Public Health
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

128452
(FIVE YEARS 63698)

H-INDEX

277
(FIVE YEARS 106)

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
pp. 100851
Author(s):  
Jorne Biccler ◽  
Kaatje Bollaerts ◽  
Pareen Vora ◽  
Elodie Sole ◽  
Luis Alberto Garcia Rodriguez ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Javier TAJADURA TEJADA

LABURPENA: Azterketa honen xedea hau da: kritikoki aztertzea ea COVID-19aren kontrako borrokaren testuinguruan askatasuna (zirkulazio askerako eta biltzeko eskubidea, funtsean) murrizteko onetsitako neurri ugariak konstituzioan sartzen diren. Ez dago eztabaidagai neurri horiek, kasu gehienetan, beharrezkoak direla, baina bai neurriak nola hartu dituzten. Pandemiaren aurkako borroka egiteko moduari jarritako eragozpen juridiko nagusia da lege-erreserba urratu duela, eta, horrekin batera, segurtasun juridikoaren printzipioari ere kalte egin zaiola. Azterlanak eskema honi jarraitzen dio: lehenik eta behin, lege-erreserbaren konstituzio-esanahia eta -irismena azaltzen dira, gure Konstituzio Auzitegiaren doktrina eta jurisprudentzia finkatuaren arabera; bigarrenik, aztertzen da ea normaltasunaren zuzenbideak (Osasun Publikoaren Arloko Neurri Bereziei buruzko 3/1986 Lege Organikoa, zehazki), oinarrizko eskubideak orokorrean mugatzeko, erreserba horren eskakizunak asetzen dituen edo ez; hirugarrenik, aztertzen da ea, krisi- edo salbuespen-zuzenbidearen barruan, hartutako neurriek alarma-egoeran estaldura egokia duten edo haietakoren batek salbuespen-egoera aktibatzea behar izango zuen; azkenik, kritikoki azaltzen da eskubideak murrizteko neurriak hartzeko eskumena Gobernuko kideei edo autonomia-erkidegoen presidenteei eskuordetzeak eragin duen lege-erreserbaren urraketa. ABSTRACT: The scope of this study is to critically analyze the constitutional fit of the numerous measures restricting freedom - the right to free movement and assembly, fundamentally - that have been approved in the context of the fight against COVID 19. It is not discussed that, in most cases, they are necessary measures, but the way and the form in which they have been adopted are. The main legal objection to the way in which the fight against the pandemic has been carried out is that the reservation of law has been violated and with this the principle of legal certainty has also been damaged. The study follows the following scheme: in the first place, the constitutional meaning and scope of the reservation of law according to the doctrine and consolidated jurisprudence of our Constitutional Court are exposed; secondly, it examines whether the law of normality (specifically LO 3/1986 on Special Measures in Public Health Matters) satisfies or not the requirements of this reservation in order to establish limitations of fundamental rights in a general way; thirdly, it examines whether within the crisis or emergency law, the different measures adopted have adequate coverage in the state of alarm or some of them would have required to activate the state of exception; finally, it critically exposes the violation of the reserve of law that has meant the delegation of the competence to adopt restrictive measures of rights in members of the Government or in presidents of Autonomous Communities. RESUMEN: El objeto de este estudio es analizar críticamente el encaje constitucional de las numerosas medidas restrictivas de la libertad -el derecho a la libre circulación y de reunión, fundamentalmente- que se han aprobado en el contexto de la lucha contra el COVID 19. No se discute que, en la mayor parte de los casos, son medidas necesarias, pero sí el modo y la forma en que se han adoptado. La principal objeción jurídica al modo en que se ha llevado a cabo la lucha contra la pandemia es que se ha vulnerado la reserva de ley y con ello se ha lesionado también el principio de seguridad jurídica. El estudio sigue el siguiente esquema: en primer lugar se exponen el significado y alcance constitucionales de la reserva de ley según la doctrina y la jurisprudencia consolidada de nuestro Tribunal Constitucional; en segundo lugar, se examina si el Derecho de la normalidad (concretamente la LO 3/1986 de Medidas Especiales en Materia de Salud Pública) satisface o no las exigencias de esa reserva a los efectos de establecer limitaciones de derechos fundamentales con carácter general; en tercer lugar se examina si dentro del Derecho de crisis o de excepción, las diferentes medidas adoptadas tienen cobertura adecuada en el estado de alarma o algunas de ellas hubieran requerido activar el estado de excepción; finalmente, se expone críticamente la vulneración de la reserva de ley que ha supuesto la delegación de la competencia para adoptar medidas restrictivas de derechos en miembros del Gobierno o en presidentes de Comunidades Autónomas.


Author(s):  
Pedro BRUFAO CURIEL

LABURPENA: Lan honek Espainiako bitarteko funtzionarioen araubide juridiko zaila, aldakorra eta kontraesanezkoa sistematizatzen du. Figura horren gehiegizko erabilerak eta funtzionario bilakatzeko prozesuek lausotu egin dituzte batzuen eta besteen arteko mugak, eta horri gehitu behar zaio lanbide-sektore batzuetan, hala nola osasunaren eta hezkuntzaren arloetan, enpleguaren aldi baterakotasun tasa handiak profesionalen eskubideak ez ezik, zerbitzu publikoaren egonkortasuna eta kalitatea ere jartzen dituela arriskuan. Milaka interesdunei eragiten dien egoera juridiko kezkagarri horren xehetasunak argi eta garbi adierazi nahian, kritikoki azalduko dugu bitarteko funtzionarioei aplikatu beharreko araubidea, Europako zuzenbideak eta konstituzioko eta administrazioarekiko auzien jurisprudentziak moldatua; hau da, haiek izendatzea zein kargutik kentzeko baldintzak eta balizko kalte-ordainak, bai eta haiei esleitutako eskumenak eta lanbide-karreraren gorabeherak. ABSTRACT: This essay analyzes the confusing, changing and contradictory legal regime of interim or temporary civil servants in Spain. The abuse played upon this figure and the schemes related to turning public employees into civil servants have indeed blurred the limits raised between them, in addition to the risks posed by the highly temporality levels, specially suffered by public health and educational services, to both labour rights and job stability and quality. Thousands of public jobs are affected by this situation, and aiming at making clear the details of that situation a review of its legal regime is shown in this paper, framed by the EU law and constitucional and administrative case-law, beginning with job appointments and ending up with their dismissal and severance pay, along with their authority, jurisdiction, and career development. RESUMEN: Este trabajo sistematiza el complicado, cambiante y contradictorio régimen jurídico de los funcionarios interinos en España. El abuso de esta figura y los procesos de funcionarización han desdibujado los límites entre unos y otros, a lo que se le suma el que en ciertos sectores profesionales como el sanitario y el educativo la alta tasa de temporalidad en el empleo pone en riesgo no solo los derechos profesionales, sino la estabilidad y la calidad del servicio público. Con el fin de exponer con claridad los detalles de esta preocupante situación jurídica que afecta a decenas de miles de interesados, mostramos críticamente el régimen aplicable a los funcionarios interinos, moldeado por el Derecho europeo y la jurisprudencia constitucional y contencioso-administrativa, desde su nombramiento hasta las condiciones de cese y la eventualidad de una indemnización, pasando por las competencias atribuidas y las vicisitudes de su carrera profesional.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (August) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Meng Li ◽  
Reiko Okamoto ◽  
Misaki Kiya ◽  
Miho Tanaka ◽  
Keiko Koide

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Charles Benbrook ◽  
Melissa J. Perry ◽  
Fiorella Belpoggi ◽  
Philip J. Landrigan ◽  
Michelle Perro ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Flaws in the science supporting pesticide risk assessment and regulation stand in the way of progress in mitigating the human health impacts of pesticides. Critical problems include the scope of regulatory testing protocols, the near-total focus on pure active ingredients rather than formulated products, lack of publicly accessible information on co-formulants, excessive reliance on industry-supported studies coupled with reticence to incorporate published results in the risk assessment process, and failure to take advantage of new scientific opportunities and advances, e.g. biomonitoring and “omics” technologies. Recommended Actions Problems in pesticide risk assessment are identified and linked to study design, data, and methodological shortcomings. Steps and strategies are presented that have potential to deepen scientific knowledge of pesticide toxicity, exposures, and risks. We propose four solutions: (1) End near-sole reliance in regulatory decision-making on industry-supported studies by supporting and relying more heavily on independent science, especially for core toxicology studies. The cost of conducting core toxicology studies at labs not affiliated with or funded directly by pesticide registrants should be covered via fees paid by manufacturers to public agencies. (2) Regulators should place more weight on mechanistic data and low-dose studies within the range of contemporary exposures. (3) Regulators, public health agencies, and funders should increase the share of exposure-assessment resources that produce direct measures of concentrations in bodily fluids and tissues. Human biomonitoring is vital in order to quickly identify rising exposures among vulnerable populations including applicators, pregnant women, and children. (4) Scientific tools across disciplines can accelerate progress in risk assessments if integrated more effectively. New genetic and metabolomic markers of adverse health impacts and heritable epigenetic impacts are emerging and should be included more routinely in risk assessment to effectively prevent disease. Conclusions Preventing adverse public health outcomes triggered or made worse by exposure to pesticides will require changes in policy and risk assessment procedures, more science free of industry influence, and innovative strategies that blend traditional methods with new tools and mechanistic insights.


BJPsych Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (5) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fabian Bonello ◽  
Daniela Zammit ◽  
Anton Grech ◽  
Victoria Camilleri ◽  
Rachel Cremona

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused mental health services to be downscaled to abide by the public health restrictions issued. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pandemic and resultant restrictions had an impact on Malta's admissions to hospital for mental health issues by assessing the number and nature of psychiatric admissions to our only national mental health hospital. Method Data collection was carried out retrospectively for the 13-week period between 7 March 2020 and 4 June 2020, compared with the equivalent in 2019. Demographic data was obtained and descriptive statistical analysis through the use of the χ²-test, z-test and logistic regression model were used to compare both data-sets, using a P-value of 0.05. Results An overall reduction in admissions to hospital was noted in 2020 when compared with 2019, recorded to be lowest in March 2020 with a steady acceleration of admissions up until May 2020 (χ2(3) = 22.573, P < 0.001). This coincided with a decelerated rate of positive COVID-19 cases locally. In 2020, there were significantly higher female admissions (χ2(1) = 10.197, P < 0.001), increased presentations of self-harm/suicidal ideation (P < 0.001) and higher involuntary admissions using the Mental Health Act (χ2(1) = 4.904, P = 0.027). The logistic regression model identified total length of stay in hospital, primary mental health diagnosis, gender and month of admission as variables significantly associated with an admission. Conclusions Our first population-wide study confirms that the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent public health restrictions had an impact on the population's hospital admissions for mental health issues.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaowei Ma ◽  
Jianyun Lu ◽  
Weisi Liu

Background: Social media is used as a new channel for health information. In China, the official WeChat account is becoming the most popular platform for health information dissemination, which has created a good opportunity for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to facilitate health information online to improve emergency public health literacy.Methods: Data were collected from the Guangzhou CDC i-Health official WeChat account between April 1, 2018 and April 30, 2019. Descriptive analysis was performed for basic information about the followers and posts of the official WeChat account. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association among various factors of posts on engagement of followers of the official WeChat account.Results: Among 187,033 followers, the total numbers of post views, shares, likes, add to favorites, and comments for 213 posts were 1,147,308, 8,4671, and 5,535, respectively. Engagement of followers peaked on the dissemination date and gradually declined. The main post topics were health education posts and original posts. In the multiple logistic regression model, the number of post views was found to be significantly associated with infectious disease posts (AOR: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.16–8.81), original posts (AOR: 10.20, 95% CI: 1.17–89.28), and posts with title-reflected content (AOR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.16–8.81).Conclusion: Our findings facilitate the government to formulate better strategies and improve the effectiveness of public information dissemination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shaira Limson Kee ◽  
John Patrick Garganera ◽  
Nicholle Mae Amor Maravilla ◽  
Wilbert Garganera ◽  
Jamie Ledesma Fermin ◽  
...  

From a public health perspective, this opinion article discusses why it is necessary to integrate Artificial Intelligence (AI) into the mental health practices in the Philippines. The use of AI systems is an optimum solution to the rising demand for more accessible, cost-efficient, and inclusive healthcare. With the recent developments, the Philippines is deemed to have sufficient capacity to adopt this agendum. This article serves as a call for the introduction of advanced detection tools and predictive analytics in the medical field, especially in the mental health discipline.


mBio ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Hulsey Stubbs ◽  
Marjorie Cornejo Pontelli ◽  
Nischay Mishra ◽  
Changhong Zhou ◽  
Juliano de Paula Souza ◽  
...  

Oropouche virus (OROV), an orthobunyavirus found in Central and South America, is an emerging public health challenge that causes debilitating febrile illness. OROV is transmitted by arthropods, and increasing mobilization has the potential to significantly increase the spread of OROV globally.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Declan Bays ◽  
Hannah Williams ◽  
Lorenzo Pellis ◽  
Jacob Curran-Sebastian ◽  
Oscar O'Mara ◽  
...  

Purpose In this work, the authors present some of the key results found during early efforts to model the COVID-19 outbreak inside a UK prison. In particular, this study describes outputs from an idealised disease model that simulates the dynamics of a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison setting when varying levels of social interventions are in place, and a Monte Carlo-based model that assesses the reduction in risk of case importation, resulting from a process that requires incoming prisoners to undergo a period of self-isolation prior to admission into the general prison population. Design/methodology/approach Prisons, typically containing large populations confined in a small space with high degrees of mixing, have long been known to be especially susceptible to disease outbreaks. In an attempt to meet rising pressures from the emerging COVID-19 situation in early 2020, modellers for Public Health England’s Joint Modelling Cell were asked to produce some rapid response work that sought to inform the approaches that Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) might take to reduce the risk of case importation and sustained transmission in prison environments. Findings Key results show that deploying social interventions has the potential to considerably reduce the total number of infections, while such actions could also reduce the probability that an initial infection will propagate into a prison-wide outbreak. For example, modelling showed that a 50% reduction in the risk of transmission (compared to an unmitigated outbreak) could deliver a 98% decrease in total number of cases, while this reduction could also result in 86.8% of outbreaks subsiding before more than five persons have become infected. Furthermore, this study also found that requiring new arrivals to self-isolate for 10 and 14 days prior to admission could detect up to 98% and 99% of incoming infections, respectively. Research limitations/implications In this paper we have presented models which allow for the studying of COVID-19 in a prison scenario, while also allowing for the assessment of proposed social interventions. By publishing these works, the authors hope these methods might aid in the management of prisoners across additional scenarios and even during subsequent disease outbreaks. Such methods as described may also be readily applied use in other closed community settings. Originality/value These works went towards informing HMPPS on the impacts that the described strategies might have during COVID-19 outbreaks inside UK prisons. The works described herein are readily amendable to the study of a range of addition outbreak scenarios. There is also room for these methods to be further developed and built upon which the timeliness of the original project did not permit.


Export Citation Format

Share Document