young. About 29% of the female Goshawks in our study performed breeding dispersal, which contrasts to philopatry and suggest that site and partner fidelities show large variation within the species’ breeding range. We found no evidence that territorial landscape barrenness (proxy on habitat quality) affects the probability of breeding dispersal. However, females that dispersed upgraded to less barren territories. Nevertheless, there were no subsequent effects of breeding dispersal on reproductive performance, suggesting no obvious difference in the capability of rearing young at either site. Although dispersal events were directed to less barren habitats, we suggest that female dispersal is not driven by the pursue for more prospersous habitats, rather that those females are forced to move, for whatever reason. In addition to other observed reasons such as female–female competition for mates and loss of the original mate, intense logging of mature forests lowering local food availability and restricting nest site availability were likely a partial cause of increased breeding dispersal.


Author(s):  
Zulqurnain Sabir

In this work, three-dimensional nonlinear food chain system is numerically treated using the computational heuristic framework of artificial neural networks (ANNs) together with the proficiencies of global and local search approaches based on genetic algorithm (GA) and interior-point algorithm scheme (IPAS), i.e. ANN–GA–IPAS. The three-dimensional food chain system consists of prey populations, specialist predator and top-predator. The formulation of an objective function using the differential system of three-species food chain and its initial conditions is presented and the optimization is performed by using the hybrid computing efficiency of GA–IPAS. The achieved numerical solutions through ANN–GA–IPAS to solve the nonlinear three-species food chain system are compared with the Adams method to validate the exactness of the designed ANN–GA–IPAS. The comparison of the results is presented to authenticate the correctness of the designed ANN–GA–IPAS for solving the nonlinear three-species food chain system. Moreover, statistical representations for 40 independent trials and 30 variables validate the efficacy, constancy and reliability of ANN–GA–IPAS.


Author(s):  
Pablo Augusto P. Antiqueira ◽  
Owen L. Petchey ◽  
Felipe Rezende ◽  
Luiz Felipe Machado Velho ◽  
Luzia Cleide Rodrigues ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 ◽  
pp. 146-160
Author(s):  
Frank D. Steinheimer

Grottenolme Proteus anguinus (Laurenti, 1768) zeigen eine sehr geringe Fortpflanzungsrate, werden sehr alt und haben eine im Vergleich zum Menschen verzögerte Generationenfolge. Damit sind Olme Lebewesen für spannende evolutionsbiologische Fragestellungen, die sich um Populationswachstum drehen. Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt auf, dass eine stabile Umwelt, wenig Krankheiten, das Fehlen von Fressfeinden und ausreichende Nahrungsressourcen evolutiv einen starken Einfluss auf das fehlende Populationswachstum beim Olm haben. Ein Vergleich mit dem Menschen eröffnet, neben der Bildung und dem Aufbrechen von Bräuchen, auch Wege naturgegebener Mechanismen, wie das Wachstum der Weltbevölkerung sich stabilisieren ließe. Der verzögerte Eintritt in die Reproduktion zeigt beim Grottenolm zudem einen positiven Effekt auf die Langlebigkeit. Human fish and human beings – European Cave Salamander Proteus anguinus (Laurenti, 1768) explains longevity and population growth Abstract: European Cave Salamanders, more specifically olms, show a low reproduction rate, reach methuselah ages and exhibit extended generation frequencies in comparison to humans. Olms are therefore considered an interesting study object for evolutionary questions about population growth. The paper discusses stable environment, good health, top predator position and continuous basic food supply as the key factors for stagnation of population growth in olms as well, if combined with education, as in humans. A late start of reproduction triggers in turn a positive impact on longevity.


Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 2217
Author(s):  
Khaled S. Al Noufaey

In this study, the dynamics of a diffusive Lotka–Volterra three-species system with delays were explored. By employing the Galerkin Method, which generates semi-analytical solutions, a partial differential equation system was approximated through mathematical modeling with delay differential equations. Steady-state curves and Hopf bifurcation maps were created and discussed in detail. The effects of the growth rate of prey and the mortality rate of the predator and top predator on the system’s stability were demonstrated. Increase in the growth rate of prey destabilised the system, whilst increase in the mortality rate of predator and top predator stabilised it. The increase in the growth rate of prey likely allowed the occurrence of chaotic solutions in the system. Additionally, the effects of hunting and maturation delays of the species were examined. Small delay responses stabilised the system, whilst great delays destabilised it. Moreover, the effects of the diffusion coefficients of the species were investigated. Alteration of the diffusion coefficients rendered the system permanent or extinct.


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (14) ◽  
Author(s):  
Irina Bashkirtseva ◽  
Tatyana Perevalova ◽  
Lev Ryashko

A problem of the mathematical modeling and analysis of noise-induced transformations of complex oscillatory regimes in hierarchical population systems is considered. As a key example, we use a three-dimensional food chain dynamical model of the interacting prey, predator, and top predator. We perform a comparative study of the impacts of random fluctuations on three key biological parameters of prey growth, predator mortality, and the top predator growth. A detailed investigation of the stochastic excitement, noise-induced transition from order to chaos, and various scenarios of extinction is carried out. Constructive abilities of the semi-analytical method of confidence domains in the analysis of the noise-induced extinction are demonstrated.


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