Vehicular Speed
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2022 ◽  
Vol 60 ◽  
pp. 592-599
Valentina Martinelli ◽  
Roberto Ventura ◽  
Michela Bonera ◽  
Benedetto Barabino ◽  
Giulio Maternini

2021 ◽  
Prashant Rajdeep ◽  
Lajja Patel ◽  
Steffy CD ◽  
Preeti Panchal

Abstract Objective- Attenuating post lockdown vehicular speed by employing visual reaction time as a tool to prime the citizens for creating decorum of driving and checking the road traffic fatalities.Background- It is indispensable to curb the driving speed post lockdown to avoid accidents. Even though, the impact of inactivity on RT has been well established, an insight into the new method can deal with the gross issue of road traffic casualty worldwide. Method- Using a web-based platform (, quantification of post lockdown speed was achieved for 643 participants under average speed before lockdown and RT measurement. Results- Compared to pre lockdown vehicular speed, reduced post lockdown speed was well calculated and suggested. Also, there was a correlation between RT, age, and days of lockdown.Conclusions- Containment of speed can be achieved to prime people through RT. Additionally, RT can determine the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) for detecting the swiftness of action (i.e., the brain's ability to deal with the transition between reaction times of different events) required for averting road traffic collisions. Compelling to suggest a need for a humanoid simulator that can garner real-time data.Application- Suggesting a fresh outlook for designing a contraption for a better appraisal of the fleet in driving skills, thus beaconing the course towards restraining road traffic fatalities

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1372
Felipe Cifuentes ◽  
Carlos M. González ◽  
Erika M. Trejos ◽  
Luis D. López ◽  
Francisco J. Sandoval ◽  

Vehicular emissions are a predominant source of pollution in urban environments. However, inherent complexities of vehicular behavior are sources of uncertainties in emission inventories (EIs). We compare bottom-up and top-down approaches for estimating road transport EIs in Manizales, Colombia. The EIs were estimated using a COPERT model, and results from both approaches were also compared with the official top-down EI (estimated from IVE methodology). The transportation model PTV-VISUM was used for obtaining specific activity information (traffic volumes, vehicular speed) in bottom-up estimation. Results from COPERT showed lower emissions from the top-down approach than from the bottom-up approach, mainly for NMVOC (−28%), PM10 (−26%), and CO (−23%). Comparisons showed that COPERT estimated lower emissions than IVE, with higher differences than 40% for species such as PM10, NOX, and CH4. Furthermore, the WRF–Chem model was used to test the sensitivity of CO, O3, PM10, and PM2.5 predictions to the different EIs evaluated. All studied pollutants exhibited a strong sensitivity to the emission factors implemented in EIs. The COPERT/top-down was the EI that produced more significant errors. This work shows the importance of performing bottom-up EI to reduce the uncertainty regarding top-down activity data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-135
Sri Kumar ◽  
Kevin Schrum ◽  
Dean Sicking ◽  
Devan Holder ◽  

The objective of the present study is two-fold. First, the elucidation of the biomechanics of penetrating trauma as a result of guardrail intruding into the occupant compartment. Second, the evaluation of the biomechanical efficacy of hybrid tension-compression guardrails to better protect occupants. The nine fatally guardrail penetrating crashes occurred between 2016 and 2019 were analyzed to study the mechanism of injuries. Four car-to-guardrail crash tests were conducted using a hybrid guardrail that integrated the commonly used W-beam with a new design of tension-based end terminal. The test included the impact of a bogey-type platform, small sedan vehicles, and a pick-up truck at highway speeds onto the guardrail. The impact orientation was varied to simulate the frontal and oblique corner crashes with a speed ranging from 90 to 111 kph. The real-world studies showed that the fatal injuries were due to impaling guardrail regardless of vehicular speed and size. The occupants not in the trajectory of the guardrail in the same vehicle sustained minor injuries despite experiencing a similar energy level. In these cases, the crash severity was survivable without the guardrail penetration. The mean pre-impact speed, change in speed, and vehicular acceleration was 117 kph, 20 kph, and 97 m/sec2, respectively. The hybrid guardrail system deflected the vehicle without any penetration into the occupant compartment. The mean peak accelerations in crash tests were below injurious threshold levels. The present research shows that the hybrid guardrail system not only eliminated the intrusion into occupant survival space but also deflected the vehicle.

Shishodiya Ghanshyam Singh ◽  
S. Vasantha Kumar

AbstractDisturbance to the moving traffic, such as on-street parking and bus stop on carriageway normally called as side friction in the literature, is one of the major problems that impact the vehicular speed on urban arterials in developing countries like India. Regression model to study the mode-wise vehicular speeds using side friction and other influencing variables faces the problem of multicollinearity as there is a strong correlation between the independent variables which results in high R2 and high p values. Instead of dropping the highly correlated variables which is the conventional practice to deal with multicollinearity, we proposed an approach of taking a linear combination and ratio of independent variables. To test the applicability of the proposed approach, traffic data from five locations in Hyderabad and Vellore in India having a wide variety of geometric and traffic characteristics with one or more side frictions were collected and regression models were built. It was found that the proposed approach of taking linear combination and ratio worked very well as the models exhibited a high R2, low p values and low variance inflation factor. The regression models also forecast speeds with good and reasonable accuracy. For better understanding of the impact of side friction, the present study proposed an index called side friction index and it was found that the number of side friction elements and their impact are directly proportional. Also, the impact is not uniform across the different vehicle types. Though the present study focussed on side friction problem, the approach that we proposed in this paper to deal with multicollinearity can be applied in other fields as well.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
pp. 101020
Boram Woo ◽  
Hoyong Kim ◽  
Jisook Kim ◽  
Hojong Baik ◽  
Hoe Kyoung Kim

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
Caglar Kosun

AbstractA variety of approaches, within literature, has been conducted to interpret vehicular speed characteristics. This study turns the attention to the entropy-based approaches, and thus focuses on the maximum entropy method of statistical mechanics and the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence approach to examining the vehicular speeds. The vehicle speeds at the selected highway are analyzed in order to find out the disparities among them. However, it is turned out that the speed dynamics could not be distinguished over the speed distributions; hence the maximization of Shannon entropy seems insufficient to compare the speed distributions of each data set. For this reason, the KL divergence approach was performed. This approach displays the comparison, among the speed distributions, based on two prior distribution models, i.e., uniform and Gauss. The examination of the trends of KL divergences obtained from both distributions was made. It was concluded that the KL divergence values for the highway speed data sets ranged between about 0.53 and 0.70 for the uniform case, while for the Gaussian case the obtained values are between 0.16 and 0.33. The KL divergence trends for the real speeds were obtained analogous for both cases, but they differed significantly when the synthetic data sets were employed. As a result, the KL divergence approach proves suitable as an appropriate indicator to compare the speed distributions.

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