heterogeneous reduction
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2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 594-607
V. P. Meshalkin ◽  
N. N. Kulov ◽  
S. V. Panchenko ◽  
M. I. Dli ◽  
V. I. Bobkov ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 4564
Nuria García-Magro ◽  
Yasmina B. Martin ◽  
Pilar Negredo ◽  
Francisco Zafra ◽  
Carlos Avendaño

Craniofacial neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide and is often difficult to treat. Two key mechanisms underlying this condition are a loss of the negative control exerted by inhibitory interneurons and an early microglial reaction. Basic features of these mechanisms, however, are still poorly understood. Using the chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) model of neuropathic pain in mice, we have examined the changes in the expression of GAD, the synthetic enzyme of GABA, and GlyT2, the membrane transporter of glycine, as well as the microgliosis that occur at early (5 days) and late (21 days) stages post-CCI in the medullary and upper spinal dorsal horn. Our results show that CCI-IoN induces a down-regulation of GAD at both postinjury survival times, uniformly across the superficial laminae. The expression of GlyT2 showed a more discrete and heterogeneous reduction due to the basal presence in lamina III of ‘patches’ of higher expression, interspersed within a less immunoreactive ‘matrix’, which showed a more substantial reduction in the expression of GlyT2. These patches coincided with foci lacking any perceptible microglial reaction, which stood out against a more diffuse area of strong microgliosis. These findings may provide clues to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying allodynia in neuropathic pain syndromes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Madeleine Hart ◽  
Sophie D. Adams ◽  
Viji M. Draviam

AbstractNuclear atypia is one of the hallmarks of cancers. Here, we perform single-cell tracking studies to determine the immediate and long-term impact of nuclear atypia. Tracking the fate of newborn cells exhibiting nuclear atypia shows that multinucleation, unlike other forms of nuclear atypia, blocks proliferation in p53-compromised cells. Because ~50% of cancers display compromised p53, we explored how multinucleation blocks proliferation. Multinucleation increases 53BP1-decorated nuclear bodies (DNA damage repair platforms), along with a heterogeneous reduction in transcription and protein accumulation across the multi-nucleated compartments. Multinucleation Associated DNA Damage associated with 53BP1-bodies remains unresolved for days, despite an intact NHEJ machinery that repairs laser-induced DNA damage within minutes. Persistent DNA damage, a DNA replication block, and reduced phospho-Rb, reveal a novel replication stress independent cell cycle arrest caused by mitotic lesions. These findings call for segregating protective and prohibitive nuclear atypia to inform therapeutic approaches aimed at limiting tumour heterogeneity.

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 290 ◽  
pp. 120102
Shuang Yue ◽  
Chunbo Wang ◽  
Ziyang Xu ◽  
Fei Zheng ◽  
Tong Si ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 100719
Rika Tri Yunarti ◽  
Ilham Deryansyah Isa ◽  
Lizbeth Cantik Christina Dimonti ◽  
Adid Adep Dwiatmoko ◽  
Muhammad Ridwan ◽  

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