motor vehicle
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2022 ◽  
Vol 273 ◽  
pp. 57-63
Author(s):  
Eva M. Urrechaga ◽  
Alessia C. Cioci ◽  
Megan K. Allen ◽  
Rebecca A. Saberi ◽  
Gareth P. Gilna ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
pp. 097226292110662
Author(s):  
Isha Jaswal ◽  
Badri Narayanan G ◽  
Shanu Jain

Ever since the liberation of trade policies in India, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) has been crucial in the growth of the economy, both at the macro as well as sector level. The association between FDI and economic growth is an area of interest globally. The investment decisions are affected by several national and international events that add to the volatility of the number of inflows. COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted the intensity of FDI inflows. But the strong resilience by our government manifested in crucial policy reforms and proactive decision-making minimized the impact. This article examines the potential impact of FDI on crucial macroeconomic variables using the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Introducing the policy shock of $90 billion into the model, an increase of 5.68% per annum in GDP is estimated. Findings indicate that the impact of FDI shall be favourable to a large number of sectors mainly metals, construction, motor vehicle, computers, and electronics in terms of increased output, exports, and employment opportunities. The study offers logical implications for the policymakers to continue strengthening their moves to attract FDI.


Author(s):  
Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason E. Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions are a common cause of death and serious injury. Many casualties will remain in their vehicle following a collision. Trapped patients have more injuries and are more likely to die than their untrapped counterparts. Current extrication methods are time consuming and have a focus on movement minimisation and mitigation. The optimal extrication strategy and the effect this extrication method has on spinal movement is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement at the cervical and lumbar spine for four commonly utilised extrication techniques. Methods Biomechanical data was collected using inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. The extrication types examined were: roof removal, b-post rip, rapid removal and self-extrication. Measurements were recorded at the cervical and lumbar spine, and in the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LAT) planes. Total movement (travel), maximal movement, mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals are reported for each extrication type. Results Data from a total of 230 extrications were collected for analysis. The smallest maximal and total movement (travel) were seen when the volunteer self-extricated (AP max = 2.6 mm, travel 4.9 mm). The largest maximal movement and travel were seen in rapid extrication extricated (AP max = 6.21 mm, travel 20.51 mm). The differences between self-extrication and all other methods were significant (p < 0.001), small non-significant differences existed between roof removal, b-post rip and rapid removal. Self-extrication was significantly quicker than the other extrication methods (mean 6.4 s). Conclusions In healthy volunteers, self-extrication is associated with the smallest spinal movement and the fastest time to complete extrication. Rapid, B-post rip and roof off extrication types are all associated with similar movements and time to extrication in prepared vehicles.


Author(s):  
Tim Nutbeam ◽  
Rob Fenwick ◽  
Barbara May ◽  
Willem Stassen ◽  
Jason Smith ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Motor vehicle collisions remain a common cause of spinal cord injury. Biomechanical studies of spinal movement often lack “real world” context and applicability. Additional data may enhance our understanding of the potential for secondary spinal cord injury. We propose the metric ‘travel’ (total movement) and suggest that our understanding of movement related risk of injury could be improved if travel was routinely reported. We report maximal movement and travel for collar application in vehicle and subsequent self-extrication. Methods Biomechanical data on application of cervical collar with the volunteer sat in a vehicle were collected using Inertial Measurement Units on 6 healthy volunteers. Maximal movement and travel are reported. These data and a re-analysis of previously published work is used to demonstrate the utility of travel and maximal movement in the context of self-extrication. Results Data from a total of 60 in-vehicle collar applications across three female and three male volunteers was successfully collected for analysis. The mean age across participants was 50.3 years (range 28–68) and the BMI was 27.7 (range 21.5–34.6). The mean maximal anterior–posterior movement associated with collar application was 2.3 mm with a total AP travel of 4.9 mm. Travel (total movement) for in-car application of collar and self-extrication was 9.5 mm compared to 9.4 mm travel for self-extrication without a collar. Conclusion We have demonstrated the application of ‘travel’ in the context of self-extrication. Total travel is similar across self-extricating healthy volunteers with and without a collar. We suggest that where possible ‘travel’ is collected and reported in future biomechanical studies in this and related areas of research. It remains appropriate to apply a cervical collar to self-extricating casualties when the clinical target is that of movement minimisation.


Author(s):  
Ya-Hui Chang ◽  
Ya-Yun Cheng ◽  
Wen-Hsuan Hou ◽  
Yu-Wen Chien ◽  
Chiung-Hsin Chang ◽  
...  

The aim of the study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the association between mortality risk and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. We used relevant MeSH terms to identify epidemiological studies of mortality risk in relation to MVCs from PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE databases. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used for quality assessment. For comparison of mortality from MVCs between pregnant and nonpregnant women, the pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. The eight studies selected met all inclusion criteria. These studies included 14,120 injured victims who were pregnant at the time of the incident and 207,935 victims who were not pregnant. Compared with nonpregnant women, pregnant women had a moderate but insignificant decrease in mortality risk (pooled OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.38–1.22, I2 = 88.71%). Subgroup analysis revealed that the pooled OR significantly increased at 1.64 (95% CI = 1.16–2.33, I2 < 0.01%) for two studies with a similar difference in the mean injury severity score (ISS) between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Future studies should further explore the risk factors associated with MVCs in pregnant women to reduce maternal mortality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Alan Both ◽  
Lucy Gunn ◽  
Carl Higgs ◽  
Melanie Davern ◽  
Afshin Jafari ◽  
...  

Confronted with rapid urbanization, population growth, traffic congestion, and climate change, there is growing interest in creating cities that support active transport modes including walking, cycling, or public transport. The ‘30 minute city’, where employment is accessible within 30 min by active transport, is being pursued in some cities to reduce congestion and foster local living. This paper examines the spatial relationship between employment, the skills of residents, and transport opportunities, to answer three questions about Australia’s 21 largest cities: (1) What percentage of workers currently commute to their workplace within 30 min? (2) If workers were to shift to an active transport mode, what percent could reach their current workplace within 30 min? and (3) If it were possible to relocate workers closer to their employment or relocate employment closer to their home, what percentage could reach work within 30 min by each mode? Active transport usage in Australia is low, with public transport, walking, and cycling making up 16.8%, 2.8%, and 1.1% respectively of workers’ commutes. Cycling was found to have the most potential for achieving the 30 min city, with an estimated 29.5% of workers able to reach their current workplace were they to shift to cycling. This increased to 69.1% if workers were also willing and able to find a similar job closer to home, potentially reducing commuting by private motor vehicle from 79.3% to 30.9%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 336-340
Author(s):  
Michael Lemon ◽  
Stephen Helmer ◽  
Kathryn Soba ◽  
Jeanette Ward ◽  
James M Haan

Introduction.  Motor vehicle collision (MVC) is the second most common mechanism of injury among octogenarians and is on the rise.  These “oldest old” trauma patients have much higher mortality rates than expected.  This study examined potential factors influencing this increased mortality including comorbidities, medications, injury patterns, and hospital interventions. Methods.  A 10-year retrospective review was conducted of patients aged 80 and over who were injured in a MVC.  Data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use prior to injury, collision details, injury severity and patterns, hospitalization details, outcomes, and discharge disposition. Results.  We identified 239 octogenarian patients involved in a MVC.  Overall mortality was 18.8%.  We recognized an increased mortality for specific injury patterns, patients injured in a rural setting, and those who were transfused, intubated, or admitted to the ICU.  We found no correlation between mortality and medications or comorbidities. Conclusions.  The high mortality rate for octogenarian patients involved in a MVC is related to injury severity, type of injury, and in-hospital complications, and not due to comorbidities and prior medications.


Author(s):  
Rodolfo Soca ◽  
Charles Mounts ◽  
Lacie Hediger ◽  
Carla York

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