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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. Gul ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
S. Afzal ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
S. Khan ◽  

Abstract The supplementation of Selenium-enriched probiotics is effective in reducing oxidative stress and maintaining meat quality stability in broiler chicken especially under heat stress. An experimental study was conducted to perform Comparative analysis of Selenium yeast with inorganic Se in broilers under heat stress. A total of 120 broilers chicks of one day were assigned to 4 groups each consisting 30 chicks fed on same basal diet but different selenium sources. The basal diet of group D1 was not supplemented with Se source (Negative control), group D2 basal diet was supplemented with inorganic selenium (Sodium selenite 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase), group D3 basal diet was supplemented with commercially available organic selenium (Seleno-methionine 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase) and group D4 basal diet was supplemented with self-developed organic selenium (Se-enriched yeast 0.22mg/Kg starter phase and 0.15mg/Kg finisher phase). The performance parameters i.e. feed intake (FI), live body weight (BW) and FCR were not significantly (p>0.05) effected by selenium supplementation in the starter phase but were significantly (p<0.05) effected in the finisher phase. Selenium supplementation significantly (p<0.05) effected serum Se level in different supplemented groups. Higher serum Se value (58.20±0.06) was recorded in D4 group. Similarly significantly lower selenium value was recorded for D4 and higher was recorded for D1 (11.36±0.08). However lower serum Paraoxonase (PON) value was recorded for D4 (13.24±0.01) and higher for D1 (13.33±0.03). Comparatively self-developed Se enriched yeast increased the Se accumulation and improved antioxidant system. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found higher in D4 (12.333±0.03) followed by D3, D2 and D1 respectively. Whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower (p<0.05) in D4 (0.1437±0.003) followed by D3 (0.1457±0.002). Selenium supplementation increased the bird’s survival rate. Birds fed on Se enriched yeast showed higher Se deposition and better antioxidant capacity as compared to other sources of selenium. Se-enriched yeast displayed an improved result on Se deposition in tissues, and oxidative capacity, meat tenderness and immune response level as compared to other sources of selenium.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. C. Ghisi ◽  
V. B. Silva ◽  
A. A. Roque ◽  
E. C. Oliveira

Abstract For many centuries human populations have been suffering and trying to fight with disease-bearing mosquitoes. Emerging and reemerging diseases such as Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya affect billions of people around the world and recently has been appealing to control with chemical pesticides. Malathion (MT) is one of the main pesticides used against mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases. This study aimed to assess cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of the malathion for the bioindicator Allium cepa L. using a multivariate and integrative approach. Moreover, an appendix table was compiled with all available literature of insecticides assessed by the Allium cepa system to support our discussion. Exposures during 48h to 0.5 mg mL-1 and 1.0 mg mL-1 MT were compared to the negative control (distilled water) and positive control (MMS solution at 10 mg L-1). The presence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequency, and mitotic index abnormalities was evaluated. Anaphase bridges were the alterations with higher incidence and presented a significantly elevated rate in the concentration of 0.5 mg mL-1, including when compared to the positive control. The integrative discriminant analysis summarizes that MT in assessed concentrations presented effects like the positive control, corroborating its potential of toxicity to DNA. Therefore, it is concluded that MT in its pure composition and in realistic concentrations used, has genotoxic potential in the biological assessment of A. cepa cells. The multivariate integrative analysis was fundamental to show a whole response of all data, providing a global view of the effect of MT on DNA.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
K. Ali ◽  
A. Iqbal ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  
S. Safdar ◽  
A. Raiz ◽  

Abstract Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 329-334
Jie Dai ◽  
Maimaitiaili Niyazi ◽  
Jiang Xie

Consistent application of neurotropic factors is necessary in peripheral nerve regeneration, yet challenging to achieve. Here we used a novel neurotropic factor controlled release system consisted of fibrin, fibronectin and hydrogel to slowly release two neurotrophic factors. At the same time, physiological saline and reverse nerve suturing were used as negative and positive control. A year after surgery, animals which were treated by neurotrophic factor slow release system achieved far better neural regeneration and myelination, as well as superior recovery of hindfoot than the negative control group. In the meanwhile, the results in the experimental group are still inferior to the nerve allograft group. In can be concluded from those results that, consistent releasing of neurotrophic factors can significantly promote long peripheral nerve regeneration, but still short of achieving the results same as the gold standard of autologous nerve grafting.

Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria ◽  
Noorsyaza Eddrina Kamsani ◽  
Roro Azizah ◽  
Lilis Sulistyorini ◽  

Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) extracts have been reported to exert various pharmacological activities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities. The objective of the present study was to determine the anticarcinogenic activity of its methanol extract (MEMM) against the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced early colon carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n=6) namely normal control, negative control, and treatment (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg of MEMM) groups. Colon tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis and endogenous antioxidant system determination. MEMM was also subjected to HPLC analysis. Findings showed that MEMM significantly (p<0.05) reversed the AOM-induced carcinogenicity by: i) reducing the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissues, and; ii) enhancing the endogenous antioxidant activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, various phenolics has been identified in MEMM. In conclusion, MEMM exerts the in vivo anticarcinogenic activity via the activation of endogenous antioxidant system and synergistic action of phenolics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 63
Rosanna Lorrane Francisco dos Reis Matos ◽  
Núbia Nunes de Souza ◽  
Sandro Morais dos Santos ◽  
Aline Ferreira Rafael ◽  
Eduardo Robson Duarte ◽  

The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of several arboviruses, and are relevant public health problems. Conventional control, using chemical larvicides have selected resistant Culicidae populations and caused negative effects on the environment and human health. However, the use of plant extracts has represented a sustainable alternative for insect control. Popularly known as Xiriri, Mauritiella armata (Mart.) Burret (Aceraceae) is an abundant palm tree in Vereda ecosystems and has economic and social importance. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the aqueous extract (AE) leaves of this plant on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The mortalities of larvae were analyzed after treatment with four concentrations of the extract, comparing with a negative control using mineral water. The AE promoted 100% efficacy against Ae. aegypti larvae at 7.9 mg/mL. The lethal concentration to promote 90% mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae was estimated at 30.57 mg/mL. After chromatographic analyses, flavonoids, catechin and carbohydrates were detected. AE from M. armata leaves presented high larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and represents a promising alternative to be used in vector control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ignacio Crudele ◽  
Juan C. Reboreda ◽  
Vanina D. Fiorini

Avian brood parasites lay their eggs into the nests of other species, which incubate them and raise the chicks until their independence. Despite living their early weeks of life surrounded by heterospecifics, young brood parasites have the ability to recognize and associate to conspecifics after independence. It has been proposed that the initial conspecific recognition develops when a young parasite encounters a unique species-specific signal that triggers the learning of other aspects of the producer of the signal. For cowbirds (Molothrus spp.), this species-specific signal is hypothesized to be the chatter call. Young birds also could express auditory biases, which in some cases lead to discrimination in favor of conspecific songs. Therefore, the perceptual selectivity for chatters might be also present in nestlings. Our aim was to assess if nestlings of the shiny cowbird (M. bonariensis) present a preferential begging response to conspecific chatter calls. We evaluated if they respond more to the parasitic vocalization than host chicks and if they respond more to the chatter than to heterospecific nonhost calls. We tested shiny cowbird chicks reared by chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus) or house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and host chicks, as control species. We randomly presented to 6-day-old chicks the following playback treatments: (1) conspecific chatter calls, (2) host calls, used as positive controls, and (3) nonhost calls, used as negative control. We measured if chicks begged during the playback treatments and the begging intensity. When responding to the playback of chatter calls, shiny cowbird chicks begged at a higher frequency and more intensively than host chicks. Shiny cowbird chicks reared by mockingbirds begged more intensively to playbacks of conspecific chatter calls than to host calls, while those reared by wrens begged with a similar intensity to playbacks of conspecific chatter and host calls. On the contrary, wren nestlings begged more intensively to playbacks of the wren call than to chatter calls. Mockingbird nestlings did not beg during any treatment. None of the three species begged during the playback of nonhost calls. Our results show that the chatter call produced a preferential begging response in cowbird nestlings, which may be the beginning of a process of conspecific recognition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Geetha Parthasarathy ◽  
Shiva Kumar Goud Gadila

AbstractEven after appropriate treatment, a proportion of Lyme disease patients suffer from a constellation of symptoms, collectively called Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS). Brain PET scan of patients with PTLDS have demonstrated likely glial activation indicating persistent neuroinflammatory processes. It is possible that unresolved bacterial remnants can continue to cause neuroinflammation. In previous studies, we have shown that non-viable Borrelia burgdorferi can induce neuroinflammation and apoptosis in an oligodendrocyte cell line. In this follow-up study, we analyze the effect of sonicated remnants of B. burgdorferi on primary rhesus frontal cortex (FC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants. Five FC and three DRG tissue fragments from rhesus macaques were exposed to sonicated B. burgdorferi and analyzed for 26 inflammatory mediators. Live bacteria and medium alone served as positive and negative control, respectively. Tissues were also analyzed for cell types mediating inflammation and overall apoptotic changes. Non-viable B. burgdorferi induced significant levels of several inflammatory mediators in both FC and DRG, similar to live bacteria. However, the levels induced by non-viable B. burgdorferi was often (several fold) higher than those induced by live ones, especially for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2. This effect was also more profound in the FC than in the DRG. Although the levels often differed, both live and dead fragments induced the same mediators, with significant overlap between FC and DRG. In the FC, immunohistochemical staining for several inflammatory mediators showed the presence of multiple mediators in astrocytes, followed by microglia and oligodendrocytes, in response to bacterial remnants. Staining was also seen in endothelial cells. In the DRG, chemokine/cytokine staining was predominantly seen in S100 positive (glial) cells. B. burgdorferi remnants also induced significant levels of apoptosis in both the FC and DRG. Apoptosis was confined to S100 + cells in the DRG while distinct neuronal apoptosis was also detected in most FC tissues in response to sonicated bacteria. Non-viable B. burgdorferi can continue to be neuropathogenic to both CNS and PNS tissues with effects likely more profound in the former. Persistence of remnant-induced neuroinflammatory processes can lead to long term health consequences.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260356
Mie S. Berke ◽  
Louise K. D. Fensholdt ◽  
Sara Hestehave ◽  
Otto Kalliokoski ◽  
Klas S. P. Abelson

Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is a common animal model for studying chronic inflammatory pain. However, modelling of the disease is associated with unnecessary pain and impaired animal wellbeing, particularly in the immediate post-induction phase. Few attempts have been made to counteract these adverse effects with analgesics. The present study investigated the effect of buprenorphine on animal welfare, pain-related behaviour and model-specific parameters during the disease progression in a rat model of CFA-induced monoarthritis. The aim was to reduce or eliminate unnecessary pain in this model, in order to improve animal welfare and to avoid suffering, without compromising the quality of the model. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with 20 μl of CFA into the left tibio-tarsal joint to induce monoarthritis. Rats were treated with either buprenorphine or carprofen for 15 days during the disease development, and were compared to a saline-treated CFA-injected group or a negative control group. Measurements of welfare, pain-related behaviour and clinical model-specific parameters were collected. The study was terminated after 3 weeks, ending with a histopathologic analysis. Regardless of treatment, CFA-injected rats displayed mechanical hyperalgesia and developed severe histopathological changes associated with arthritis. However, no severe effects on general welfare were found at any time. Buprenorphine treatment reduced facial pain expression scores, improved mobility, stance and lameness scores and it did not supress the CFA-induced ankle swelling, contrary to carprofen. Although buprenorphine failed to demonstrate a robust analgesic effect on the mechanical hyperalgesia in this study, it did not interfere with the development of the intended pathology.

BDJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Andreas Kiesow ◽  
Matthias Menzel ◽  
Frank Lippert ◽  
Jason M. Tanzer ◽  
Peter Milgrom

Abstract Objective Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is effective in treatment of dentin hypersensitivity and caries lesions. However, the non-viscous solution does not easily allow clinicians to control the application area. A 38% SDF experiment gel was compared in vitro to commercial SDF for its ability to penetrate and occlude dentinal tubules. Materials and methods Human root surface dentin specimens were treated with gelled or standard 38% SDF or negative control. Penetration behavior was established by Drop Shape Analysis. Precipitates at the surface and within tubules were analyzed by SEM and EDX after treatment; Results: penetration depths up to 500 µm were observed for both SDF formulations. Both formulations occluded dentinal tubules similarly. Precipitates on the dentin surface and within dentinal tubules were found for both SDF formulations, with a slight tendency for the experimental gel SDF product to be more abundant than the commercially available one. Discussion: behavior of the experimental 38% SDF gel formulation appeared indistinguishable from the commercial 38% SDF product with respect to dentinal tubule penetration and occlusion. Conclusions The experimental 38% SDF gel may be a suitable intervention for the prevention of dentin hypersensitivity.

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